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Cascao London Resistance Counter-hegemony Transboundary Basins
Cascao London Resistance Counter-hegemony Transboundary Basins
Cascao London Resistance Counter-hegemony Transboundary Basins
Cascao London Resistance Counter-hegemony Transboundary Basins
Cascao London Resistance Counter-hegemony Transboundary Basins
Cascao London Resistance Counter-hegemony Transboundary Basins
Cascao London Resistance Counter-hegemony Transboundary Basins
Cascao London Resistance Counter-hegemony Transboundary Basins
Cascao London Resistance Counter-hegemony Transboundary Basins
Cascao London Resistance Counter-hegemony Transboundary Basins
Cascao London Resistance Counter-hegemony Transboundary Basins
Cascao London Resistance Counter-hegemony Transboundary Basins
Cascao London Resistance Counter-hegemony Transboundary Basins
Cascao London Resistance Counter-hegemony Transboundary Basins
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Cascao London Resistance Counter-hegemony Transboundary Basins

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  • 1. RESISTANCE AND COUNTER-HEGEMONY IN TRANSBOUNDARY RIVER BASINS III Workshop on Hydro-Hegemony 12-13 May 2007 Ana Elisa Cascão King’s College of London
  • 2. STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION
    • 1 – Initial assumptions on Hegemony and Counter-Hegemony
    • 2 – Theorisation on Resistance and Counter-Hegemony
    • 3 – Mechanisms of Resistance and Counter-Hegemony
  • 3. 1 – INITIAL ASSUMPTIONS
    • Hegemony = Coercion + Consent
    • Consent vs. Contest
    •  HEGEMONY
    • Attainment, maintenance and consolidation of the status quo
    •  COUNTER-HEGEMONY/RESISTANCE
    • Confrontation and/or opposition to existing status quo and its legitimacy
  • 4. ABSTRACT MODEL OF HEGEMONY AND COUNTER-HEGEMONY
  • 5. CONSTRUCTED COMMON SENSE
    • Clockwise – Hegemons
    • Common-sense making and reinforcement, through dominant hegemonic beliefs, ideas, discourse and knowledge [ CONSENT ]
    • Counter-clockwise – Non-hegemons
    • Deconstruction of constructed common sense (undermining legitimacy) and/or construction of alternative senses [ BREAK THE CONSENT ]
    PLAYING WITH AMBIGUITY!?
  • 6.
    • “ the most potent weapon in the hands of the oppressors is the mind of the oppressed”
    • Stephen Bantu Biko
    • Founder of the Black Consciousness Movement (South Africa)
  • 7. 2 – RESISTANCE AND COUNTER-HEGEMONY
    • Resistance – Reactive in motivation and refractory in consequence [ RE-ACTIVE]
    • Counter-Hegemony – more deliberate as action, and comprehensive in terms of its transformative potential [ PRO-ACTIVE ]
    BREAKING THE CONSENT!
  • 8. BIPOLARITY?
    • “ Hegemony always implies resistance (…) they are a dialectic pair” (Cox)
    • Binary relationship? No!
    • ...Interrelated and Dynamic Continuum...
    • “ Strategic resistance mixes with strategic compliance” (Scott)
  • 9. INTENSITY
    • ACTIVITY IS FLUID
    • Reasons: organisational, opportunism, timing, pressures, threats, manipulation, ‘trans-formismo’
  • 10. A POLITICAL SPECTRUM
    • Up in the scale
    • More confrontational (anti-status quo)
    • More organised
    • More articulated
    • More active/activism
    • More challenging
    • More strategic/programmatic
    • More sustained/legitimated
    • More audible
    • More long-term targets
    • More transformative potential
    • Down the scale
    • Legitimacy
    • Common sense
    • Sanctioned discourse
    • Quiescence
    • Compliance
    • Conformism
    • Passivity
    • ‘ Catch-all’ arguments
  • 11. BEYOND POLARITIES
  • 12. MOMENT OF COUNTER-HEGEMONY
    • What can be defined as the Moment of Counter Hydro-Hegemony ?
    • Redistribution of water resources based on a truly egalitarian, rational and fair allocation? Assertion and extension of explicit water rights (for diverse users and uses)? Water classified as a public and collective asset?
    • OR
    • Erosion of the current power configuration and replacement of the current hydro-hegemon by another one, but still based on asymmetrical allocation of water resources?
    IDEAL ! SHIFT 
  • 13. 3 – MECHANISMS OF RESISTANCE AND COUNTER-HEGEMONY
    • 1 – Violent
    • 2 – Functional
    • 3 – Cooperative
    • 4 – Liberating
    •  See Nile case
  • 14. Thanks!

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