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  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 1 Chapter 1Chapter 1 Organization of theOrganization of the BodyBody
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 2 Anatomy and PhysiologyAnatomy and Physiology • Anatomy and physiology are branches ofAnatomy and physiology are branches of biology concerned with the form and functionsbiology concerned with the form and functions of the bodyof the body • Anatomy - study of the structure of an organismAnatomy - study of the structure of an organism and the relationship of its partsand the relationship of its parts • PhysiologyPhysiology –– is the science that deals with theis the science that deals with the functions of the living organism and its parts.functions of the living organism and its parts.
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 3 Anatomy and PhysiologyAnatomy and Physiology • Gross anatomyGross anatomy——study of the body and its partsstudy of the body and its parts using only the naked eye (Figure 1-2)using only the naked eye (Figure 1-2) • Microscopic anatomyMicroscopic anatomy——study of body partsstudy of body parts using a microscopeusing a microscope – CytologyCytology——study of cellsstudy of cells – HistologyHistology——study of tissuesstudy of tissues
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 4 Anatomy and PhysiologyAnatomy and Physiology • Developmental anatomyDevelopmental anatomy——study of humanstudy of human growth and developmentgrowth and development • Pathological anatomyPathological anatomy——study of diseased bodystudy of diseased body structuresstructures • Systemic anatomySystemic anatomy——study of the bodystudy of the body by systemsby systems
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 5 Anatomy and PhysiologyAnatomy and Physiology • PhysiologyPhysiology——science of the functions ofscience of the functions of organisms; subdivisions named according toorganisms; subdivisions named according to – Organism involvedOrganism involved——human or plant physiologyhuman or plant physiology – Organizational levelOrganizational level——molecular or cellularmolecular or cellular physiologyphysiology – Systemic functionSystemic function——respiratory, neurovascular, orrespiratory, neurovascular, or cardiovascular physiologycardiovascular physiology
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 6 Characteristics of LifeCharacteristics of Life – ResponsivenessResponsiveness – ConductivityConductivity – GrowthGrowth – RespirationRespiration – DigestionDigestion – AbsorptionAbsorption – SecretionSecretion – ExcretionExcretion – CirculationCirculation – ReproductionReproduction • Characteristics of life considered most important in humans:
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 7 Characteristics of LifeCharacteristics of Life • Responsiveness – permits an organism to sense,Responsiveness – permits an organism to sense, monitor and respond to changes in its externalmonitor and respond to changes in its external environmentenvironment – Example: withdrawing from a painful stimulus, i.e.Example: withdrawing from a painful stimulus, i.e. pinprick…pinprick… • Conductivity – capacity of living cells and tissuesConductivity – capacity of living cells and tissues to selectively transmit a wave of excitation fromto selectively transmit a wave of excitation from one point to anotherone point to another – Nerve impulse conductionNerve impulse conduction
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 8 Characteristics of LifeCharacteristics of Life • Growth – result of a normal increase in the sizeGrowth – result of a normal increase in the size or number of cellsor number of cells – Hypertrophy or HyperplasiaHypertrophy or Hyperplasia • Respiration – processes that result in theRespiration – processes that result in the absorption, transport, utilization, or exchange ofabsorption, transport, utilization, or exchange of respiratory gasesrespiratory gases – O2/CO2 exchange in the lungsO2/CO2 exchange in the lungs
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 9 Characteristics of LifeCharacteristics of Life • Digestion – process by which complex foods areDigestion – process by which complex foods are broken down into simpler substances that canbroken down into simpler substances that can be absorbed by the bodies cellsbe absorbed by the bodies cells – CatabolismCatabolism • Absorption – movement of digested nutrientsAbsorption – movement of digested nutrients through the wall of the digestive tract into thethrough the wall of the digestive tract into the bodies fluidsbodies fluids – Small bowel and nutrient absorptionSmall bowel and nutrient absorption
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 10 Characteristics of LifeCharacteristics of Life • Secretion – production and delivery ofSecretion – production and delivery of specialized substancesspecialized substances – Digestive juices or hormonesDigestive juices or hormones • Excretion – removal of waste productsExcretion – removal of waste products produced during the bodies functionsproduced during the bodies functions – CO2 exhaledCO2 exhaled
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 11 Characteristics of LifeCharacteristics of Life • Circulation – movement of body fluids andCirculation – movement of body fluids and many other substances from one place in themany other substances from one place in the body to anotherbody to another – O2 to the bodies cellsO2 to the bodies cells • Reproduction – formation of new cells or a newReproduction – formation of new cells or a new individualindividual – MitosisMitosis
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 12
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 13 Levels of OrganizationLevels of Organization • Chemical levelChemical level——basis for lifebasis for life – Organization of chemical structures separates livingOrganization of chemical structures separates living material from nonliving materialmaterial from nonliving material – Combinations of atoms form moleculesCombinations of atoms form molecules – Combinations of molecules and atoms formCombinations of molecules and atoms form macromolecules results in living mattermacromolecules results in living matter – The complex relationship between these form a gelThe complex relationship between these form a gel called cytoplasmcalled cytoplasm • The essential material to human lifeThe essential material to human life
