The Monashee Institute -- Community Based Edu Tourism
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    The Monashee Institute -- Community Based Edu Tourism The Monashee Institute -- Community Based Edu Tourism Presentation Transcript

    • Dr. Brian P. White Royal Roads University Building the Southern Gulf Islands Destination
    • Why Tourism Destination Management and Development? • Key ‘cold water island’ issues • Destination Management and Development • Destination organization : getting started • Competitive advantage and comparative advantage • Themed routes and competitive clusters • Community Champions
    • Destination Management and Development is--- ---the envisioning, planning, and implementing of changes to tourism-related infrastructure, services, human resources, and visitor experiences that enhance a destination’s competitive advantage.
    • Sense of Place • What are the qualities of a real place, a distinctive place, a place with its own history, culture, and texture? What qualities give certain places a feeling of character and charisma that makes them worthy of a visitor’s deep engagement and of a citizen’s love? Scott Russell Sanders in Civic Tourism: The Poetry and Politics of Place, 2007
    • “Culture and heritage tourism occurs when participation in a cultural or heritage activity is a significant factor for traveling. … [Cultural tourism includes] performing arts, (theatre, dance, music), visual arts and crafts, festivals, museums and cultural centres, and historic sites and interpretive centres.” Canadian Tourism Commission The Cultural Tourism Lens---
    • Cultural tourism is about telling and selling stories----
    • Some “Cold-water” island issues include: -sustainability of island ecosystems , economies, and societies, • population displacement, • tourism impacts, • gentrification • governance (Warrington & Mill 2007, Gossling & Wall 2007, Connell 2007, Clark et al 2007) Setting the Stage
    • • Competition for scarce water and other natural resources • Land conversion for residential and commercial development • Development of gated communities often driven by retirees • Locals forced to emigrate by rising land and gentrification • Unoccupied investment properties and second homes impact community vitality. (Gossling & Wall 2007) Island Tourism & Environmental Change: Some Key Issues
    • • The Southern Gulf Island’s economy is small business based, particularly focussed on agritourism and arts and crafts, commuting and tele-commuting • The economic downturn impacts retirees, small businesses, and developers focussed on retirement properties • Ferry Schedules and pricing critically impact Island life The Situation---
    • • Land development equated with tourism by some • Islands Trust seen by some as a brake on development • Emergent sustainable tourism economy not supported as a fundamental economic reality by some residents. Some Issues---
    • • Community economies in BC have largely shifted to services - based employment • Rapid changes in global economic conditions means shifts in destination preference • Travel modes and choice of destination experience are changing • The world wide web has redefined competitive advantage and increased awareness of alternative travel experiences
    • Home Space Days Hours Weekends Weeks Months Years Time Number of Trips (interactions) Long distance commuting Day tripping Visits Shopping Commuting Extended working holidays Migration Vacation Educational travel Sojourning Adapted from Hall in Theobald, 2006, p. 466 The Travel, Time and Space Continuum: how people arrive in the Gulf Islands
    • Competitive Advantage in Tourism- Is (based on) specialized factors, which are not inherent but are created by each destination, such as educational systems, technological “know-how”, specialized infrastructure, and other capabilities, which respond to the specific needs of an industry. (Richie and Crouch 2003)
    • Competitive Advantage in Tourism- • Focus on tourism product development, • Destination management organization, • infrastructure that allow access to natural and cultural resources, • availability of long-term capital, • personal security and quality hospitality services, and • sufficient municipal services Key specialized factors
    • Destination Competitive Advantage • Tourism included in Official Community Plans and Economic Development Plans •Sustainable level of financial contribution •Sustainable organizational structure that manages the destination •Focus on support for Travel Generators
    • Building Place, College of the North Atlantic, 2012) The Cultural Tourism Clusters The Arts Human Heritage Natural History Ag/Fishery & Industrial Heritage Cuisine
    • CREATIVE CULTURAL DESTINATION 1. Built Heritage 3.Gastronomy 5. Cultural Exhibitions, Celebrations, Festivals, Events 6. Landscapes & Nature 4. Industrial & Economic Heritage 2. Human Activity (Tangible, Intangible) Creative Cultural Destination Adapted from Fernandez, A.G. et al (2007); S. Thorne (2009); and Lord & Lord (1997). MARKETING PARTNERSHIPS CULTURAL CHAMPION & TEAM RESOURCES (Human, Financial)
    • Step 1: Inventory assets at their own destination. Step 2: Place assets into Cultural Tourism Evaluation (CTE) Framework Step 3: Critically Evaluate/Analyze strengths and elements to build on potential themed route. What needs work? Step 4: Propose Themed Routes, based on either: a) strengths, and/or b) elements that need to be built/highlighted. Building Place, College of the North Atlantic, 2012) STEPS TO BUILDING The Creative Cultural Destination
    • The Destination Development Process in Building Place--- STEP 1 On-site Inventory Step 1: Inventory assets at their own destination. Building Place, College of the North Atlantic, 2012)
    • STEP 2 Step 2: Place assets into Cultural Tourism Evaluation (CTE) Framework • The lead category • The supporting category • The sustaining category Building Place, College of the North Atlantic, 2012)
    • STEP 3 Destination Typology Step 3: Critically Evaluate/Analyze strengths and elements to build on potential themed route. What needs work? Building Place, College of the North Atlantic, 2012)
    • STEP 4 Themed Routes Step 4: Propose Themed Routes, based on either: a) strengths, and/or b) b) elements that need to be built/highlighted. Building Place, College of the North Atlantic, 2012
    • Hardy’s 10 Principles for developing themed routes---- (Hardy, 2003, p. 326) Themed Routes---- 1. Route and/or place developed as an integrated attraction 2. The route is marketable 3. Efficient promotion 4. Involvement from many stakeholders 5. Promotion material based on visitor needs 6. Route clearly signed
    • 7. Attractions reflect local culture, with quality service 8. Principles of interpretation applied resulting in enjoyable thematic interpretation 9. Price of visitor’s route experience cost effective 10. Route sustainability ensured by protection of natural and cultural assets.
