MATERIAL POWER Economic development Military power Political stability and influence ‘ Water flows uphill towards money’ ‘ Who calls the shots?’
BARGAINING POWER: in interstate relations and negotiations WHO CONTROLS THE NEGOTIATIONS? WHO CONTROLS THE AGREEMENTS? WHO CONTROLS THE NUMBERS? WHO CONTROLS THE AGENDA? WHO CONTROLS THE LEGITIMACY? WHO PLAYS BETTER WITH INTERNATIONAL LAW? WHO HAS ACCESS TO INVESTMENT?
IDEATIONAL POWER: Power to influence perceptions Asymmetric Knowledge Sanctioned Discourse Incentives Playing with time Silent Diplomacy/ Cooperation
EXERCISE 1: Assessing power relations in transboundary river basins
Several conflict events ( militarised/armed )/Very limited cooperation
Jordan Basin: Extreme case of water-related conflict
Interstate water conflict is rare More conflictive More cooperative Wolf at al 2003 Diplomatic, strong or mild verbal official hostility
Riparian A Riparian B DON’T Agree in positions and needs Share data and information Engage in negotiations Politically commit Collaborate / Cooperate Have common projects DO Securitise water issues Use national-based arguments Classify information Refuse concessions Delay negotitions Use threats against neighbours Riparian A Riparian B Water Political/Diplomatic Conflict: most common situation Deadlock