Chapter 1 – part 2

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Disease Terminology

Disease Terminology

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  • 1. Chapter 1 – Part 2 Anatomy and Physiology
  • 2. Disease Terminology • Pathology- the study of disease. • Diseases are usually diagnosed by signs and symptoms. • Signs/Symptoms- objective abnormalities that can be seen or measured by someone other than the patient. • Syndrome- a collection of different signs and symptoms that occur together.
  • 3. Disease Terminology • Acute- signs and symptoms appear suddenly, persist for a short time and then disappear. • Chronic- signs and symptoms develop slowly and last for a long time. • Subacute- diseases with characteristics somewhere between acute and chronic. • Etiology- the study of all factors involved in causing a disease.
  • 4. Disease Terminology • Idiopathic- diseases with undetermined causes. • Communicable- diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another. • Pathogenesis- a diseases acutal pathern of development. • Incubation- “latent” stage or period where no signs or symptoms of disease are apparent. • Parasite- an organism that lives in or on another organism to obtain nutrients.
  • 5. Disease Terminology • Epidemiology- the study of the occurrence, distribution, and transmission of diseases in human populations. • Endemic- a disease that is native to a local region. • Epidemic- a disease that spreads to many individuals at the same time. • Pandemics- are epidemics that affect large geographic regions.
  • 6. Risk Factors • Other than direct causes or disease mechanisms, certain predisposing conditions may exist that make development of disease more likely to occur. 1. Genetic Factors- there are several types of genetic factors. Inherited factors can sometimes put one at a greater risk than normal for developing disease. - Example: fair skinned people and melanomas, sickle cell anemia in African decents. 2. Age- biological and behavioral variations during different life phases have greater risks for disease. - Example: middle ear infections in infants. 3. Lifestyle- the way we live and work can put us at risk for some diseases. -Example: People who work outside are more likely to get skin cancer.
  • 7. Risk Factors 4. Stress- physical, psychological, and emotional stress can put one at risk for developing problems. -Example: high blood pressure, ulcers 5. Environmental factors- factors such as climate and pollution can actually cause injury or disease. Also some environmental situations simply put us at risk for getting certain diseases. -Example: parasites in tropical climates 6. Microorganisms- different types of pathological organisms (viruses and bacteria) are now suspected of being “infectious cofactors” in the development of certain diseases. -Example: link between hepatitis B and liver cancer. 7. Preexisting conditions- a preexisting condition can adversly affect our capacity to defend ourselves against an entirely different condition or disease. -Example: people with AIDS have a suppressed immune system.
  • 8. Mechanisms for Disease • Pathophysiology- the organized study of underlying physiological processes associated with disease. • Basic mechanisms of disease- disturbances to homeostasis and the body’s responses. 1. Genetic Mechanisms- altered or mutated genes can cause abnormal proteins to be made. These abnormal proteins do not perform their intended function resulting in a lack of essential function. 2. Pathogenic organisms- many important disorders are caused by pathogenic organisms or particles that damage the body in some way. -Prions -Fungi - Viruses -Protozoa -Bacteria -Pathogenic animals
  • 9. Mechanisms of Disease 3. Tumors and Cancer- abnormal tissue growth can cause various pathological disturbances. 4. Physical and Chemical Agents 5. Malnurition- insufficient and imbalanced intake of nutrients causes various disease. 6. Autoimmunity- some diseases result from the immune system attacking one’s own body
  • 10. Mechanisms of Disease 7. Inflammation- the body often responds to disturbances with the inflammatory response. This is a normal mechanism that usually speeds recovery from an infection or injury. When the response occurs in an inappropriate time or for a prolonged amount of time then tissue damage can occur. 8. Degeneration- by means of many still unknown processes, tissues sometimes break apart or degenerate.
  • 11. Body Systems • Communication, Control and Integration – Nervous: Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerves, Sensory Organs – Endocrine: Pituitary gland, adrenals, pancreas, thyroid, other glands • Support and Movement – Integumentary: Skin – Skeletal: Bones, Ligaments – Muscular: Skeletal muscles, tendons
  • 12. Body Systems • Transportation and Defense – Cardiovascular: Heart, arteries, veins, capillaries – Lymphatic: Lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, spleen, thymus, tonsils • Respiration, Nutrition, and Excretion – Respiratory: Lungs, trachea, larynx, nasal cavity – Digestive: Stomach, intestines, esophagus, liver, mouth, pancreas – Urinary: Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra • Reproduction and Development – Reproductive: • Male: Testes, Penis, Prostate • Female: Breasts, Uterus, Vagina, Ovaries