Dicken Garcia 1998 The Internet And Continuing Historical Discourse

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Dicken Garcia 1998 The Internet And Continuing Historical Discourse

  1. 1. THE INTERNET AND CONTINUING HISTORICAL DISCOURSE By Hazel Dkken-Garcia Emphasizing that the quot;culture in which the Internet is usedquot; permeates quot;discourse on the Internet,quot; this essay offers reflections on discourse (1) about the Internet, (2) communication technologies across time, (3) the future, (4) discourse online, and (5) the importance of discourse today. Final comments highlight questions about how Internet use may reshape discourse, community, people's perceptions, and communication behavior. The title, quot;The Internet and Continuing Historical Discourse,quot; is used here to underscore that what resides in a culture in which the Internet is used continues in discourse on the Internet {online). Discourse here, following definitions by Norman Fairclough, Michel Foucault, Teun van Djik, and Gunther Kress, means the ways subjects get quot;talkedquot; about (orally and otherwise). As the expression in texts, quot;talkquot; about subjects both shapes culture and is culturally shaped. Discourse links a text to culture via presuppositions residing in culture, to other texts via stored knowledge from them, and to discourse practices. While being shaped by culture and the context in which it occurs, discourse, of course, also shapes culture in that the way subjects get talked about affect people's attitudes and condition their expectations. Cultural differences spring from different beliefs about all elements of life, Murray G. Murphey reminds us; this includes beliefs about technology, and it produces varying discourses.' The subject may be divided into at least five categories: Discourse (1) about the Internet; (2) on the Internet (online); (3) about communication technologies across time; (4) about tomorrow; and (5) importance today. The intention here is to merely touch on each briefly and conclude by offering modest suggestions about some implications for historians. Study is needed to pursue generalizations and assumptions offered here. It is important to stress from the outset that, although many discourses exist simultaneously throughout all cultures and conflicting discourses often appear in one text, the singular form is used here for convenience. Further, while the focus here is on the Internet, discussion necessarily extends to the broad quot;computer culturequot; of which it Is a part. (1) Discourse about the Internet. Many themes, or models, in litera- ture about the Internet are familiar. The most pervasive theme, progress, recurs about emerging communication technologies through history. Con- ceptualized most often in terms of what humankind gains by virtue of its Hazel Dkken-Garcia is a professor in the School ofjournalism and Mass Comrtniuicatioii j&MC Quarterly at the Universit}^ of Minnesota. Vol. 75, No. 1 Spring 1998 19-27 ©lws A£;MC THEFUTURB OF THE ImERNir-THE , HISTORICM.DISCOURSE 19
  2. 2. emergence, the Internet is equated with progress and advancement of civilization. Another prominent theme emphasizes attendant harms - that is, what may be lost because of it. A third theme concerns inter- relationships - globally, for example, on an international scale, and univer- sally, regarding who has access and to what degree muUidiversity may be realized and reflected through this medium. The first part of this theme recurs across time, but emphasis on access and diversity belongs to the present age. A fourth theme, which seems new in part, involves what makes a whole individual - that is, what makes the most complete, productive person. Concerns about potential harm of new communication media are familiar from the past, but new dimensions appear in present-day attention to the individual computer user, particularly in discourse about the Internet as conducive to creating isolationism vs. developing social interaction skills. Looking at discourse about the Internet from individual, institutional, and social perspectives makes manageable the treatment of similarities and differences across time regarding communication technologies. At the broadest social level, some universal truths are that people inherit a cultural tradition and approach interpretation of everything with ideas alreadv in mind, as Paul Ricouer reminds us and, as Murphey asserts, people draw upon, and never deviate very far from, the stock of concepts and beliefs provided by their culture. Moreover, individual action, as Murphey empha- sizes, cannot be understood without taking its context into account. Such truths underscore, for example, as McChesney and others have emphasized, that the Internet does not bring more democracy or equality nor erase gender biases and other biases entrenched in the culture.