Today I will be discussing with you the changes in instruction throughout our history, the research behind the effect technology integration has had on student achievement and students’ higher order thinking skills. Also, the importance of the role technology plays in preparing students for their post-secondary education and also preparing them for the future workforce. Finally, I will discuss briefly how to start the road to full technology integration in our classrooms.In summary, technology integration is a research based intervention that can help our teachers close the achievement gap recognized by our government today. It increases student achievement, increases higher order thinking skills, and prepares our students for the competitive life outside of high school. Implementation doesn’t need to be complicated and incredibly costly to start. Training is key. Starting small but creating a technology plan that will be student centered and focus on student learning needs will have lifelong benefits for our students.
Education has changed drastically throughout the history of the United States. According to a study done by Eileen O’Kane, prior to the start of formal schooling in the 18th century, education was centered around farming and based on experience through apprenticeships. At this time, most children did not attend school and were taught by their families.During the onset of universal education at the time of the Industrial Revolution, basic reading, writing, and basic skills. Formal education started with multi-aged classrooms, and moved to a grade level system in the mid-1800’s.-Today, education continues to focus on reading, writing, math, and science application skills. Our instruction maintains, for the most part, a grade level system, however our society today is very different from the society that existed in the 1800’s. Currently students are bombarded with technology everywhere they look. There is a plethora of information that is accessible to our society and an overwhelming amount of adaptations and accommodations available to our students. Without a shift in instruction, we are doing our students a disservice.-Prior to the 1800’s, education centered around the countries current needs. During the shift to formal “state-regulated education” during the Industrial Revolution, education focused on basic skills and preparing immigrants for life in the United States. If our education is not centered around our world today, our society will not continue to grow and our students will continue to fall behind. The government has attempted to increase student achievement by developing No Child Left Behind. This legislation recognized the achievement gap and attempted to hold schools more accountable for their students’ learning. Schools continue to reach to meet the standards set forth by No Child Left Behind through staff development on various strategies, differentiated instruction, and standards based curriculums. This ultimately changes the way teachers teach. Currently, the United States Department of Education is in the beginning stages of creating the “National Education Technology Plan.” The goal of this plan is to again increase student achievement through the integration of technology.
Much research has been done analyzing the effects technology integration has on our students. Many studies reveal a direct correlation with technology integration in the classroom and increased student achievement on course curriculum and standardized testsAccording research compiled by Cradler, McNabb, Freeman, and Burchett, when technology is integrated into standards based instruction, student achievement test scores significantly increase. They analyzed an eight year study that followed students in a technology integrated curriculum and when compared to students in a traditional curriculum, their achievement scores increased 94 points on average.-John Schacter analyzed a large study compiled by James Kulik that compiled more than 500 studies completed analyzing computer-based instruction and it’s affect on student achievement. Not only did he discover in increase in achievement, but students reported enjoying their classes more and having more positive attitudes toward their classes, when computer-based instruction was in place. Studies also reported that instruction was more time efficient; more learning took place with less time spent on instruction.
In this study, Kulik found that students scored in the 64th percentile, on average, compared to students without computer-based instruction scoring in the 50th percentile, on average.Schacter shorted a results table from Kulik’s research that shows the various studies he analyzed, the instruction level of the students, how many students were analyzed, and the percent gain over the control group the students performed on achievement tests. In this table, the smallest gain is 9 percentile in pre-college science students and the larges is 22 percentile in special education students.
Research studies indicate that allowing students to utilize technology tools for creating projects and communication develop increased higher order thinking skills.-In several studies analyzed by Cradler, McNabb, Freeman, and Burchett, when instruction included interactive video based software in a math class, students were able to complete problem solving tasks when compared to their peers whose instruction did not include interactive instruction. -In another study analyzed by Cradler, McNabb, Freeman, and Burchett, the use of tutorial and simulation based software was integrated into a 9th grade math class. Students out performed other students who were not exposed to the said technologies on standardized tests on average by 15% and on standardized objective they out performed others students by 100%. -Schacter also analyzed a study performed by Harold Wengleinsky that explored “simulation and higher order thinking technologies” and the relationship with students success in schools. It was found that in 8th grade math students, technology training for teachers had a direct impact on computer use for simulations and applications, and not only led to higher achievement scores in math (13 weeks above grade level), but more positive attitudes in school improving school climate.
