World of Wheat Science
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World of Wheat Science

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Short teaching power point to accompany upper grade school/middle school lessons on making yeast breads and "bread in a bag".

Short teaching power point to accompany upper grade school/middle school lessons on making yeast breads and "bread in a bag".

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  • 1. Know how. Know now. The World of Wheat Science Amy Peterson MS RD Extension Educator University of Nebraska Lincoln Extension Polk County 1
  • 2. Yeast bread dates back to around 1,000 B.C. in ancient Egypt. SOURCE: http://www.ehow.com/about_5333674_history-cinnamon-rolls.html
  • 3. Water Flour Oil Salt Yeast Sugar 3
  • 4. Flour Facts Flour is the main producer of gluten in baked goods. Gluten gives strength and structure to bread. Without gluten baked goods would not have the strength to hold together. 4
  • 5. Water Water is needed to form the gluten and give the dough consistency. It is helps with the like sugar and enzymes that are needed for the fermentation. It helps mix the ingredients together, and works with the starch. 5
  • 6. Oil in Bread Fats and Oils are added to breads to improve flavor and provide a moist texture and rich taste. Butter, margarine, shortening, nut, olive and vegetable oils add flavor and make bread tender and moist. They slow moisture loss, helping bread stay fresh longer and also help dough rise and increase volume. 6
  • 7. Salt provides several purposes in yeasted breads. The most "tangiible" of course is taste. Salt also contributes to the chemical bonds in gluten: in essence, it "strengthens" the gluten network or fabric. It also slightly retards the activity of yeast. 7
  • 8. Sugarcane originates from what is now called New Guinea. Sugarcane was first cultivated in the United States in the 18th century and the first refinery was built in New York in 1689. Where do we get our sugar from now? SOURCE: http://www.ehow.com/about_5333674_history-cinnamon-rolls.html 8
  • 9. Sugar – sucrose – is a carbohydrate that is present naturally in fruits and vegetables. Of all known plants, sugar is most highly concentrated in sugar beets and sugar cane. Sugar is simply separated from the beet or cane plant, and the result is 99.95% pure sucrose (sugar). The sucrose from sugar beets and sugar cane is not only identical to one another, but each is the same as the sucrose present in fruits and vegetables. SOURCE: www.sugar.org The Sugar Association 9 Sugar Beets Sugar Cane
  • 10. Is It ALIVE????     Yeast is a living substance that is in the air, on the leaves of trees, in their bark, in the skin of fruits, and in the soil. In baking, we use a cultivated yeast that is dehydrated. Dissolving it in warm water brings it back to…. LIFE Yeast then feeds off the flour to give off carbon dioxide and alcohol that makes the dough swell and rise. 10
  • 11. Things to Know About Leavening  Yeast breads use YEAST as a leavening agent.  Yeast needs warmth, food and moisture to grow.  Small amounts of sugar speeds the activity of yeast. (too much sugar will inhibit yeast activity)  Salt inhibits the speed of yeast activity. 11
  • 12. YEAST BREADS Temperature and Yeast  50 degrees- yeast begins to activate  78-82 degrees- yeast produces the most gas  120 degrees- yeast begins to die  143 degrees- yeast is useless for baking. 12
  • 13. KNEADING DOUGH  Kneading dough develops gluten to give the dough shape and structure.  Gluten is a protein in flour.  You only want to stir/mix quick breads a little to form a small amount of gluten  You want to stir/mix (knead) yeast breads a lot to form a large amount of gluten. 13
  • 14. KNEADING DOUGH  You may knead bread by hand or with your dough hook on the electric mixer.  Kneading dough by hand:  Fold  Push  Turn  Repeat Click on the picture to show a video on how to knead. 14
  • 15. YEAST BREAD BAKING BASICS On a piece of paper in your binder/notebook, answer the following questions for review: 1. Why is it important for the water to be the correct temperature to mix yeast? 2. What do fats do in yeast breads? 3. Name 2 types of flour available for making bread? 4. What does kneading do for the bread? 5. How can you tell if you have kneaded bread long enough? 6. What purpose does sugar serve to yeast bread? 7. How do I know if a loaf of bread is done? 15
  • 16. YEAST BREAD BAKING BASICS ANSWERS 1. Why is it important for the water to be the correct temperature to mix yeast? Yeast is a living organism and if the water is too hot it will kill the yeast and the dough will not rise. 2. What do fats do in yeast breads? Fats make breads soft and tender. 16
  • 17. 3. Name 2 types of flour available for making bread? Rye, soy, whole wheat, rice, all-purpose, bread flour. 4. What does kneading do for the bread? It forms gluten. It makes the dough smooth and elastic. 17
  • 18. 5. How can you tell if you have kneaded bread long enough? When an indentation in the center of the bread stays in place. It is smooth and elastic. 6. What purpose does sugar serve to yeast bread? - Sugar acts as food for the yeast. 7. How do I know if a loaf of bread is done? -When you knock on the loaf it sounds hollow. 18
  • 19. Bread in a Bag  2 cups white flour  1 cup whole wheat flour  1 cup hot water  1 package yeast  3 tablespoons sugar  3 tablespoons Nonfat Dry Milk  2 teaspoons Salt  3 tablespoons Oil 19
  • 20. Here's what you have to do: 1. First, wash your hands. 2. Pre-heat your oven to 375 degrees. If you're not allowed to use an oven, make sure to ask an adult to help you. 3. Mix 1 cup of white flour, the packet of yeast, 3 tablespoons sugar and 1 cup hot water in the sealable plastic bag. 4. Let most of the air out of the bag, close it, and smoosh the bag with your fingers to mix the ingredients. 20
  • 21. 5. After about 10 minutes, the mixture will start to bubble as the yeast makes carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide produced by the yeast will make bubbles in the bread dough, making it bigger and fluffier. The bag will also expand. 6. While you're waiting for the yeast mixture to bubble, in a separate bowl, mix together 3 tablespoons nonfat dry milk, 1 cup of whole wheat flour, 2 teaspoons of salt, and 3 tablespoons of oil. 21
  • 22. 7. Open the bag and add the ingredients. 8. Let most of the air out of the bag, seal it closed and smoosh the bag some more to mix everything together until it's pretty smooth. 9. Open the bag and add the other cup of white flour. 10. Reseal the bag and smoosh again until smooth, about one to two minutes. 22
  • 23. 11. Take the dough out of the bag and knead it for another minute on a floured surface. You might have to put some extra flour on your hands. Kneading makes the dough stretchy so it keeps its shape and gets a nice chewy texture. 12. When the dough looks smooth and kind of stretchy, it shouldn't stick to your hands anymore. 13. Now put the dough into a greased loaf pan, cover it loosely with plastic wrap and let it rise for about 30 minutes. 23
  • 24. 14. When the dough has risen, put it in the oven. Be sure to remove the plastic wrap. 15. After about 35 minutes, it should look golden brown. 16. Use an oven mitt to take it out of the oven and let it cool. 17. Bon Appetit! 24
  • 25. Questions?
  • 26. Know how. Know now. The World of Wheat Science Amy Peterson MS RD Extension Educator University of Nebraska Lincoln Extension Polk County 26