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Mapping Information Educator\'s Resource
1. Mapping Information BIOBLITZ EducaTOr’s rEsOurcE © 2009 National Geographic Society; Educators may reproduce for students.
Mapping Information > 2 Introduction In the wild, organisms depend on their habitat to provide food, water, shelter, and other requirements for survival. Scientists studying wildlife use geographic data to record the location of critical resources, search for species, record places species are found, and analyze correlations to identify underlying patterns. Information about where species live, and their habitat use, is critical to preserving and protecting Earth’s biodiversity. KEy QuEsTIOns: › What is a map? › What elements make it useful? › How are maps used in wildlife research? › How do you make a map? WhaT’s InsIdE Guided Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Supplemental Media . . . . . . . . . . 4 © 2009 National Geographic Society; Educators may reproduce for students. Lab Activity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Student Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . 7 Dr. Lisa Dabek, a National Geographic grantee, is tracking Matschie’s tree kangaroos in Papua New Guinea. Maps such as this one, showing Outline for Guided Discussion . . 9 home range areas, are helping protect the habitat of this endangered species. bioblitz > mapping information nationalgeographic.com/bioblitz
Guided discussion/PowerPoint > 3 Guided discussion/PowerPoint Instructional strategy: Introduce a definition of a map, then Large-group Instruction; Multimedia Instruction; Discussions 30-45 min consider some examples. Next, review Materials/Preparation: common map elements and learn about • Go to nationalgeographic.com/bioblitz to download biologists who use mapping as part of Mapping Information in PowerPoint format. their research. Conclude with a review • See Outline for Guided Discussion, p. 9, for a preview of slides and teaching notes. Use this of the steps students can take to make as a reference during the Guided Discussion. their own maps. Optional: • Incorporate video segments on wildlife research into the discussion. See Supplemental Media, p. 4, for details. © 2009 National Geographic Society; Educators may reproduce for students. Turn to p. 9 for complete outline. bioblitz > mapping information nationalgeographic.com/bioblitz
supplemental Media > 4 supplemental Media: Wild chronicles Available online at nationalgeographic.com/bioblitz-video. Video segments from National Geographic’s Wild Chronicles are an engaging way to show students pioneering wildlife research from around the planet. Segments can be viewed as an independent activity or incorporated into the Guided Discussion. › cheetahs are Back in Town › Where do Whale sharks Go? Researchers at South Africa’s Mountain Zebra Whale sharks, among the National Park are using GPS collars to monitor largest creatures on the Batman and Robin, a pair of cheetahs that planet, are often spotted at have been enlisted to help restore the natural Ningaloo Reef in Western predator-prey balance. Time: 4:36 Australia. National Geographic Emerging Explorer Brad Norman is analyzing imagery and › Into the Trees with Kangas GPS data to learn where whale sharks go once Radio collars are helping National Geographic they leave the safety of the reef. Time: 6:31 grantee Dr. Lisa Dabek and team track the elusive Matschie’s tree kangaroo. These obser- dIscussIOn vations offer new insights into tree kangaroo location, range and habitat use—and may help • What question save this endangered species. Time: 5:48 or issue is the re searcher investigating? › Whale Tracking • What challenges Researchers are tagging humpback whales to does the research er face? gain a clearer picture of their underwater habits • What tools are researchers usin and foraging strategies. The data collected is g to gather geospatial data? used to redirect water traffic and implement safer fishing practices to keep these whales out • What impact m ight the research have? of harms’ way. Time: 4:30 credits contributors/consultants design The resource was produced by National Geographic Education Programs. © 2009 National Geographic Appalachian Highlands Science Learning Center, Project Design Company: Dan Banks, Art Director, Society. All Rights Reserved. Educators may GSMNP—Susan Sachs; Census of Marine Life— Kerri Sarembock, Designer © 2009 National Geographic Society; Educators may reproduce for students. reproduce for students. Darlene Trew Crist; Discover Life in America— Image credits Todd P. Witcher; Duke University Marine Lab— p.2, Russel A. Mittermeier, photo; Gabriel Porolak, content development Ari Friedlander, Caroline Good; Duke University map; p. 4, Brad Norman; p.5, Mason Weinrich/ NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC EDUCATION PROGRAMS Nicholas School of the Environment—Ben Whale Center of New England, photo; Colin Ware/ Donnelly, Ei Fujicka, Dr. Patrick Halpin; ECOCEAN— Kim Hulse, Director, Geography Education University of New Hampshire, animation still; p. 7 Dr. Brad Norman; Indiana Dunes Environmental Amy Grossman, Manager, Educational Media © Brian J. Skerry/National Geographic Images Learning Center—Brian Forist; Indiana Dunes Leslie Ann Pierce, Ed.D., National Lakeshore—Kimberly Swift; Michigan Science Education Consultant State University, Department of Entomology— Andy Conlin, Kristin Dell, Ivey Wohlfeld, Researchers David Cappaert; Snow Leopard Trust—Dr. Tom McCarthy, Jennifer Snell Rullman; Woodland Park Chelsea Zillmer, Copyeditor Zoo/Tree Kangaroo Conservation Program—Dr. Lisa Dabek, Gabriel Porolak, Susan O’Neil bioblitz > mapping information nationalgeographic.com/bioblitz
Lab activity > 5 Lab activity: north atlantic right Whales— conflict and conservation Instructional strategy: • “Whale Tracking” from Wild Chronicles, available at Small-group or Large-group Instruction 20-30 min nationalgeographic.com/bioblitz- introduction 20 min activity video (see Supplemental Media, p. 4) Materials/Preparation: 20 min discussion • Copies of data and map worksheets, • “Right Whales—On the Brink, On p. 7-8, one set per student or the Rebound,” available at National workgroup Geographic Magazine Online, ngm. • Rulers; colored pens, pencils, nationalgeographic.com/1008/10/ or markers right-whales/Chadwick-test dIrEcTIOns 1. Introduce key issues. Have students read the National Geographic article and/or watch the Wild Chronicles video segment (see Materials, above) to become familiar with critical issues facing whales today. While the article focuses on right whales and the video focuses on humpback whales, either resource is relevant to the activity as there are many common issues. 2. reflect and discuss. Ask students to reflect on what they learned. Answers will vary, depending on the resource. Possible discussion prompts: What are some threats facing whales today? Threats include ship strikes, entanglement in fishing lines, chemical and noise pollution. What are scientists and volunteers doing to help conserve and protect right whales? A range of high- and low-tech efforts includes photography, geo-tagging, DNA analysis, land and air surveillance, acoustic buoys, and an Early Warning System to alert ship captains. 3. distribute worksheets, review activity. Explain that students will be mapping data collected by right whale researchers and analyzing the results. Familiarize students with the data and base map, introducing © 2009 National Geographic Society; Educators may reproduce for students. components such as: North Atlantic Right Whale Adult and Calf Deaths—this data set indicates the location of adult and calf deaths A researcher positions a DTAG (Digital Acoustic Recording Tag) on a reported in this area between 2004-2007. humpback whale to record sounds and measure underwater behaviors and movements (top). A computer animation based on data recorded by Right Whale Auto-Detection Buoys—this data set indicates the tag reveals patterns never before seen or analyzed (bottom). the location of acoustic buoys used to detect the presence and location of whales. A relay system alerts ship captains to slow down or divert in order to avoid a ship strike. continued > bioblitz > mapping information nationalgeographic.com/bioblitz
Lab activity > 6 3. One way to reduce ship strikes and whale deaths Shipping Lanes, Major Ports, Right Whale Seasonal Management Area—Shipping lanes to and from major is to relocate shipping lanes that are used for ports help regulate ship traffic within a seasonal transportation, fishing, and the import and export of management area. commercial goods. What factors or impacts would need to be considered as part of such a proposal? Factors to Grid System—a coordinate system that uses latitude consider might include economic impacts such as higher and longitude measurements to locate points on transportation or energy costs; transportation delays; the Earth’s surface. In the data sets, latitude and environmental impacts if other ports would need to be longitude are indicated in decimal degrees. On the expanded or if new ports are needed. map, each hash mark equals one-tenth of a degree. 