- Also from a social perspective, a community theme, recurrent histori- cally in discourse about communication technologies, reflects a significant shift in present-day discourse. For example, nineteenth-century Americans expected world peace and solutions to the gravest problems to follow the spread of printing and other communications technologies, but discourse about the Internet emphasizes what some have called quot;community fluidityquot; and how community is formed. Also new is that the power to quickly form specialized communities via the Internet raises a concern about who controls information. Laura Gurak, for example, says this raises problems of exclu- sion, inaccurate information, introversion. In other words, she asks, who controls information and who can and should have power to use it?-' From an institutional perspective, discourse about new communica- tion technologies across time shows a dominance of interest in the financial / business impact and applications in work and educational environments, but what seems to be new today is concern about institutional alterations to make way for the technologies. A July 1997 Atlantic Monthly article pertaining to present-day educational applications of the computer - most relevant of these three to purposes here - illustrates this and the progress theme. U.S. teacherspolled in 1996 ranked computer skills and media technology as more quot;essentialquot; than study of European history, history, biology, chemistry, physics; and more important than learning practical job skills or reading modern writers (such as Steinbeck and Hemingway) or classics (such as Plato and Shakespeare), or about such social problems as drugs and family breakdown. A California task force of forty-six in 1995, the author reports, said computers offer more than anything else to remedy public schools' problems and are needed more than reduced class size, more hours of instruction, improved facilities, and higher salaries for teachers. Despite reductions in state aid to several New Jersey school districts, $10 million was 20 /ouRNAUSM & MASS CoMMUNJomcw QUAHTEFLY
  3. 3. spent on classroom computers. A Los Angeles elementary school music program was cut so a technical coordinator could be hired, and teaching positions in art, music, and physical education were eliminated from Mansfield, Massachusetts, schools while $333,000 was spent on computers. One Virginia school's art classroom was turned into a computer lab, and, across the nation, quot;technology education programsquot; have replaced most shop classes.'' From the individual perspective, many themes emerge - some of which are touched on below. Especially notable is concern about effects on thinking skills, another familiar theme. With the Internet, the fear is that thinking skills diminish in people who spend endless hours communicating electronically in isolation at the expense of socially interactive behavior. Clifford Stoll writes that quot;anyone who's directed away from social interac- tions has a head start on turning out weird.quot; quot;No computer can teach what a walk through a pine forest feels like,quot; he adds. quot;Sensation has no substi- tute.quot;quot;^ Some argue that pencil-and-paper work forces one to think through implications whereas computers, though useful for repeated calculations, are not conducive to innovative thought. Arguing that quot;the ability to touch, feel, manipulate, and build sensory awareness in the physical worldquot; are the primary foundations of reasoning, some warn that computer-driven activity- in-isolation over time will produce a mindlessness that will come to dominate and gradually quot;dumb downquot; tomorrow's adults. Some say electronic conveniences intended to improve writing skills seduce students, and that word-processingcut-and-paste functions encourage patching together (quot;with- out thinking them throughquot;) materials to create quot;snazzyquot; looking papers. One English teacher reported that computer-generated essays are easily recognizable because they do not link or develop relationships among ideas.'' Discourse about what makes a whole, productively functioning social indi- vidual seems new in relation to communication technologies. Two themes especially stand out - that one is not a whole person without a balance between social interaction and solitude, and that broad, useful, well-devel- oped skills are necessary for a full life. Regarding social interaction, some suggest that the computer culture promotes thinking of the mediated world as more significant than the real world - as exemplified by so many people spending so much time looking at computer screens. Regarding skills needed for developing as a complete, productively functioning individual, some argue the computer culture emphasis on the quot;virtualquot; over the real world minimizes the importance of face-to-face conversation, careful listening, and clarity and individuality in expression, while it limits development of imaginations by teaching that one can get information without work or discipline merely by watching a screen. The article referred to above reports that Hewlett-Packard rarely hires predomi- nantly computer experts, but looks instead for innovative, flexible people skilled at teamwork. Another company that provides computer training seeks to hire, instead of those with computer skills, people who have a good foundational education in the history of what the company works at (archi- tecture), and good speaking, writing and comprehension skills. Neil Post- man, who blames the computer culture for curtailment of traditional arts education in favor of business-oriented studies, advocates education focused on quot;how to make a lifequot; more than how to make a living/ 2. Discourse Online. The Internet brings stronger emphasis to and interest in informal, interpersonal conversation than has been true of preced- DISCOURSE 21
