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Cascao Leipzig Contested Natural Resources Horn Darfur Gambella
Cascao Leipzig Contested Natural Resources Horn Darfur Gambella
Cascao Leipzig Contested Natural Resources Horn Darfur Gambella
Cascao Leipzig Contested Natural Resources Horn Darfur Gambella
Cascao Leipzig Contested Natural Resources Horn Darfur Gambella
Cascao Leipzig Contested Natural Resources Horn Darfur Gambella
Cascao Leipzig Contested Natural Resources Horn Darfur Gambella
Cascao Leipzig Contested Natural Resources Horn Darfur Gambella
Cascao Leipzig Contested Natural Resources Horn Darfur Gambella
Cascao Leipzig Contested Natural Resources Horn Darfur Gambella
Cascao Leipzig Contested Natural Resources Horn Darfur Gambella
Cascao Leipzig Contested Natural Resources Horn Darfur Gambella
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Cascao Leipzig Contested Natural Resources Horn Darfur Gambella

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  • 1. Contested natural resources and political conflict: case-studies from Darfur and Gambella European Conference on African Studies Ana Elisa Cascão Leipzig, Germany King’s College of London, UK 4-7 June 2009 CEAUP, Portugal
  • 2. Ethiopia and Sudan: Territory and Natural Resources Agriculture and Livestock: • Main economic sectors • Main source of livelihoods • Inputs: Land and Water • Competition for control • Patterns of cooperation and conflict Environmental challenges: • Overexploitation of land and water resources • Environmental degradation • Uneven patterns of rainfall • Desertification Other challenges: • Population growth • Population movements (migrations, refugees, etc) • Resource-grabbing
  • 3. Land Use Darfur Gambella
  • 4. Livestock Density Darfur Gambella
  • 5. Human Density Darfur Gambella
  • 6. Ethiopia and Sudan: Political dimensions of resource-based conflicts Blurred political setting: • Property rights/Land Tenure • Acess and distribution • Unclear development options • Traditional conflict-resolution mechanisms • Alternative conflict-resolution mechanisms? Power politics: • Marginalisation • New competition: for political power and weatlh • Political manipulation of group-identities • Selective empowerement “Extra” political dimensions: • Porous administrative borders • Spillover effects of neighbouring conflicts
  • 7. DARFUR – A local water war? Roots of the Conflict: Resource-based • Semi-arid region • Concentration of population • Longstanding competition for fertile/grazing land – land tenure problems • Competition for water access • Agro vs. Pastolarist disputes • Customary conflict resolution 1980s: • Increasing desertification/degradation • Limited water supplies • New agro-pastoralist migrations • Growing competition for resources • Governance failure “Darfur is an environmental crisis – a conflict that grew at least in part from desertification, ecological degradation and a scarcity of resources, foremost among the water” (Ban Ki-Moon, 2007)
  • 8. DARFUR – how a resource-conflict became a political conflict 1990s: • Darfur: Underdeveloped and marginalised region • Increasing competition for natural resources • Increasing competition for political influence • Increasing political unrest • Local/National governance failure 2000s: • “Black Book”: call for power/wealth redistribution • Intra-state spillover effects (Central government + SPLM involvement) • Instrumentalisation of identities (ethnicity) • Empowerement of militias • Inter-state spillover effects (Sudan-Chad relations)
  • 9. GAMBELLA – Resource-based conflict? The setting • Marginalised and underdeveloped region • Political instability • Federal/regional complexity • Population movements • Spillover effects from Sudan Gambella region The competition(s) • Competition for land and water – farmers, pastoralists, new comers • Problematic land tenure • Patterns of cooperation and conflict • Competition for political power • Instrumentalisation of identity politics The environment?
  • 10. GAMBELLA – The environment White Nile River Sobat River Baro River Akobo River Gilo River Vast water supplies and fertile land But... • Increasing ecological degradation/deforestation • Increasing pressure over riverian areas • Potential land grabbing
  • 11. GAMBELLA – Pressure over riverian areas 90s U l er s + Mo Dwel ent 8 vem r b an an 0s A d R rm ef u y ge es 0s 00 ists s /2 l Conflict 90 tora s Pa s Conflict r al s i st 0 Pa s/200 sto 90 80s Hig hlan 00 i st s der 0s s 0s 00 ists 0s oral /2 0s oral 9 t /2 9 t s s Pa Pa
  • 12. CONCLUSIONS • Potential for resource-based conflicts in Ethiopia and Sudan is high • Growing pressure over land and water resources • Environmental degradation – social, economic and political impacts • Trend: political instrumentalisation of resource conflicts • Growing competition for political resources • Risk for transboundary spillover effects

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