Dosage And Solutions

  • 27,434 views
Uploaded on

 

More in: Sports , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • Fioricet is often prescribed for tension headaches caused by contractions of the muscles in the neck and shoulder area. Buy now from http://www.fioricetsupply.com and make a deal for you.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
27,434
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
1
Likes
19

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Dosage and Solutions
  • 2. Definition of Terms
    • Dosage: accurate and proper way of giving medicines in prescribed doses.
    • Dose: exact amount of medicine to be given or taken by the patient at one time or at stated intervals
  • 3. Administration of Drugs
    • Oral Administration
    • Parenteral Administration
      • Intramuscular
      • Intravenous
      • Subcutaneous
  • 4. Common Abbreviations
    • BY ROUTE
    • IM, IV, SC, SL, ID, p.o., p.r.
    • FREQUENCY
    • od, bid, tid, qid, qh (q4h), ac/pc, prn, qd
  • 5. Drug Order
    • The drug order consists of seven parts:
    • Name of the patient
    • Name of the drug
    • Dosage strength and form of the drug
    • Route by which the drug is to be administered
    • Frequency , time and special instructions related to administration
    • Date and time when the order was written
    • Signature of the person writing the order
    • Example: Naproxen 250mg/tab 1 tab p.o. b.i.d.
  • 6. Parenteral Administration
    • The maximum dosage volume to be administered per IM injection site for an average 150 lb adult is 3mL, for children ages 6-12 years is 2mL, and children birth to age 5 years is 1mL. Parenteral drugs are in the form of ampules or vials.
  • 7. Oral and Parenteral Dosage Administration
    • To Solve Use:
      • Factor-Label Method
      • Ratio and Proportion
      • Formula
      • x = D (desired dosage) x Q (quantity)
      • S (stock available)
  • 8. Exercises
    • 1. Order: Furosemide, 160 mg, od
    • Available: 40 mg tablets
    • How many tablet/s should the patient receive?
    • D/S = 160mg/40mg
    • = 4 tablets
    • 2. Trisilate 1500mg, q12h for 5 days
    • Available: Trisilate liquid, 500mg/15mL
    • a. How many mL should the patient receive?
    • D/S = 1500mg ÷ 500mg/15mL
    • = 45 mL
    • b. How many mL is consumed all in all
    • 45 mL x (2x a day) x 5 days = 450 mL
  • 9. Exercises
    • 3. Order: Phenobarbital grss, PO, qid
    • Available: Phenobarbital 15 mg tablet
    • a. How many tablet/s per dose?
    • D/S = (1/2gr x 60mg/1gr) ÷ 15 mg
    • = 2 tablets
    • b. How many tablets per day?
    • 2 tablets/day x 4 times a day = 8 tablets/day
    • 4. Order: Dicloxacillin 100mg, PO, q8h, for 7 days
    • Available: Dicloxacillin 62.5mg/5mL
    • a. How many mL should the client receive?
    • D/S = 100mg ÷ (62.5mg/5mL)
    • = 8mL
    • b. How many mL was actually consumed?
    • 8 mL x 3 times a day x 7 days = 168mL
  • 10. Exercises
    • 5. Order: Atropine sulfate gr 1/200, SC
    • Available: Atropine sulfate 0.4mg/mL
    • How many mL should the patient receive?
    • D/S = (1/200gr x 60mg/1gr) ÷ 0.4mg/mL
    • = 0.75 mL
    • 6. Order: Aspirin grx, STAT
    • Available: Aspirin 325mg tablet
    • How many tablets should the patient receive?
    • D/S = (10gr x 60mg/1gr) ÷ 325mg
    • = 2 tablets (1.8)
  • 11. Exercises
    • 7. Order: Scopolamine 0.3mg, SC
    • Available: Scopolamine ampule in gr 1/200 per mL
    • How many mL should the patient receive?
    • D/S = 0.3 mg ÷ (1/200 gr/mL x 60mg/1gr)
    • = 1 mL
    • 8. Order: Cephalexin 40mg/kg/day, PO, q6h, 33 lb child
    • Available: Cephalexin 250mg/5mL
    • a. How many mg should the child receive per day?
    • 33 lb = 15kg x 40mg
    • = 600mg/day
    • b. How many mL per dose?
    • D/S = 600mg ÷ (250mg/5mL) ÷ 4
    • = 3mL/dose
  • 12. Exercises
    • 9. Order: Allopurinol 450mg, PO, qid
    • Available: Allopurinol 300mg tablet
    • How many tablets should the patient receive?
    • D/S = 450mg ÷ 300mg
    • = 1.5 tablets per dose/ 6 tablets per day
    • 10. Order: Sulfisoxazole 50mg/kg/day, PO, q6h, 44 lb child
    • a. How many mg per day?