  4. 4. ing media. Internet quot;talkquot; is closer to word-of-mouth. Discourse online here means literally talk on line plus the talk about that talk - which expresses concerns ranging from le^al and ethical to limitations it puts on social development. Although the individual perspective cannot be discussed entirely apart from the social realm, and emerging communication technologies seem to have always raised issues about impact on individuals, discourse about the Internet seems to draw more attention to the individual than has that surrounding previous emerging communication technologies. Particu- larly notable in talk about the whole person is the separate personae. On the Internet, people take on new personalities, typified by less inhibited behav- ior. That is, some communicate electronically what they would never say in person to others. Some students, for example, who never speak in class and shun face-to-face consultations with teachers send them surprisingly loquaciouse-mail messages. But moreserious undesirable conduct emerges, of which hostility via flaming is only one shocking example.** Online conver- sations, occuring when individuals are alone, lack social cues and the unpredictability of face-to-face talk; some say this retards imagination and mental agility — and may lack controls needed to keep people responsible.'' As in the novelty stages of previous communications technologies, Internet users unquestioningly accept information via the Internet that they would not accept so readily from another medium, and, as Gurak says, users rarely question communicators' ethics while accepting individuals they have never seen as credible and moral. Users accept on its face information about others' identity, credentials, occupation, profession, position, and authority to speak about whatever is offered. One cannot ascertain from messages whether users are who they say they are, Gurak reminds us.quot;^ 3. Discourse across Time. Professor Carey and his students have contributed much to knowledge abouf responses to communications tech- nology over time. Larry Cuban has summarized recent patterns in adoptions of computers for teaching purposes. Foremost among these are great expectations and promises, a lack of questioning of the claims, and a ten- dency fo incorporate new technologies based on speed and efficiency,quot; These not only recur in the historical record; they extend beyond the educa- tional arena. Similar to past responses, a fear that technology brings harm appears in discourse about the Internet (some of which has already been touched on here), but this theme has new variations. Much stronger in discourse about the Internet than that surrounding previous emerging technologies are emphases on skills, ability to use the medium, and impor- tance of its use by everyone. In fact, discourse reveals a kind of breathless anxiety about keeping up in a rapidly changing world. That is, the message comes across clearly, tacitly or explicitly, that students especially must have the necessary skills to access valuable resources (people and information) around the world.'^ Also different in present discourse is questioning of the whole educa- tional system and learning process, and the emphasis on community and meaning. In fact, meaning as fluid vs. fixed seems to have gradually seeped into consciousness with twentieth-century communications developments and come into sharp focus in discourse about the Internet. 4. Discourse about Tomorrow- Discourse surrounding new commu- nication technologies has always emphasized what they promise for the future. From an historical perspective, this shows that discourse in the present continues into the future, with reshaping, to be sure, as part of the 22
