The Nile River Basin –  in search of a new water regime? Ana Elisa Cascão Center of African Studies – IUL [ISCTE/IUL] Stoc...
The Nile River Basin Complexity Challenges
Socio-Economic  and Political Changes <ul><li>Economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>More political ‘stability’ </li></ul><ul><...
Environmental  changes – what are they? <ul><li>Nile flows are uneven </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Normal’ environmental changes  <...
Timelime of extreme events Droughts in the 1980s in Ethiopia and Sudan Historic low levels of Lake Nasser in Egypt at the ...
<ul><li>Sea-level rise </li></ul><ul><li>Soil salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Desertification </li></ul><ul><li>Floods </li></u...
Capacity   to deal with current and future challenges <ul><li>WHAT WHAT LEVEL? </li></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><li>N...
Existing regional/basin institutions <ul><li>1986: The Intergovernmental Authority on Dorught and Development  (IGADD)   ...
NBI – How to meet the socio-economic and environmental challenges in the Nile? since  1999 1997-2007 ?
NBI – Shared Vision
Cooperation in Action (I)
Cooperation in Action (II)
<ul><li>General Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Rights and Obligations  </li></ul><ul><li>Equitable and reasonable utilizatio...
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AEGIS Conference of African Studies 2011 - Uppsala [The Nile River Basin: in search of a new water regime?]

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  • Several basin commissions at national level
  • IGAD: 7 Horn/East African states Recurring and severe droughts and other natural disasters between 1974 and 1984 caused widespread famine, ecological degradation and economic hardship in the Horn of Africa region. Although individual countries took substantial measures to cope with the problems and received support from the international community , its extent argued strongly for a regional approach to supplement national efforts. The six countries of the region took action through the United Nations to establish an intergovernmental body for development and drought control in their region. Lake Victoria Basin Commission (LVBC) is a specialized institution of the East African Community (EAC)  that is responsible for coordinating the sustainable development agenda of the Lake Victoria Basin.
  • AEGIS Conference of African Studies 2011 - Uppsala [The Nile River Basin: in search of a new water regime?]

    1. 1. The Nile River Basin – in search of a new water regime? Ana Elisa Cascão Center of African Studies – IUL [ISCTE/IUL] Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI)
    2. 2. The Nile River Basin Complexity Challenges
    3. 3. Socio-Economic and Political Changes <ul><li>Economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>More political ‘stability’ </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanisation </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing of middle-class (more demands, new habits) </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing demands for food </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Land-grabbing’ </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing demands for energy </li></ul><ul><li>New hydropower projects </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing withdraw of water resources (surface and groundwaters waters) </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in the water levels – see Lake Victoria, Lake Tana </li></ul><ul><li>Governments: more political and financial capital to ‘ build’ projects </li></ul>
    4. 4. Environmental changes – what are they? <ul><li>Nile flows are uneven </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Normal’ environmental changes </li></ul><ul><li>Region with history of extreme climatic events - droughts and floods </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Nile Basin: ‘water scarcity’ or ‘water abundance’? </li></ul>
    5. 5. Timelime of extreme events Droughts in the 1980s in Ethiopia and Sudan Historic low levels of Lake Nasser in Egypt at the end of 1980s Mid-1990s: massive floods in Ethiopia and Sudan
    6. 6. <ul><li>Sea-level rise </li></ul><ul><li>Soil salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Desertification </li></ul><ul><li>Floods </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Sedimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Wetlands conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Droughts </li></ul><ul><li>Drop in lake levels / Floods </li></ul><ul><li>Water hyacinth </li></ul>Environmental challenges
    7. 7. Capacity to deal with current and future challenges <ul><li>WHAT WHAT LEVEL? </li></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><li>National/State </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-basin institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Basin Commissions </li></ul><ul><li>Overlap of responsibilities and solutions? </li></ul>
    8. 8. Existing regional/basin institutions <ul><li>1986: The Intergovernmental Authority on Dorught and Development (IGADD)  IGAD </li></ul><ul><li>1999: Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) </li></ul><ul><li>+ ENSAP (Eastern Nile) + NELSAP (Nile Equatorial region) </li></ul><ul><li>2001: Lake Victoria Basin Commission (LBVC) </li></ul>
    9. 9. NBI – How to meet the socio-economic and environmental challenges in the Nile? since 1999 1997-2007 ?
    10. 10. NBI – Shared Vision
    11. 11. Cooperation in Action (I)
    12. 12. Cooperation in Action (II)
    13. 13. <ul><li>General Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Rights and Obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Equitable and reasonable utilization </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation not to cause significant harm </li></ul><ul><li>Protection and conservation of the Nile River Basin and its ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Regular exchange of data and information </li></ul><ul><li>Information concerning planned measures </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental impact assessment and audits </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidiarity in the development and protection of the Nile River Basin </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention and mitigation of harmful conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Situations </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement of Disputes </li></ul>CFA – Institutional and Legal Framework
    14. 14. Thanks! [email_address]

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