Historically AP content had minimal descriptive metadata. Starting in 2005, AP began working on applying standard metadata across all content in order to improve access and enable new product development. The system needed to provide high accuracy and a high degree of control; scale to handle large volumes of content of different types; not slow down editorial’s ability to get the news out quickly. We built a standard set of taxonomies, and a rules-based automated classification system. As the service evolved, members asked us about the possibility of using AP’s systems for their own content. By 2011, the platform was mature enough, and we started the work to make our internal service available externally, using Semantic Web standards.
Targeted search and granular products: Allows customers to follow a company, person, or topic over timeEnables us to deliver specific products, e.g. Green technology, the Royal Wedding, 2012 Olympics hometown athletes, etc.Aggregate AP and member content
Really a lightweight ontology – we model hierarchy, synonyms, relationships between entities, additional entity properties.
Rules-based system – each term in the taxonomy has an associated rule.People and Company tagging is based on mention, with significant disambiguation rules to ensure accuracy.Subject, Geo and Organization tagging is based on more complex rules, and strives for “aboutness.”
Entity coverage continues to grow.Results in ~1.7 million triples
High-level view of how services are integrated into AP’s pipeline. Taxonomy data is exposed in editorial tools, and for web site curation.Automated tagging happens downstream of editorial.Taxonomy data (i.e. synonyms and other) is integrated into search and browse within our portals. Because the services are available as APIs, it’s easy for publishers to integrate into their own workflows in whatever way makes the most sense – APIs offer flexibilty.
AP Metadata ServicesAmy SweigertSemTechBizJune 6, 2012
About the Associated Press– AP is a not-for-profit news cooperative, owned by US newspaper and broadcast members, founded in 1846– AP news content is seen by half the world’s population on any given day– We process and deliver 100k+ content items daily – AP, member and third-party content – Text, photos, audio, multimedia interactives, and broadcast and online quality video – Primarily B2B
Evolution of AP Metadata Services 2011 • RDF modeling • API development • Pilot offering 2008 • Automated tagging of Companies, Organizations, Geography, Events starts 2012 • AP Metadata 2009-2010 Services Launch • Scope and depth of2006 coverage increases• Initial taxonomy • Platform stabilized and rule 2007 development • Automated tagging of starts Subjects, People, Compani es starts
Introducing AP Metadata Services– Semantic Web services to drive the next generation of news delivery and consumption: – AP News Taxonomy – AP Tagging Service– B2B service with continuing investment and human curation – Ongoing and frequent updates to tagging rules, entities, concepts and their semantic relationships– Designed to meet AP’s exacting needs for its own content
What Does Rich Metadata Do for Publishers?– Connect customers with more relevant content through: – Improved search and discovery – Automated aggregation, syndication and distribution of related content – Richer and more relevant content products and services – Reduced time to market for new products and services – Reduces editorial workload, creates efficiencies – Content interoperability
• Site delivered ~5,000 articles and ~20,000 photos over 2 months• Routing and display of content by team and conference is automated• Editorial resources are focused on curating only the most important parts of the site• Enables user experience that would not be possible without automated, standard metadata
The AP News Taxonomy– Breadth and depth to support news and current events– Defines rich semantic metadata specific to news – Generic subjects and hierarchy – Named entities – Relationships, synonyms, additional entity data– Delivers automated notifications of taxonomy changes – New terms, deprecated terms, name changes, etc.