  5. 5. ongoing process and cultural reconfigurations around technologies' usage. Evidence of sucb discourse is abundant and familiar, and we need not dwell on it here, except to stress that cultural strains permeating online discourse today from the past wilt continue into tbe future - as likely tbe most significant shaping mecbanism for wbat will happen in Internet develop- ment and usage. 5. Discourse Importance Today. Discourse has gained importance witb tbe computer culture due to emphasis on community - shift in its meaning and the way people tfiink about it - arising from Internet use. Indeed, from tbe early twentieth century, community, in addition to place, has come to mean shared interests, symbols, beliefs, values, and interpreta- tions. Scholars have noted tbat the original ARPANET designers predicted in 1968 that future quot;on-line interactive communitiesquot; would rest on common interests rather than on shared geographic space, fn fact, one trait distin- guishing tbe Internet from other media is that it has no target community as a primary audience or as a result of its function. Rather, the Internet primarify makes communities, Gurak has noted, pointing to the irreversible establishment of the idea of community as based on common goals and values as evidence of a significant shift in the way people think - from emphasis on the individual to tbe relationship between the individual and the community in which the individual functions. The concept of interpre- tive community, focused on values and culture, is defined by how its members see the world - a group that shares certain habits of mind.'^ quot;Interpretive communitiesquot; and quot;shared habits of mindquot; are common in reference to people linked by communications. Sucb empbasis elevates the importance of ideology, Gurak says. In turn, this elevates the importance of discourse - how people talk about subjects. Particular discursive formations obtain among those who quot;share habits of mind/' and scholars increasingly emphasize the necessity of study- ing sucb formations for insighf into cultural and change processes.''^ Implications for Historical Research. The mosf interesting questions for historians may be about how uses of the Internet reshape discourse {in differing cultures). Indeed, will the increased concern with ideology and importance of discourse lead fo greater emphasis on discussions of political relations? Wbat patterns of discourse are emerging on the Internet? What among those is distinctive to fhe Internet, and bow are such distinctions related fo general discourse? In other words, how is the Internet changing tbe way we talk about subjects - now and for fhe fufure? The emphasis on communify, drawing attention to its creation, raises questions about what makes and sustains communify and how media are related. Study of such discursive formations can reveal insight about values and attitudes of a culfural sector, and, as noted, about change over time. A basic question historians might ask is what belief system dominates development of the Internef? And, given that scholars have noted how previous communication technologies - fhe railroad, telegraph, fetepbone, radio, television - changed perceptions of distance, fime, space, and global boundaries, anofber basic question is how use of the Internet changes perceptions. The phenomenon of Internet personae raises new questions about communication behavior. Such problems as inaccuracies, manipulation of information, sensationalism, and other excesses in fbe past have been ex- plained by exigencies of work, time, place, vested interests. We need fo look again af such excesses for how behavior relates fo conditions under which THE FinvRE OF THE (WTEKNET - THE INTERNET AND CONTINUINC HISJORICAL DISCOURSE 23
  6. 6. communication occurs, particularly the physical presence of others and how and by whom the communicator may be held accounfable. How related is uninbibifed behavior to lack of face-fo-face communication and its attendant social cues? What impact might a belief thaf one can remain forever anonymous have on fhe kind and degree of excesses in communication conducf? Wbaf is at work in cases of those who, despite needing face-to-face discussion, prefer communicating electronically in isolation? Such explora- tion may mean revisiting fhe gatekeeping role in communication. How significanf in fhe credibility and shape of information are sucb factors as whaf Gurak calls tbe moral bond with the community, sense of belonging, the concern for fhe whole, shared collecfive concerns? How important is the speaker'spresence, or at least face-to-face encounters, to the conduct commu- nicators? The need to think in new ways about fhe impacf of a speaker's presence in communication suggests that fhe long-sfanding quandary abouf the power of pictures over printed words grows more and more simplisfic in the face of issues emerging around fhe Infemet. What happens in communi- cafion when fbe fexf is complefely defached from any image of the speaker? For historians, an issue is how fo preserve online discourse, docu- ment it, and study it, E.D. Hirsch wrote in 1967, in Murphey's words, quot;All meaning is someone's meaning. If an interpretation is fo have 'validity,' to have greater or less probability of being correct than some ofber interpreta- tion, fhere has to be a parficular someone whose meanings is faken as fhe standard.quot;''• Wbose quot;voicequot; dominates Internet discourse, and can if be idenfified? Who sets fhe standard for meaning, for interpretation, and for what is quot;correct?quot; Finally, fhe