Blendedvsonlineteams (2)
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Blendedvsonlineteams (2) Blendedvsonlineteams (2) Presentation Transcript

  • Online vs. Blended Team Learning
    Larry Mack, DBA
    Co-authors: Lynn Grinnell, PhD Frank Appunn, PhD, Amy Sauers, PhD
  • Introduction
    Background
    Online Learning
    Online Teams
    Blended classes
    Theory
    Education theories
    Communication theories
    Technology theories
    Research Questions
    Methods
    Sample
    Qualitative approaches
    Results
    Grounded Theory Analysis
    Content Analysis
    Conclusions
  • Introduction
    Background
    Online Learning
    Increasing exponentially
    Convenient alternative for traditional face-to-face classes
    Advantages:
    Increased flexibility in study time
    Reduced travel time, fuel use
    Reduced facilities use
    Blended classes
    Alternative for students who want some face-to-face contact
    Still offers flexibility in completing half the work
  • Literature Review
    Education theories and research
    Communication theories
    Research in Technology
  • Theory
    Education theories
    Classroom teams
    Use of teams increase learning
    Dysfunctional teams: social loafers getting same grades; difficulty in meeting outside class
    Satisfaction affected by team process and conflict resolution
    Some Big 5 Personality characteristics (agreeableness, conscientiousness) affect team effectiveness
    Online teams
    Same conflict same as traditional teams: disagreements, poor planning, variance in participation levels, and schedule conflicts.
    Conflicts exacerbated by lack of non-verbal cues and ease of withdrawal from participation
  • Theory
    Communication theories
    Interpersonal relationships
    Equity theory
    Developmental stages of teams
    Systems theory
    Technology theories
    Early research on f2f component of teams
    Building trust
    TIP theory highlighted asynchronous issues
  • Research Questions
    Purpose:
    Identify differences between teams that have some face-to-face opportunities and online teams that do not.
    Approach: Qualitative research
    Online teams
    Comparison between online and face-to-face
  • Methods
    Online courses sample
    4 online management/marketing courses
    30 juniors/seniors – 19 women, 11 men
    > 50% - not familiar with current team members
    > 90% - more than 3 student team experiences
    Blended courses sample
    3 blended management courses
    14 juniors/seniors – 6 women, 8 men
    > 50% - familiar with current team members
    > 90% - more than 3 student team experiences
  • Methods
    Instrument - Online survey
    Debriefing questions based on Kolb’s experiential learning theory
    Objective review
    Subjective review
    Connection to theory
    Plans for future use
    Open-ended “Further comments” question
    Demographic questions
    Gender, age, program of study, job, and computer experience; questions on the make-up of their team
  • Methods
    Analysis
    Content analysis
    Multiple researchers evaluated data using variables
    Positive/negative comments counted/ for each variable
    Grounded theory
    Multiple researchers independently made four passes using Straus-Corbin approach
    open coding
    sorting and review
    sense-making searching for central phenomena and strategies
    identification of themes and selective coding
  • Methods
    Variables for content analysis
  • Results: Content Analysis
    Blended Team Behaviors
    Online Team Behaviors
  • Results: Content Analysis
  • Results: Content Analysis
    Online teams
    Conscientiousnesshighest presence and similarnumber of positive/negative
    Blended teams
    Conscientiousness much less present (5th) and 2 to 1 positive over negative
  • Results: Content Analysis
    Online teams
    Attitude towards teams: similar number of positive/negative
    Blended teams
    Attitude towards teams: almost 2 to 1 positive over negative
  • Results: Content Analysis
    Online teams
    Both satisfaction and team effectiveness comments high, effectiveness higher than satisfaction
    Satisfaction 50% more negative responses
    Blended teams
    Both satisfaction and team effectiveness comments high, satisfaction higher than effectiveness
    Satisfaction almost 2 to 1 positive over negative
  • Results: Content Analysis
    Online teams
    Communication 8th of 15 variables, and positive/negative equal
    Blended teams
    Communication much higher (third) number of comments, positive 50% higher than negative
  • Results: Content Analysis
    Online teams
    Learning – 1/3rd of comments negative
    Blended teams
    Learning – all very positivecomments
  • Results: Content Analysis
    • Online teams
    • Small number of comments about technology
    • Mostlynegative
    • Blended teams
    • No comments on technology
  • Grounded Analysis:Key points/issues
    Online teams
    Communication (negative)
    Team process
    Personality
    Balance of efforts
    Pressure
    Process
    Timing
    Leadership
    Online considerations
    Attitude
    Communication
    Timing of work/meetings
    Tone – angry, hostile
    Blended teams
    Similar to online teams
    Conscientiousness vs. social loafing
    Communication
    Equity theory
    Psychological contract
    Accountability
    Clear expectations = Trust
    Timeframe
    Unique to blended teams
    Motivation
    Emergent leadership (not always good)
    Stages of team formation (Tucker)
    Team cohesion/collaboration/cooperation
    More learning
    Success
    Tone - positive
  • Conclusions
    Primary differences between online and blended teams
    Blended involved face to face meetings
    Many similarities in team issues raised
    Communication
    Social loafing
    Equity
    Blended teams were happier
    More positive attitude towards teams
    More satisfied
    More positive about learning
    Better communication
    Asynchronous nature of online communication gives false sense of 2-way communication
  • Questions?
    Solutions?
    Synchronous technology?
    Pros and cons
  • Results: Content Analysis
    Online teams
    Conscientiousnesshighest presence and similarnumber of positive/negative
    Attitude towards teams: similar number of positive/negative
    Satisfaction 50% more negative responses
    Both satisfaction and team effectiveness comments high, effectiveness higher than satisfaction
    Communication 8th of 15 variables, and positive/negative equal
    Learning – 1/3rd of comments negative
    Small number of comments about technology
    Blended teams
    Conscientiousness much less present (5th) and 2 to 1 positive over negative
    Attitude towards teams: almost 2 to 1 positive over negative
    Satisfaction almost 2 to 1 positive over negative
    Both satisfaction and team effectiveness comments high, satisfaction higher than effectiveness
    Communication much higher (third) number of comments, positive 50% higher than negative
    Learning – all very positivecomments
    No comments on technology
  • Proposed model for virtual student team development
    Internal Locus of Control
    Good
    communication
    Task completion
    Satisfaction
    Empowerment
    Cooperation
    Leadership
    Conscientiousness
    Team Process
    Team effectiveness
    Victim
    mentality
    Low expectations
    Individual action
    Low communication
    Social loafing
    Resentment
    Anger
    External Locus of Control