The AP Tagging Service– Software as a Service – Leverages AP investment and expertise– Tags concepts; more than entity extraction– Automated tagging tied to AP News Taxonomy ensures more consistent, comprehensive results
Top Level Subject Areas: • Arts and EntertainmentCoverage • Business • Demographic groups– 4200 Subjects • Environment and Nature • Events– 2100 Geographic locations • General News • Government and Politics– 1200 Organizations • Health • Lifestyle– 91,000 People • Living Things • Media– 41,000 Publicly-traded • Science Companies • Social Affairs • Sports • Technology– Supports English language content
A Foundation of Semantic Web Standards– URIs for all entities and topics– Taxonomy modeled in RDF– SKOS Ontology – Supplemented with other ontologies (Dublin Core, DBPedia, FOAF, GeoNames, etc.) – Some AP-specific properties– Taxonomy and Tagging Service accessible via RESTful APIs– Using a SPARQL end-point internally to provide views of the taxonomy
Supported FormatsAP Tagging Service AP Taxonomy– Input formats – Taxonomy Output Format – Plain Text – RDF/XML – Simple XML: XML encoded content – RDF/Turtle e.g. XHTML, NITF, NewsML, NewsML-G2 – RDF/JSON– Output formats – NewsML-G2 – RDF/XML – Taxonomy Change Log – RDF/JSON Output formats – RDF/Turtle – XML – Simple XML – CSV – NewsML-G2
Metadata Services in AP’s Content Lifecycle Content Repository 3rd party content Products defined based on rich Distribution methods: metadata Internet syndication Web portals APIsAP Editorial Content (Input) AP Tagging Service applies standard values Metadata Services and related data • Taxonomy fed to editorial tools • Automated tagging applies subject and entity metadata from taxonomy • Rich relationships between Standard AP subjects, entities News • Metadata used to deliver targeted Taxonomy feeds, auto-publish and values improve search and browse experience
RDF/XML representation of Scott Walker, Governor of Wisconsin<skos:Concept rdf:about="http://cv.ap.org/id/11AD96CF0A5149C5B3909F5BE9A5494A"> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="en">Scott Walker</skos:prefLabel> <ap:associatedState rdf:resource="http://cv.ap.org/id/1BC1BC3082C81004896CDF092526B43E" /> <ap:entryTerm xml:lang="en">Scott K. Walker</ap:entryTerm> <ap:entryTerm xml:lang="en">Scott Kevin Walker</ap:entryTerm> <ap:isPlaceholder rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#boolean">false</ap:isPlaceholder> <dbpedia-owl:party rdf:resource="http://cv.ap.org/id/BF6E2E80760D10048F8AE6E7A0F4673E" /> <dbprop:birthdate rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#date">1967-11-02</dbprop:birthdate> <dcterms:created rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">2009-11-01T10:23:29-05:00</dcterms:created> <dcterms:modified rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">2012-02-26T10:14:13-05:00</dcterms:modified> <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://cv.ap.org/c/Politician" /> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="en">Scott K. Walker</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="en">Scott Kevin Walker</skos:altLabel> <skos:broader rdf:resource="http://cv.ap.org/id/C9D7FA107E4E1004847ADF092526B43E" /> <skos:definition xml:lang="en">45th Governor of Wisconsin. Milwaukee, Wisconsin County Executive. USRepublican member of the Wisconsin State Assembly.</skos:definition> <skos:inScheme rdf:resource="http://cv.ap.org/a#person" /></skos:Concept>
- <ClassificationResults> <DocumentId>C495D353258440B487279767F9A16D02</DocumentId> <DocumentDate>2012-06-06T15:59:46-05:00</DocumentDate>- <Entities>- <Entity> <Authority>AP Person</Authority> <AuthorityVersion>3420</AuthorityVersion> Subset of tags returned for <Name>LeBron James</Name> article about NBA Finals game, in Simple XML format <Id>http://cv.ap.org/id/7c05129d1a1741af8bcc326c9459545c</Id>- <Properties> <PersonType>Professional Athlete</PersonType> <PersonType>Sports Figure</PersonType> <Team>Miami Heat</Team> </Properties> </Entity>-
- <Entity> <Authority>AP Organization</Authority> <AuthorityVersion>3412</AuthorityVersion> <Name>Miami Heat</Name> <Id>http://cv.ap.org/id/8a85be975bf94cd18836b6eb5a1f6391</Id> Subset of tags returned for </Entity> article about NBA Finals game, in Simple XML- <Entity> format, cont. <Authority>AP Organization</Authority> <AuthorityVersion>3412</AuthorityVersion> <Name>NBA Eastern Conference</Name> <Id>http://cv.ap.org/id/4a653a1806bc49518c5e667120a283e3</Id> </Entity>- </Entities>-
<Subjects>- <Subject> <Authority>AP Subject</Authority> Subset of tags returned for article about NBA Finals <AuthorityVersion>3415</AuthorityVersion> game, in Simple XML format, cont. <Name>NBA basketball</Name> <Id>http://cv.ap.org/id/6c01c3e08c8010048288a13d9888b73e</Id> </Subject>- <Subject> <Authority>AP Subject</Authority> <AuthorityVersion>3415</AuthorityVersion> <Name>NBA Finals</Name> <Id>http://cv.ap.org/id/fd862c8beea14e189c9a5617cf5c379c</Id> </Subject>