long view of reactions fo communicafions technology suggests generally liffle fhougbf abouf social implicafions of new technolo- gies during fbeir development, emergenf and noveify sfages - or such considerations come as mere afferfhoughfs. If would seem fhat we might learn from study of this and of her pafferns in discourse about communication technologies over time. NOTES 1. Norman Fairclough, Discourse and Social Change (Cambridge, UK: Polity Press in association with Blackwell Publishers, 1992); Norman Eairclougb, Media Discourse (London, New York, Sydney, Auckland: Ed- ward Arnold, 1995), 1-19; Michel Foucault, The Archaeology of Knowledge (London: Travinsfock Publications, 1972); History of Sexuality, vol. 1 (Harmondsworfh: Penguin Books, 1981); and quot;The Order of Discourse,quot; in Language and Politics, ed. M. Shapiro (Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1982, 1984); Teun van Dijk, ed.. Handbook of Discourse Analysis, 4 vols, (London: Academic Press, 1985); Teun van Dijk, News as Discowrsf-(Hillsdale, NJ: Eribaum, 1988); and quot;The Interdisciplinary Study of News as Discourse,quot; in A Handbook of Qualitative Methodologies for Mass Communication Research, ed, Klaus Bruhn lensen and Nicholas W. lankowski (London and New York: Routledge, 1991), 108-119; Gunfher Kress, quot;Ideological Structures in Discourse,quot; in Handbook of Discourse Analysis, vol. 4: Discourse Anati/sis in Society, ed. Teun van Dijk (London, Orlando, San Diego, New York, Toronto, Montreal, Sydey, Tokyo: Academic Press, 1985), 27-42. 2. Paul Ricouer, Hermeneutics and the Human Sciences (NY: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 44,57; MurrayG. Murpbey,P/i//osop/iJi:fl/FoMndflf/o«s 24 JOURNALISM & MASS CoMMUNxymoN QuARTERLr
  7. 7. of Historical Knowledge (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994), 281-82; Robert McChesney, quot;The Internet and U.S. CommunicaHon Policy- Making in Hi.storical and Critical Perspective,quot; journal of CommunicaHon 46 (winter 1996): 112-17. 3. Laura Gurak, Persuasion and Privacy in Cyberspace (New fiaven: Yale University Press, 1997): 6. 4. ToddOppenheimer, quot;The Computer Delusion,quot; ThiMfifl)ificMo»f/i/y, Jufy 1997, 46. 5. Clifford Stoll, Silicon Snake OU: Second Thoughts on the Information Highivay (NY: Anchor Books, 1995), 136,139, 6. Oppcnheimer, quot;The Computer Delusion,quot; 52-54; Stoll, Silicon Snake Oil, 23-26. 7. Cited by Oppenheimer, 53. 8. Martin Lea, Tim O'Shea, Pat Gund, and Russell Spears, quot;'Flaming' in Computer-Mediated Communication: Observations, Explanations, Implica- tions,quot; in Contexts in Computer-Mediated Communication, ed. Martin Lea (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1992), 89-102. 9. Gurak, Persuasion, 14-16, 10. Gurak, Persuasion, 14-16. 11. James Carey, Communication as Cw/fur^ (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989); Daniel Czitrom, Media and the American Mind: From Morse to McLuhan (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982); Carolyn Marvin, Wlicn Old Technologies Were New: Thinking About Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century (NY, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988); Larry Cuban, Teachers and Machines: The Ctassrootn Use of Technotogi/ Since 1920 (1986), cited in Oppenheimer, quot;The Computer Delusion,quot; 46. 12. Stoll, Silicon Snake Oil, 11-12; 25. 13. Howard Rheingold, The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Elec- tronic Frontier (NY: HarperPerennial, A Division of Harper Collins Publish- ers, 1994), 24; Laura Gurak, quot;Technology, Community, and Technical Com- munication on the Internet: The Lotus Marketplace and ClipperChip Contro- versies,quot; journal of Business and Technical Communication 10 (January 1996): 84, 14. Norman Fairclough, Media Discourse (London, New York, Sydney, Auckland: Edward Arnold, 1995), 2, 47-48, 52, L5. E.D, Hirsch Jr,, Validity in Interpretation (New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 1967), 225, cited in Murphey, 279. BIBLIOGRAPHY Gerald Brock and Gregory L. Rosston, eds. The Internet and Telecommunica- tions Policy: Selected Papers from the 1995 Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 1996. Stanley D. Brunn and Thomas R, Leinbach, eds. Collapsing Space & Time: Geographic Aspects of Communication and Information. London: HarperCollins Academic, 1991. Wilson Dizard Jr., Meganet: How the Global Communications Network Will Connect Everyone ou Earth. Boulder: Westview Press, A Division of HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 1997. Norman Eairclough, Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press in Association with Blackwell Publishers, 1992. NormanFairciough,MerfiflDiscourse. London, New York, Sydney, Auckland: THE FUTURE or THE /NTTRNET- T ^ JNTERNET A D ComiNUiHG HISIORICM. DISCOURSE 25