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 14 Levels of OrganizationLevels of Organization • Organelle levelOrganelle level – Chemical structures organize to form organelles that performChemical structures organize to form organelles that perform individual functionsindividual functions – The functions of the organelles that allow the cell to liveThe functions of the organelles that allow the cell to live – Dozens of organelles have been identified, including theDozens of organelles have been identified, including the following:following: • MitochondriaMitochondria • Golgi apparatusGolgi apparatus • Endoplasmic reticulumEndoplasmic reticulum
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 15 Levels of OrganizationLevels of Organization • Cellular levelCellular level – Cells are the smallest and most numerous units thatCells are the smallest and most numerous units that possess and exhibit characteristics of lifepossess and exhibit characteristics of life – A cells nucleus is surrounded by cytoplasm within aA cells nucleus is surrounded by cytoplasm within a limiting membranelimiting membrane – Cells differentiate to perform unique functionsCells differentiate to perform unique functions
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 16 Levels of OrganizationLevels of Organization • Tissue levelTissue level – Tissue consist of an organization of similar cells specializedTissue consist of an organization of similar cells specialized to perform a certain functionto perform a certain function – Tissue cells are surrounded by nonliving matrix and are theTissue cells are surrounded by nonliving matrix and are the fabric of the bodyfabric of the body – Four major tissue types:Four major tissue types: • Epithelial tissueEpithelial tissue • Connective tissueConnective tissue • Muscle tissueMuscle tissue • Nervous tissueNervous tissue
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 17 Levels of OrganizationLevels of Organization • Organ levelOrgan level – An organ is several different kinds of tissues thatAn organ is several different kinds of tissues that combine to perform a special functioncombine to perform a special function – Organs represent discrete and functionally complexOrgans represent discrete and functionally complex operational unitsoperational units – Each organ has a unique size, shape, appearance,Each organ has a unique size, shape, appearance, and placement in the bodyand placement in the body
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 18 Levels of OrganizationLevels of Organization • System levelSystem level – SystemSystem –– the most complex organizational unit of the bodythe most complex organizational unit of the body – The system level involves varying numbers and kinds ofThe system level involves varying numbers and kinds of organs arranged to perform complex functions (Table 1-1):organs arranged to perform complex functions (Table 1-1): • Outer protectionOuter protection • Support and movementSupport and movement • Communication, control, and integrationCommunication, control, and integration • Transportation and defenseTransportation and defense • Respiration, nutrition, and excretionRespiration, nutrition, and excretion • Reproduction and developmentReproduction and development
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 19 Levels of OrganizationLevels of Organization • Organism levelOrganism level – The living human organism is greater than the sumThe living human organism is greater than the sum of its partsof its parts – All of the components (chemicalAll of the components (chemical –– system) worksystem) work together to allow the human to survive and flourishtogether to allow the human to survive and flourish
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 20 Anatomical PositionAnatomical Position • Reference position for A&P and PositioningReference position for A&P and Positioning • Body erect or standing, with arms at sides, palmsBody erect or standing, with arms at sides, palms turned forward, and the head and feet pointingturned forward, and the head and feet pointing forwardforward
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 21 Anatomical Position
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 22 Anatomical PositionAnatomical Position • Bilateral symmetry is a term meaning that right and leftBilateral symmetry is a term meaning that right and left sides of body are mirror imagessides of body are mirror images – Bilateral symmetry confers balanced proportionsBilateral symmetry confers balanced proportions – There is remarkable correspondence of size and shapeThere is remarkable correspondence of size and shape between body parts on opposite sides of the bodybetween body parts on opposite sides of the body – Ipsilateral structures are on the same side of the body inIpsilateral structures are on the same side of the body in anatomical positionanatomical position – Contralateral structures are on opposite sides of the body inContralateral structures are on opposite sides of the body in anatomical positionanatomical position
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 23 Body CavitiesBody Cavities • Ventral body cavityVentral body cavity – Thoracic cavityThoracic cavity • Right and left pleural cavitiesRight and left pleural cavities • MediastinumMediastinum – Abdominopelvic cavityAbdominopelvic cavity • Abdominal cavityAbdominal cavity • Pelvic cavityPelvic cavity
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 24
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 25 Body CavitiesBody Cavities • Dorsal body cavityDorsal body cavity – Cranial cavityCranial cavity – Spinal cavitySpinal cavity
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 26