    • 44 lb = 20kg x 50mg/kg/day
    • = 1,000 mg/day
    • b. How many mg per dose?
    • 1000mg/day ÷ 4 doses/day
    • = 250mg/dose
  • 13. Pediatric Dosages – Based on Age
    • Fried’s Rule – newborn to 2 y/o
      • Age in months x normal adult dose
      • 150
    • Example: The physician prescribed Dolanex elixir for a 15-month old. The
    • normal adult dose is 325 mg q4h to q6h. Dolanex elixir is available as
    • 325mg/5mL.
    • Young’s Rule – ages 1 to 12 y/o
      • Age in years___ x normal adult dose
      • age in years + 12
    • Example: The physician prescribed Milk of Magnesia for an 8 year
    • old patient. The normal adult dose is 30mL.
  • 14. Pediatric Dosages – Based on Weight
    • Clark’s Rule – 2 y/o and older children
    • weight in pounds x normal adult dose
    • 150
    • Example: The physician prescribed Dolanex elixir for a 4-yr old who weighs about 30 lbs. The normal adult dose is 325 mg q4h to q6h. Dolanex elixir is available as 325 mg/5mL
  • 15. Insulin Administration
    • Formula: ____ Desired____
    • Stock / 16 minims
    • Sample Problem:
    • The patient needs 30U of insulin but the available stock is 80U.
    • How much of the 80U will be given?
    • If the stock is 100U, how much should be given to meet the patient’s needs?
  • 16. Intravenous Infusion
    • Calculating mL/hour
    • Total volume to be infused (mL)
    • Total time (hours)
    • Sample Problem
    • A patient is to receive 1 liter of Ringer’s solution over a 6-hour period. The patient would receive ____mL/hour
  • 17. Intravenous Infusion
    • Calculating mL/min
    • Total volume to be infused (mL)
    • Total time (in minutes)
    • Sample Problem
    • A patient is to receive 500mL of NSS over a period of 4 hours. The patient would receive ____mL/min.
  • 18. Intravenous Infusion
    • Calculating gtt/min
    • Total volume to be infused (mL) x SDF (15)
    • Total time (in minutes)
    • Sample Problem
    • Administer 1 liter of D5W over 8 hours. Calculate the gtt/min.
  • 19. Exercises
    • The physician prescribed 800mL of RL to infuse over 12 hrs. You would give ___ mL/h.
      • = 800mL
      • 12 hours
      • = 67 mL/hr
    • The physician prescribed an IV of 100mL of D 5 W to run at 100mL/h. The drop factor is 10. Set the flow rate at ___gtt/min
            • = _____ 100 mL x 10 gtt_____
            • 60 min
            • = 17 gtt/min
  • 20. Exercises
    • Order: 1000mL to be infused at 150 mL/h. The drop factor is 20. How many gtt/min is this?
    • = 150mL x 20
    • 60 min
    • = 50 gtt/min
    • Order: 2000mL to be infused for 12 h. The drop factor is 20.
    • a. How many mL/h is this?
    • = 2000 mL
    • 12 hours
    • = 167 mL/hour
    • b. How many gtt/min is this?
    • = 167 mL x 20
    • 60 min
    • = 56 gtt/min
  • 21. Solutions
    • Factor-Label Method
    • Ratio and Proportion
    • Desired sol’n: Available sol’n:: Amount of solute: Total amount
    • Formula Method
    • Amount of solute = Desired Strength x Total amount
    • On-hand strength
    • To calculate the quantity of water or diluent used
    • Quantity of diluent = quantity (soln) - quantity (solute)
  • 22. Sample Problems
    • To prepare 400mL of a 2% sodium bicarbonate solution from a pure drug, you would need ___g of solute.
    • Desired sol’n: Available sol’n:: Amount of solute: Total amount
    • (.02) : 1 :: x : 400
    • x = 8g
    • To make 1.5L of a 5% solution from a 25% solution, you would need ___ mL of solute. Add ___mL of water to make 1.5L
    • Amount of solute = Desired Strength x Total amount
    • On-hand strength
    • = .05 / .25 x (1.5L x 1000mL/1L)
    • = 300 mL
    • Quantity of diluent = quantity (soln) - quantity (solute)
    • = 1500 mL - 300 mL
    • = 1200 mL
  • 23. Sample Problems
    • There is 500mL of 40% magnesium sulfate solution available for a soak. To make 30% solution, you would need ___mL of solute. Add ___ mL of water to make 500mL.
    • Amount of solute = Desired Strength x Total amount
    • On-hand strength
    • = .30 / .40 x 500mL
    • = 375 mL
    • Quantity of diluent = quantity (soln) - quantity (solute)
    • = 500 mL - 375 mL
    • = 125 mL
  • 24. end…