  8. 8. Edward Arnold, 1995. Richard A. Gershon, The Transnational Media Corporation: Global Messages and Free Market Competition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 1997, Stephen Graham and Simon Marvin, Telecommunications and the City: Elec- tronic Spaces, Urban Places. London and New York: Routledge, 1996. Laura Gurak, Persuasion and Privacy in Cyberspace: The Online Protests Over Lotus Marketplace and the Clipper Chip. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1997. Klaus Bruhn Jensen and Nicholas W. Jankowski, eds. A Handbook of Qualita- tive Methodologies for Mass Communication Research. London and New York: Routledge, 1991. Steven E, Miller, Civilizing Cyberspace: Policy, Power, and the Information Superhighway. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1996. Dinty W. Moore, The Fmperor's Virtual Clothes: The Naked Truth about Internet Culture. Chapel Hill: Aigonqin Books, 1995. Murray G. Murphey, Philosophical Foundations of Historical Knowledge. Al- bany: State University of New York Press, 1995, Michael Noll, Highway of Dreams: A Critical View Along the Information Superhighway. Mafiwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publish- ers, 1997, Howard Rheingold, The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. New York: HarperPerennial, a Division of HarperCollins, published by arrangement with Addison-Wesley, 1994. Clifford Stoll, Silicon Snake Oil. New York, London, Toronto, Sydney, Auckland: Anchor Books, published by arrangement with Doubleday, 1996. Jenny Teichman, Social Ethics. Cambridge, MA, and Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, Inc., 1996. Teun van Dijk, ed. Handbook of Discourse Analysis. 4 vols. London: Academic Press, 1985. Teun van Dijk, News as Discourse. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1988, Articles Michel Foucault, quot;The Order of Discourse,quot; in M. Shapiro, ed.. Language and Politics (Oxford, UK: Blackwel! Publishers, 1982,1984). Meg Greenfield, quot;Back to the Future: The Science and Tedinology of the 21 st Century Will Be Different, but We Won't Be,quot; Newsweek Special Inaugural Issue (January 27, 1997): 96 Laura J. Gurak, quot;TheMultifaceted and Novel Nature of Using Gyber-Texts as Research Data,quot; in Computer Networking and Scholarly Communication in the Twenty-First-Century University, Teresa M. Harrison and Timo- thy Stephen, eds. (Albany: State University of New York, 1996): 151- 165. Laura J. Gurak, quot;Technology, Community, and Technical Communication on the Internet: The Lotus Marketplace and Clipper Chip Controver- sies,quot; journal of Business and Technical Communication 10:1 (January 1996): 81^89. Laura J, Curak, quot;Rhetorical Dynamics of Corporate CommunicaHon in Cyberspace: The Protest over Lotus Marketplace,quot; IEEE Transactions On Professional Communication 38:1 (March 1995): 2-10. Laura J. Gurak, quot;Making Gender Visible: Extending Feminist Critiques of 26
  9. 9. Technology to Technical ComTnunication/' Technical Commiiukation Quarterly: 257-170. Amy Harmon, Neio York Times, quot;Is Technology Robbing Americans of the Great Vacation Escape?quot; Minneapolis Star Tribune (July 14, 1997): Section A-p3. Peter Haynes, quot;The Computer Industry: The Third Age,quot; The Economist (September 17, 1994): 3-22. quot;Information Superhighway,quot; The Freedom Forum: A Publication about Free Press, Free Speech and Free Spirit (May 1994): 4-7 Sandy Kleffman, quot;Virtual High School,quot; Saint Paul Pioneer Press {July 24, 1997): Section A-p. 4. Gunther Kress, quot;Ideological Structures in Discourse,quot; in Teun van Dijk, Handbook of Discourse Analysis: Vol. 4: Discourse Analysis in Society (London, Orlando, San Diego, New York, Toronto, Montreal, Sydney, Tokyo: Academic Press, 1985): 27-42. Robert W. McChesney, quot;The Internet and U.S. Communication Policy- Making in Historical and Critical Perspective,quot; journal of Communica- tion 46:1 {Winter 1996): 112-117. Peter McGrath, quot;The Web: Infotopia or Marketplace?quot; Newsweek Special Inaugural Issue 0anuary 27,1997): 82-84. Todd Oppenheimer, quot;The Computer Delusion,quot; The Atlantic Monthly July 1997): 45-62. James Romenesko, quot;Who's Plugged In?quot; Saint Paul Pioneer Press {June 1, 1997): Section A-1, 10. Richard Roper, The Chicago Sun-Times, quot;Cyber Suspense,quot; Saint Paul Pioneer Press (July 24, 1997): Section F-p. 12. quot;Telecommunications Free-for-All,quot; The Wall Street Journal {March 20,1995): Section R-1-26. Teun van Dijk, quot;The Interdisciplinary Study of News as Discourse,quot; in Klaus Bruhn Jensen and Nicholas W. Jankowski, eds., A Handbook of Quali- tative Methodologies for Mass Communication Research {London and New York: Routledge, 1991): 108-119. James P. Zappen, Laura J. Gurak, Stephen Doheny-Farina, quot;Rhetoric, Com- munity, and Cyberspace,quot; Rhetoric Review 1:2 {Spring 1997): 400-419. Unpublished Papers Linlin Ku, quot;The Use and Perceived Outcomes of Electronic Messaging in Organizations,quot; presented to the Communication and Technology Division of the 1997 International Communication Association An- nual Conference, Montreal. 27

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