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 27 Body RegionsBody Regions • Abdominopelvic quadrantsAbdominopelvic quadrants – Right upper quadrantRight upper quadrant – Left upper quadrantLeft upper quadrant – Right lower quadrantRight lower quadrant – Left lower quadrantLeft lower quadrant
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 28
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 29 Body RegionsBody Regions • Abdominal regionsAbdominal regions – Right hypochondriac regionRight hypochondriac region – Epigastric regionEpigastric region – Left hypochondriac regionLeft hypochondriac region – Right lumbar regionRight lumbar region – Umbilical regionUmbilical region – Left lumbar regionLeft lumbar region – Right iliac (inguinal) regionRight iliac (inguinal) region – Hypogastric regionHypogastric region – Left iliac (inguinal) regionLeft iliac (inguinal) region
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 30
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 31 Terms Used in Describing BodyTerms Used in Describing Body StructureStructure • Directional termsDirectional terms – SuperiorSuperior – InferiorInferior – Anterior (ventral)Anterior (ventral) – Posterior (dorsal)Posterior (dorsal) – MedialMedial – LateralLateral – ProximalProximal – DistalDistal – SuperficialSuperficial – DeepDeep
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 32 Terms Used in Describing BodyTerms Used in Describing Body StructureStructure • Superior – towards the headSuperior – towards the head • Inferior – towards the feetInferior – towards the feet • Anterior – frontAnterior – front • Posterior – backPosterior – back • Medial – toward the midlineMedial – toward the midline • Lateral – away from the midlineLateral – away from the midline
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 33 Terms Used in Describing BodyTerms Used in Describing Body StructureStructure • Proximal – toward the nearest point ofProximal – toward the nearest point of attachment or the trunk of the bodyattachment or the trunk of the body • Distal – away or furthest from the point ofDistal – away or furthest from the point of attachment or trunkattachment or trunk • Superficial – nearer the surfaceSuperficial – nearer the surface • Deep – farther from the surfaceDeep – farther from the surface
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 34 Terms Used in Describing BodyTerms Used in Describing Body StructureStructure • Terms related to organsTerms related to organs – Lumen (luminal)Lumen (luminal) – CentralCentral – PeripheralPeripheral – Medullary (medulla)Medullary (medulla) – Cortical (cortex)Cortical (cortex) – Apical (apex)Apical (apex) – Basal (base)Basal (base) • Many directional terms are listed inside the frontMany directional terms are listed inside the front cover of the bookcover of the book
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 35 Body Planes and SectionsBody Planes and Sections • Planes are lines of orientation along which cutsPlanes are lines of orientation along which cuts or sections can be made to divide the body, or aor sections can be made to divide the body, or a body part, into smaller piecesbody part, into smaller pieces
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 36 Body Planes and SectionsBody Planes and Sections • There are three major planes, which lie at right anglesThere are three major planes, which lie at right angles to each other:to each other: – Sagittal plane runs front to back so that sections through thisSagittal plane runs front to back so that sections through this plane divide body (or body part) into right and left sidesplane divide body (or body part) into right and left sides • If section divides body (or part) into symmetrical right and left halves,If section divides body (or part) into symmetrical right and left halves, the plane is called midsagittal or median sagittalthe plane is called midsagittal or median sagittal – Frontal (coronal) plane runs lengthwise (side to side) andFrontal (coronal) plane runs lengthwise (side to side) and divides body (or part) into anterior and posterior portionsdivides body (or part) into anterior and posterior portions • If section divides the body into equal anterior or posterior portions,If section divides the body into equal anterior or posterior portions, the plane is calledthe plane is called midcoronal – Transverse (horizontal) plane is aTransverse (horizontal) plane is a ““crosswisecrosswise”” planeplane——itit divides body (or part) into upper and lower partsdivides body (or part) into upper and lower parts
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 37
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 38
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Body TypesBody Types • Somatotype—category of body build or physiqueSomatotype—category of body build or physique • Endomorph—heavy, rounded physique with accumulationEndomorph—heavy, rounded physique with accumulation of fatof fat – ““Apple-shaped” endomorph has more accumulation ofApple-shaped” endomorph has more accumulation of fat in the waist than hipfat in the waist than hip • Waist-to-hip ratio >0.9 for women and >1.0 for menWaist-to-hip ratio >0.9 for women and >1.0 for men • Higher risk for health problems than “pear shape”Higher risk for health problems than “pear shape” – ““Pear-shaped” endomorph has more accumulation of fatPear-shaped” endomorph has more accumulation of fat in hips than in waistin hips than in waist Slide 39
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Body Type and DiseaseBody Type and Disease (Figure 1-11)(Figure 1-11) • Mesomorph—muscularMesomorph—muscular physiquephysique • Ectomorph—thin, oftenEctomorph—thin, often fragile physiquefragile physique with little fatwith little fat Slide 40
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 41 HomeostasisHomeostasis • Term homeostasis coined by the AmericanTerm homeostasis coined by the American physiologist Walter B. Cannonphysiologist Walter B. Cannon • Homeostasis is the term used to describe theHomeostasis is the term used to describe the relatively constant states maintained by therelatively constant states maintained by the bodies internal environmentbodies internal environment • The body maintains homeostasis throughThe body maintains homeostasis through feedback systemsfeedback systems