    • The Competitive Cluster Approach • A strategic set of activities and services organized as an effective tourism supply chain. • The core of the “cluster” is the comparative advantage represented by a destination’s unique characteristics and interpretive programming. • The competitive cluster links all the complementary visitor services and attractions in a destination area. (after Hawkins, 2003)
    • Attractions and eventsTourism Corridor- land, water Agri-tourism culinary, wine, art, FN, spa tourism opportunities Hotels B&Bs restaurants Air/land /water access Unique or exceptional scenic values Gateway city/town The travel experience and the destination competitive cluster Destination Visitor information Services
    • Attractions and events Access emerging markets Agri-tourism , garden, culinary, FN, wine, spa tourism, etc. Hotels B&Bs restaurants Increase market share Destination Internet portal/ information services Municipal and regional governments Provincial and Federal government policies and strategies Structure of a tourist destination’s competitive cluster Community Champions: supporting individuals and community agencies Common vision, programs, marketing plan, leadership
    • Do any of these twelve tourism responses for local government apply here? 1. Municipal and Regional District Committees 2. Contract for services 3. Incorporate Tourism in the Strategic Plan 4. Official Community Plan 5. Economic Development Plan 6. Five Year Financial Plan and Capital plan 7. % of business tax to destination development 8. Hotel Tax (HST---?) 9. Business Improvement Areas 10. Revitalization Areas (modest tax exemption) 11. Municipal Facilities & Services 12. Grants, sponsorship, project funding ( adapted from Richie and Crouch, 2003)
    • Getting Started: what would work best for the Southern Gulf Islands? Building community tourism capacity: What partnerships? What organizational structure is needed to start tourism destination planning?
    • Success stories require: – solid vision – strong leadership – effective partnerships – adequate financing – ability to provide what visitors want – understanding of how the industry functions
    • Identifying Champions • Look for supportive, like-minded people who can help • They may be… – Business people, retired or not – Spark plugs – forward thinking initiators who make things happen – People behind community accomplishments/events – High-profile people associated with volunteer sectors – Artists/craftspeople – Drivers of service and sports clubs – New community members, e.g., immigrants
    • Tourism Champions come first--- • Providing inspiration, leadership and initiative • Encouraging strategic thinking • Identifying resources • Organizing meetings • Connecting local leaders and politicians • Promoting the value of tourism
    • Building Community Support Champions help community members understand tourism’s value by: • helping to identify tourism needs and opportunities • encouraging the community to support a tourism planning committee/task force • accessing and distributing information • encouraging council or governance boards to look at the value of tourism • drawing upon outside resources and expertise
    • References: B Whyte, T. Hood, and B White, (2013) Cultural and Heritage Tourism: A Handbook for Community Champions. Link BC Baldecchino, Godfrey, (ed.)A World of Islands (2007) Media Centre Publications, Malta •Clark, Eric, K. Johnson, E. Lundholm, & G. Malmberg (2007) Island Gentrification and Space Wars (in) Baldecchino, (2007) •College of the North Atlantic: (2012) Building Place •Gossling, Steven, & G. Wall (2007) Island Tourism (in) Baldecchino, (2007) A world of Islands •Hall, Michael, (2006) in Theobald, (2006), Global Tourism •Richie and Crouch, (2003) The Competitive Destination.
    • Thank You! “A Great Place to Live is a Great Place to Visit”