In the study completed by Harold Wengleinsky, this diagram depicts the direct effects teacher training and education on technology integration in the classroom had on students.In the 4th grade math class that was analyzed, the teacher was trained in effective integration of technology in the classroom curriculum which lead to using computers for educational games. This led to high math achievement scores and an over improvement in school climate as students reported enjoying their classes more and displayed more positive attitudes in school.In the 8th grade math class that was analyzed, the teacher was again trained in technology integration. This lead directly to a more positive school climate, higher achievement, and technology application and simulation in their math classes. The use of simulation and application technology also lead to higher achievement scores and students again reported enjoying their classes more and displayed more positive attitudes in school.
Colleges and various jobs today are becoming increasingly competitive. Standards and expectations are high, and our students must be able meet and exceed these expectations in order to be successful and competitive in today’s job market.O’Kane analyzed the use of technology in schools from the standpoint of college readiness. She states that schools can usually get their students to pass high school, appearing to be eligible for college. However, once enrolled students are required to take remedial classes as their skills are not meeting the basic standards to move beyond remedial college courses. This is not only ineffective for students, it forces students to pay more money on more college courses and forces students to remain in college for longer periods of time as they are still required to complete courses after their remedial courses are complete. Technology integration has research based evidence that achievement scores increase when it is integrated into standards based curriculum. Increasing achievement will better prepare students for expectations of college and make them “college ready.”
California’s state colleges have outlined what is expected of college students and technology is considered an element of “academic literacy” required of all students entering their schools. This also goes for application of technology in today’s workforce. The workforce beyond college is increasingly competitive and technology plays a very large roll in this. In order for our students to be effective and competitive in today’s job market they need to display the following skills:- Students need to be able to analyze online data and have the ability to use various technologies in order to be successful in college and the “real world.” - Students need technological abilities in order to be effective and competitive in the current and future workforce. - Use of technology increases the analytical, critical thinking, and collaborative skills required of students of today, including those in the workforce.
What do we do know that we know the benefits of technology integration in classroom settings?Administrators and teachers need to be trained in today’s technology and it’s application in standards based curriculums.
-Antoinette Harvey-Woodall explores literature on teacher education and it’s link to successful technology integration. Current methods of instruction and delivery have to change in order for technology integration to be successful. Instruction must move toward student-centered and must be more flexible with the implementation of new technologies into the standards based curriculum. Administration needs to have more awareness and exposure to technologies available and the research to support technology integration. Over all, teachers need to change the way they are teaching and need meaningful trainings and opportunities to integrate and explore technologies themselves. In order for trainings and staff development to occur, administrators need to be more aware and up to date on the research. They should make staff development an important part of the district-wide technology plan.-Technology isn’t going away and educational thinking needs to change.Implementation of technology within curriculum and strategies that teachers already use is the easiest way to start. Brabec, Fisher, and Pitler explore technology integration within strategies teachers already use from Robert Marzano’s book, A Theory-Based Meta-Analysis of Research on Instruction. Integrating word processing to create charts to compare similarities and differences, for summarizing, and editing are perfect ways to start. Teachers currently use word processing for personal reasons as well as report writing in their classrooms and are familiar with the programs. Already knowing the programs would be one less step for them to take towards integration. -Various resources are available on the internet for note-taking, organizing and summarizing information students may use for resource projects of term papers. Many publisher’s have websites with tools that can be integrated into their curriculums as well. All of these technologies are readily available for teachers to use and in most cases are free of charge.
Amy Zimmerman ED 633School Board Presentation
Why Should There Be MoreTechnology Integration in the Classroom?
