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Chap20 Immunology & Serology
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Chap20 Immunology & Serology

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  • 1. Immunity and Serology Chapter 20
  • 2.
    • Immunity is a condition under which an individual is protected from the disease
    • Two general types of immunity
      • Innate Immunity
      • Acquired Immunity
    • Types of Acquired Immunity
      • ACTIVE IMMUNITY
        • Naturally Acquired Active Immunity
        • Artificially Acquired Active Immunity
      • PASSIVE IMMUNITY
        • Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity
        • Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity
    Immunity to Disease
  • 3. 4 Types of Acquired Immunity
  • 4.
    • Naturally acquired active immunity develops from exposure to an infectious agent
      • Active immunity occurs when the body’s immune system responds to antigens by producing antibodies and lymphocytes
      • Naturally acquired active immunity follows illness or pathogen exposure
    • Artificially acquired active immunity occurs through vaccination
      • Vaccines contain treated or altered microbes, toxins, or parts of microbes
        • a primary immune response occurs
        • memory cells are formed
        • the person does not usually become ill
    Active Immunity
  • 5.
    • Live, attenuated vaccines contain weakened microbes that multiply at only low levels, inducing a strong immune response
      • Organisms can revert to a virulent form and cause disease
      • A single-dose vaccine can combine vaccines for different diseases
      • Vaccines using attenuated bacteria are difficult and not widely used
    Types of Vaccines
  • 6.
    • Inactivated vaccines contain killed pathogens, which induce a weaker immune response
      • Booster shots are required to maintain immunity
      • They are safer than attenuated vaccines because they cannot cause disease
    • Toxoid vaccines contain inactivated toxins (toxoids)
      • Since the product is inactivated, booster shots are required
      • Prepared by incubating toxins with a chemical
    • *to avoid multiple injections, vaccines are combined into single-dose vaccine
    Types of Vaccines
  • 7.
    • Subunit vaccines contain only those parts of the antigens that stimulate a strong immune response
      • Recombinant DNA technology can be used to create recombinant subunit vaccines
      • Subunits cannot cause disease
    • Conjugate vaccines are created by attaching bacterial capsule polysaccharides to a toxoid
      • They elicit a strong immune response
    Types of Vaccines
  • 8.
    • DNA vaccines depend on the ability of some cells to:
        • take up and translate foreign DNA
        • display the resulting proteins, inducing a strong immune response
      • Naked DNA vaccines contain engineered plasmids that contain a gene from a pathogen
      • They are not infective or replicative, so cannot cause disease
    • Recombinant vector vaccines involve DNA incorporated into an attenuated pathogen
      • The pathogen:
        • takes the DNA into the cells (viral vector) or
        • incorporates the DNA and present antigens (bacterial vector)
    • *Adjuvants : increase efficacy of a vaccine or toxoid by increasing availability of the antigen in the lymphatic system. = stimulate phagocytic activity, IL 1 activation, sustained immune response
    Types of Vaccines
  • 9. Childhood and Adolescent Immunization Schedule - 2006
  • 10.
    • Passive Immunity develops when antibodies enter the body from outside source
    • Two Types: NATURAL OR ARTIFICIAL
    • Naturally acquired passive immunity (congenital immunity) occurs when antibodies pass from mother to fetus
      • Maternal IgG antibodies remain in the child 3-6 months after birth
      • Maternal antibodies also pass to the newborn through:
        • first milk (colostrum)
        • breast milk
    Passive Immunity
  • 11.
    • Artificially acquired passive immunity involves injection of antibody-rich serum into a body
      • The serum can be used to:
        • prevent disease (prophylactic)
        • treat disease (therapeutic serum)
      • Antiserum: hyperimmune serum or convalescent serum
    • The immune system may recognize foreign serum proteins as “nonself” and mount an allergic reaction
      • Immune complexes may form and serum sickness may develop
    Passive Immunity
  • 12.
    • In herd immunity, the majority of a population are immune
    • Unvaccinated individuals are unlikely to contact an infected individual
    • Herd immunity is affected by:
      • population density
      • the strength of a person’s immune system
    Herd Immunity
  • 13.