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 42
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 43 HomeostasisHomeostasis • Examples of homeostasis:Examples of homeostasis: – Temperature regulationTemperature regulation – Regulation of blood carbon dioxide levelRegulation of blood carbon dioxide level – Regulation of blood glucose levelRegulation of blood glucose level • Body adjusts important variables from a normalBody adjusts important variables from a normal ““set pointset point”” in to get the body back into anin to get the body back into an acceptable or normal range (blood pressure)acceptable or normal range (blood pressure)
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 44 Homeostatic ControlHomeostatic Control MechanismsMechanisms• A homeostatic control mechanism is a device for maintaining or restoringA homeostatic control mechanism is a device for maintaining or restoring homeostasis by self-regulation through feedback control loopshomeostasis by self-regulation through feedback control loops • The basic components of control mechanisms:The basic components of control mechanisms: – Sensory mechanism (receptor)Sensory mechanism (receptor) –– are specific sensors that detect and react toare specific sensors that detect and react to any changes from normalany changes from normal • NerveNerve – Integrating, or control, centerIntegrating, or control, center –– where information is analyzed and integrated,where information is analyzed and integrated, and then, if needed, a specific action is initiatedand then, if needed, a specific action is initiated • CNS or ThyroidCNS or Thyroid – Effector mechanismEffector mechanism——effectors directly influence controlled physiologicaleffectors directly influence controlled physiological variablesvariables • Muscle or glandMuscle or gland – Feedback system - processes information about a variable constantly sendsFeedback system - processes information about a variable constantly sends information back from the sensor to the integrator (control)information back from the sensor to the integrator (control)
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 45 Feedback System Example
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 46
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 47 Homeostatic ControlHomeostatic Control MechanismsMechanisms • Negative feedback control systemNegative feedback control system –– reverses a changereverses a change in a controlled conditionin a controlled condition – Are inhibitoryAre inhibitory – Stabilize physiological variablesStabilize physiological variables – Produce an action that is opposite to the change thatProduce an action that is opposite to the change that activated the systemactivated the system – Are responsible for maintaining homeostasisAre responsible for maintaining homeostasis – Are much more common than positive feedback controlAre much more common than positive feedback control systemssystems – Example: Body Temperature Control or Blood PressureExample: Body Temperature Control or Blood Pressure
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 48 Homeostatic ControlHomeostatic Control MechanismsMechanisms • Positive feedback control systemPositive feedback control system –– the effectorthe effector produces a physiological responses that reinforces theproduces a physiological responses that reinforces the initial change in the controlled conditioninitial change in the controlled condition – Are stimulatoryAre stimulatory – Amplify or reinforce the change that is occurringAmplify or reinforce the change that is occurring – Tend to produce destabilizing effects and disruptTend to produce destabilizing effects and disrupt homeostasishomeostasis – Bring specific body functions to swift completionBring specific body functions to swift completion – Example: Childbirth, Clotting, Immune Response, or SneezeExample: Childbirth, Clotting, Immune Response, or Sneeze
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 49
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 50 Homeostatic ControlHomeostatic Control MechanismsMechanisms • Levels of controlLevels of control – Intracellular controlIntracellular control • Regulation within cellsRegulation within cells • Genes or enzymes can regulate cell processesGenes or enzymes can regulate cell processes – Intrinsic control (autoregulation)Intrinsic control (autoregulation) • Regulation within tissues or organsRegulation within tissues or organs • May involve chemical signalsMay involve chemical signals • May involve otherMay involve other ““built-inbuilt-in”” mechanismsmechanisms – Extrinsic controlExtrinsic control • Regulation from organ to organRegulation from organ to organ • May involve nerve signalsMay involve nerve signals • May involve endocrine signals (hormones)May involve endocrine signals (hormones)
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 51
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 52 • Structure and function of body undergo changesStructure and function of body undergo changes over the early years (developmental processes)over the early years (developmental processes) and late years (aging processes)and late years (aging processes) • Infancy and old age are periods of time whenInfancy and old age are periods of time when the body functions least wellthe body functions least well Cycle of Life:Cycle of Life: Life Span ConsiderationsLife Span Considerations
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 53 Cycle of Life:Cycle of Life: Life Span ConsiderationsLife Span Considerations • Young adulthood is period of greatestYoung adulthood is period of greatest homeostatic efficiencyhomeostatic efficiency • AtrophyAtrophy——term to describe the wasting effectsterm to describe the wasting effects of advancing ageof advancing age
  • Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 54 Questions?Questions?