5. Wrap-up. Ask students to think about research they 4. complete activity, share, and discuss. Give students would conduct to help save right whales. Explain time to complete the activity. Then, ask students to that scientific data has helped lead to shipping lane share their maps and discuss the questions on the data changes, reduced ship speed requirements, and worksheet (included below): modifications to fixed fishing gear. 1. A calving ground is an area where whales give birth ouRces AdditionAl Res and care for their young. Based on the ratio of adult to calf mortalities, could there be a calving ground in right Whale research this area? The ratio of calf to adult deaths is two to one, new England aquarium cts/ ion_and_research/proje indicating a concentration of calves in this area. www.neaq.org/conservat earch/ abitats/right_whale_res endangered_species_h 2. Look at the location of these factors: (a) Right ex.php right_whale_projects/ind Whale Auto-Detection Buoys; (b) shipping lanes; and Protected resources: nOaa Fisheries Office of (c) right whale adult and calf deaths. Where would you ales north atlantic right Wh place more buoys to prevent whale deaths and why? ans/ pecies/mammals/cetace www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/s Additional buoys could be placed near active shipping htm rightwhale_northatlantic. ports such as Fernandina Beach and Brunswick. Protected resources: nOaa Fisheries Office of answer Key ship strike reduction trike www.nero.noaa.gov/ships m ale consortiu north atlantic right Wh www.rightwhaleweb.org twork right Whale Listening ne es.org www.listenforwhal Whalenet /Welcome.html http://whale.wheelock.edu © 2009 National Geographic Society; Educators may reproduce for students. l Adult Death s Calf Death H Buoy This activity was developed in collaboration with Christopher Tremblay, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology Bioacoustics Research Program; and Jennifer Cutraro, Amy Knowlton, and Kerry Lagueux, New England Aquarium Departments of Research and Education. Cartography: Kerry Laguex. bioblitz > mapping information nationalgeographic.com/bioblitz
data Worksheet north atlantic right Whales—conflict and conservation North Atlantic right whales are on the edge of extinction and scientists believe research can help save this species. They are collecting geographic data to identify ways to reduce ship strikes, the leading cause of injury and death to right whales. What can be learned when this data is mapped? dIrEcTIOns sTEP 1. Map Information. Experts have recorded the location of calf deaths, adult deaths, and buoys near the coast of Florida and Georgia. Use the latitude and longitude points in each chart (right) to map these locations. Map all the points on the same map. Before you make your map, think about the following: • Will you use symbols or color to represent different data sets? What symbols? What colors? © Brian J. Sk erry/Nationa l Geographic Images • Most maps include elements such as date, orientation, scale, title, author, source, and legend. Look to see A North Atlantic right whale and calf. Researchers estimate there are only 300-400 right whales alive today. if these are included and add them, if missing. right Whale deaths near Florida, 2004-2007 sTEP 2. Interpreting Information. After you have mapped the Calves Adults data, analyze your map to answer these questions. Latitude Longitude Latitude Longitude 1. A calving ground is an area where whales give birth 30.6˚ N 81.5˚ W 30.9˚ N 81.1 W and care for their young. Based on the ratio of adult to 30.3˚ N 81.1˚ W 31.0˚ N 81.1˚ W calf mortalities, could there be a calving ground in this 30.4˚ N 81.4˚ W area? Form a hypothesis based on patterns you see. 30.3˚ N 81.4˚ W 2. Look at the location of these factors: (a) Right Whale Auto-Detection Buoys; (b) shipping lanes; and (c) right whale adult and calf deaths. Where would you place © 2009 National Geographic Society; Educators may reproduce for students. right Whale auto-detection Buoys more buoys to prevent whale deaths and why? Buoys 3. One way to reduce ship strikes and whale deaths is to relocate shipping lanes that are used for Latitude Longitude Sources—Whale Death Data: Amy transportation, fishing, and the import and export of Knowlton, New England Aquarium; 30.4˚ N 81.2˚ W commercial goods. What factors or impacts would Buoy Locations: Christopher Tremblay, Cornell Bioacoustics need to be considered as part of such a proposal? 30.3˚ N 81.3˚ W Research Program bioblitz > mapping information nationalgeographic.com/bioblitz
Map Worksheet Title author / / source Today’s date © 2009 National Geographic Society; Educators may reproduce for students. LEGEnd __________________________ Major Ports __________________________ Shipping Lanes __________________________ bioblitz > mapping information nationalgeographic.com/bioblitz
Outline for Guided discussion > 9 Go to nationalgeographic.com/bioblitz to download Outline for Guided discussion Mapping Information, in PowerPoint format. Slide # Slide Notes Start Presentation. 1 Have students identify the resources they use at school, such as food, water, books, computers, lockers, classrooms, and washrooms-- and where they are located. Use a whiteboard to sketch a map. 2 If you have time, use a different color marker to map re- sources utilized by teachers. 3 © 2009 National Geographic Society; Educators may reproduce for students. 4 bioblitz > mapping information nationalgeographic.com/bioblitz