Key Points Changes in Instruction Throughout History Increased Student Achievement Increased Higher Order Thinking Skills Prepare Students for Post-Secondary School and the Workforce How Do We Get There?
Changes in Instruction Throughout History 1800’s- Focus 2011- Focus Life on the Farm Post-Secondary School and Workforce Basic Reading and Reading, Writing, Writing Skills Math, and Science Multi-Age Classrooms Application Grade Level System Preparing Immigrants for Life in the United Preparing Students States for Jobs and(Eileen O’Kane 2010) Technology Not Yet in Exhistance
Increased Student Achievement Research by: Research by: Cradler, McNabb, Freeman, John Schacter (1999) and Burchett (2002) analyzed a large study by analyzed an 8 year study James Kulik (1994) that following students in a compiled more than 500 technology integrated studies analyzing curriculum and compared computer based them to a traditional instruction curriculum Findings:Findings: students enjoyed their student scores increased 94 classes points on average students had a more positive attitude towards school increased efficiency of instruction time student scores
Kulick found that students scored on average in the 64th percentile as compared to those without computer based instruction scoring on average at the 50th percentile. Meta-Analysis Instructional Level Number of Studies Percentile Gain Over Analyzed Control GroupBangert-Drowns, J. Kulik, & C. Secondary 51 10 Kulik (1985) Burns & Bozeman (1981) Elementary and Secondary 44 14 School Cohen &Dacanay (1991) Health Professions Education 38 18 Hartley (1978) Elementary and Secondary 33 16 Math Fletcher (1990) Higher Education and Adult 28 19 Training C. Kulik & J. Kulik (1986) College 119 11 C. Kulik, J. Kulik, & Shwalb Adult Education 30 15 (1986)J. Kulik, C. Kulik, & Bangert- Elementary 44 16 Drowns (1985) Niemiec & Walbert (1985) Elementary 48 14 Roblyer (1988) Elementary to Adult Education 82 12Schmidt, Weinstein, Niemiec, Special Education 18 22 & Walberg (1985)Willett, Yamashita, & Anderson Pre-College Science 11 9 (1983) Table excerpted from Kulick, James A. (1994). Meta-Analytic Studies of Findings on Computer- Based Instruction.
Increased Higher Order Thinking Skills Interactive Video Based • Students improved completion of problem Software solving in math classes (Cradler, McNabb, Freeman, Burchett 2002) Tutorial and • Students out-performed others by 15% on Simulation standardized testsBased Software • Students out-performed others by 100% on (Cradler, McNabb, Freeman, standardized objectives Burchett 2002) Technology • Students performed 13 weeks above grade Training for level Teachers • Students had more positive attitudes improving school climate (Schacter 1999)
Technology Training for Teachers 4th Grade Math 8th Grade Math Teacher Technology Teacher Technology Training Training Computer use mainly for Computer use mainly for math/ simulations learning games and applications Higher Math More Positive More Positive Higher Achievement School Climate School Achievement ClimateSource: Educational Testing Service, “Does it compute?” an analysis of 1996 National Assessment ofEducational Progress.
Prepare Students for Post- Secondary School and the Workforce Students graduate high school, but are in need of remediation in college More college courses required More time spent in college More money spent on college tuition(Eileen O’Kane 2010)
Students need to understand technology to be successful Ability to analyze online data Have increased analytical, critical Ability to use thinking, and multiple collaboration technologies skills In order to be effective and competitive in todays workplace(Eileen O’Kane 2010)
How do we get there? INCREASEDADMINISTRATION AND TEACHER TRAINING AND STAFF DEVELOPMENT
Student Centered InstructionAdministrators Variousneed to imbed Start by resources are staff implementing available on development technology in the internet into their strategies and through district-wide teachers schools’ technology already use current plan curriculum(Harvey-Woodall (Brabec, Fisher, Pitler (Brabec, Fisher, Pitler2009) 2004) 2004)