    • People with egg allergies should not take flu vaccinations
    • The risk of contracting a disease is much greater than any risk associated with vaccines
    • Thimerosal
    Do vaccines have dangerous side effects?
  • 14.
    • Serology: branch of immunology that studies serological reactions
    • Serological reactions can help diagnose microbial infections
    • Ag-Ab reactions are studied under laboratory conditions
    • Uses patient’s serum
    • Function: confirmatory test, detect organism in tissue, aid MD in following course of disease and determine immune states
    Serological Reactions
  • 15.
    • Titration is the dilution of antigen or antibody solution to the most favorable concentration
    • The titer is the most dilute concentration of serum antibody that reacts to its antigen
      • A rise in the titer ratio (antibody:serum) indicates disease
    Serological Reactions
  • 16.
    • Neutralization Involves Antigen-Antibody Reactions
      • Neutralization is used to identify toxins and antitoxins, viruses and viral antibodies
      • If a specific agent is suspected, to determine if the toxin has been neutralized, a sample can be:
        • mixed with an antitoxin
        • injected into a lab animal
        • Example: detection of botulinum toxin in food
      • The Schick test is used to determine if a person is immune to diphtheria (intradermal test)
    Serological Reactions
  • 17.
    • Precipitation reactions involve antigens and antibodies cross-linked in a huge lattice
    • In fluid, the molecules diffuse until they reach the ideal concentration (the zone of equivalence)
    • In immunodiffusion, antigens and antibodies diffuse through a gel until they reach the zone of equivalence
      • Oudin tube technique
      • Ouchterlony plate technique
    Serological Reactions
  • 18.
    • In immunoelectrophoresis, diffusion is combined with electrophoresis
    Serological Reactions
  • 19.
    • Agglutination – antibodies interact with antigens on a surface of a particular object and cause object to clump together.
    • A visible reaction requires less antibody or antigen if they are clumped together
    • In passive agglutination:
      • antigens are adsorbed onto a surface
      • antibodies are added
      • agglutination is observed
    Serological Reactions
  • 20.
    • Hemagglutination is used to:
      • determine blood type
      • Detect viruses that cause agglutination of red blood cells
    • Flocculation : precipitation and agglutination; Ag exists in a non-cellular particulate form that reacts with antibodies to yield large, visible aggregates.
    Serological Reactions
  • 21.
    • Complement Fixation Can Detect Antibodies to a Variety of Pathogens
    Serological Reactions
  • 22.
    • Labeling Methods Are Used to Detect Antigen-Antibody Binding
      • A fluorescent antibody technique can detect antigen-antibody binding by labeling antibodies with a fluorescent marker
      • Can be direct or indirect (FTA-ABS)
    Serological Reactions
  • 23.
    • The radioimmunoassay (RIA) is extremely sensitive, using radioactivity-labeled antigens; based on the competition between radioactive labeled Ag and unlabeled Ag for the reactive sites on Ab molecule
    • The radioallergosorbent test (RAST) uses radioactive antiglobulin antibodies
    Serological Reactions
  • 24.
    • The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is similar to RAST
      • It uses an enzyme system instead of radioactivity (horseradish peroxidase)
      • It is often used to detect antibodies against HIV
    Serological Reactions
  • 25.
    • Monoclonal Antibodies Are Becoming a “Magic Bullet” in Biomedicine
      • Polyclonal antibodies occur because there are multiple epitopes on a pathogen
        • They activate different B cell populations
  • 26.
    • In the lab, antibodies recognizing one epitope (monoclonal antibodies [mAb]) are produced using myelomas
    • Myeloma cells are fused to and activated B cell to form a hybridoma
    • A hybridoma producing the desired mAb can be cloned
    • MAbs can be used in:
      • disease prevention
      • immunomodulation (controlling overactive inflammatory responses)
  • 27.
    • Gene Probes Are Single-Stranded DNA segments
      • They hunt down complementary DNA fragment and emit a signal
      • The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to increase the amount of DNA to be searched
      • Gene probes and PCR are use in:
        • HIV and HPV detection
        • water-quality tests

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