Outline for Guided discussion > 10 Outline for Guided discussion Slide # Slide Notes 5 Ask students to consider the question for each image and explain why they think each image is a map or not. Though these images depict areas of vastly varying sizes, all are graphic and all represent an area, physical or conceptual. 6 For more information about elephant seal research, see “Shore Leave,” in National Geographic (November 2008)), available online at http://ngm.nationalgeographic. com/2008/11/elephant-seals/casey-text 7 Ask one or more students to come up to the map and identify elements that make a map useful such as the names of landmasses or bodies of water. © 2009 National Geographic Society; Educators may reproduce for students. 8 Other elements on this map include a title; the author/ source; latitude and longitude; place names; physical geog- raphy (land cover). bioblitz > mapping information nationalgeographic.com/bioblitz
Outline for Guided discussion > 11 Outline for Guided discussion Slide # Slide Notes Date= When the map was made Orientation= Direction (north arrow) Scale= Map distance Title= What, where, and when 9 Author/Source = who made the map Legend = what the symbols mean Ask students to identify different elements (see below). Note some while maps include all elements, others do not. Maps missing key elements are still useful, but people using these maps should be aware of what is or is not included. Ele- 10 ments: Date= When the map was made; Orientation= Direc- tion (north arrow); Scale= Map distance; Title= What, where, and when; Author/Source = Who made the map; Legend = What the symbols mean. Several research projects are profiled in this next section. For each project there is an introductory slide and then a slide with a map. 11 © 2009 National Geographic Society; Educators may reproduce for students. 12 bioblitz > mapping information nationalgeographic.com/bioblitz
Outline for Guided discussion > 12 Outline for Guided discussion Slide # Slide Notes For more information, see The Snow Leopard Trust, www.snowleopard.org 13 The red dots mark the path of a satellite-tracked snow leop- ard. This research indicates that the range of snow leopards is two to four times greater than previously estimated. 14 For more information see “Out of the Shadows,” in National Geographic (June 2008) or visit the Snow Leopard Trust, www. snowleopard.org Whale sharks can grow up to 40 feet, apprximately the length of a bus. Norman’s team identifies individual whale sharks using a computer program developed by NASA to help iden- tify star patterns. 15 Option: Watch “Where Do Whale Sharks Go?”. See Mapping 16 Information Educator’s Resource, p. 4 or go to nationalgeo- graphic.com/bioblitz-video. © 2009 National Geographic Society; Educators may reproduce for students. For more information about this research visit Ecocean, whaleshark.org. bioblitz > mapping information nationalgeographic.com/bioblitz
Outline for Guided discussion > 13 Outline for Guided discussion Slide # Slide Notes To study the insect’s biology, scientists look beneath the bark of infested ash trees to study the borer galleries that block nutrient movement and kill trees. 17 18 Option: Watch “Into the Trees with Kangas.” See Mapping Information Educator’s Resource, p. 4 or go to nationalgeo- graphic.com/bioblitz-video. 19 For more information about this research visit the Tree Kangaroo Conservation Project, www.zoo.org/conservation/ treeroo.html This map shows shows how much space each female tree kangaroo uses in the cloud forest research area, and how little or how much these animals overlap. This research is © 2009 National Geographic Society; Educators may reproduce for students. increasing scientific knowledge of tree kangaroo biology and 20 ecology and helps manage a new conservation area in Papua New Guinea. bioblitz > mapping information nationalgeographic.com/bioblitz
Outline for Guided discussion > 14 Outline for Guided discussion Slide # Slide Notes 21 22 Review with students, citing examples from the presentation and discussion, if helpful. 23 Brainstorm resources such as the library and Internet. © 2009 National Geographic Society; Educators may reproduce for students. 24 bioblitz > mapping information nationalgeographic.com/bioblitz
Outline for Guided discussion > 15 Outline for Guided discussion Slide # Slide Notes 25 26 27 © 2009 National Geographic Society; Educators may reproduce for students. 28 bioblitz > mapping information nationalgeographic.com/bioblitz
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