Islam (2 ESO)

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2 ESO bilingual; Origin and Expansion of Islam. What is Islam? The five pillars of Islam

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Islam (2 ESO)

  1. 1. Islam What is Islam?
  2. 2. Islam • Islam is the second largest religion in the world with over 1 billion followers. • The word 'Islam' in Arabic means submission to the will of God. • Followers of Islam are called Muslims. • Muslims believe there is one true God Allah (the Arabic word for God)
  3. 3. Islam • Muslims believe that Islam was revealed over 1400 years ago in Mecca, Arabia through a man called Muhammed. • Muhammed is believed by Muslims to be the last prophet sent by God (Allah).
  4. 4. The Origin of Islam • Islam originated on the Arabian Peninsula, a land which is mostly a huge desert.
  5. 5. At that time (the 6th century), the interior of the Arabian Peninsula was inhabited by tribes of polytheistic Arab nomads. Main tribes and settlements of Arabia in Muhammad's lifetime
  6. 6. The main cities of Yathrib (Medina) and Mecca were in the western part and they were crossroads for the merchant caravans coming for the Far East.
  7. 7. Muhammed • Muhammed, the Islamic prophet, was born in Mecca around the year 570. • Muhammed’s teachings were written down in the Koran, the Muslim’s sacred book, which contains Allah’s words to Muhammed. • The Koran has 114 chapters called suras, written in Arabic.
  8. 8. A folio from an early Koran, written in Kufic script (Abbasid period, 8th– 9th century). Typical glass and enamel mosque lamp with the Ayat an- Nur or "Verse of Light” 11th-century North African Koran in the British Museum Koran inscriptions on Bara Gumbad mosque wall, Lodhi Gardens, Delhi, India.
  9. 9. The five pillars of Islam • The Koran contains the five obligations of all Muslims believers, which are called the pillars of Islam. • They are as follows: – – – – – Belief (Shahada) Praying five times a day (Salat) Charity (Zakah) Fasting (Sawm) a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime(Hajj)
  10. 10. The five pillars of Islam • Belief (Shahada): the declaration of faith. Muslims believe that it’s only one God (Allah) and Muhammed is his prophet. • Praying five times a day (Salat). Muslims pray at dawn, mid-day, late afternoon, sunset and at night, just before bed.
  11. 11. The Mosque • Muslims worship in a building called a Mosque. • On Friday at noon, the most important of the weekly services is held. • When Muslims pray, they must always face Mecca.
  12. 12. The expansion of Islam Age of the Caliphs Expansion under the Prophet Muhammed, 622-632 Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661 Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750

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