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  1. 1. A M Y E D M O N D S P R O J E C T P R O P O S A L E D U C 5 5 0 9 I N T E R V E N T I O N S F O R L E A R N I N G Year 7 self-efficacy when using age-appropriate ICT to address conceptual understanding of fractions.
  2. 2. ResearchQuestion How effective is the use of age- appropriate ICT to improve Year 7 self-efficacy with regards to their conceptual understanding of fractions?
  3. 3. Literature Review  Self-efficacy  Self-efficacy refers to a belief about one’s own competence to “perform a specific task” (Pajares, 1997)  Successes improve self-efficacy and failures lower self-efficacy (Woolfolk & Margetts, 2010)  Student interviews allow quiet students to express their confusions or demonstrate understanding (Clarke, Roche & Mitchell, 2008)  Generally, studies of self-efficacy and attitudes towards mathematics have focused on themes of excitement, engagement and interest. Others have introduced the concept of anxiety and tests such as the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scale have combined all of the above (Chamberlin, 2010)
  4. 4. Statement of the issue: This project aims to analyse the influence of age- appropriate ICT on Year 7 students’ self-efficacy with regards to mathematics. This study will investigate how ICT can influence students’ feelings of success, independence and capability within structured mathematics sessions that focus on fractions. Additionally, it will use self-reporting measures to explore whether ICT based activities are engaging, exciting and age-appropriate for the Year 7 students who are covering remedial numeracy concepts.
  5. 5. Literature Review cont.  Fractions  One of the most difficult mathematical concepts to learn (Lamon, 2007)  Current curriculum does not adequately support student learning of fractions (Bobis, 2011)  Children encounter problems with fractions when they cannot connect various representations (Clarke, Roche & Mitchell, 2008) – My study aims to see if ICT can provide multiple representations and allow the students to draw conclusions between them.  Use of ICT  Many studies have investigated self-efficacy and ICT but rarely in terms of how ICT can improve subject-specific self-efficacy.  Effective teaching sessions allow for reflection on experiences (Simon, 2006).
  6. 6. Six Year 7 students from an Independent Primary School.  Three male students.  Two with diagnosed dyslexia.  Use humour to deflect insecurities.  The third male student has missed a significant portion of Upper Primary education due to a death in the family.  All interested in ICT.  Three female students.  Quiet, low risk taking abilities and unlikely to offer their opinions in class.  Apprehensive when presented with new challenges in literacy and numeracy areas.  Experience anxiety. Participants
  7. 7. Intervention  10 day intervention at the school.  Regular, small group sessions:  Interactive online games.  Explicit teaching.  Laptops, SmartBoard, iPads.  Some independent (boys)  Some group work (girls)  Overarching project: Blog.  Mathematics focus:  Fraction equivalence  Fractions as a quantity  Four basic operations: +, -, x, ÷
  8. 8. Students Teachers/Other  Self-efficacy levels: Interviews, online questionnaires (conducted pre and post intervention).  Effectiveness of ICT: Interviews.  General mathematical knowledge: Test completed pre and post intervention.  Teacher interviews on student attitudes.  Anecdotal observations of student engagement with the ICT activities.  Blog work samples. Data Collection
  9. 9. Data Analysis  Draw conclusions from student interviews.  Will show any self-reported change in attitudes towards mathematics.  Reflection on anecdotal notes taken during the intervention.  Comparison of the questionnaires.  Will show any changes in self-efficacy levels.  Comparison of the pre and post test results.  Will show any changes in mathematical knowledge/understanding of fractions.
  10. 10. Ethical Considerations  General:  Pseudonyms used for all identifying details.  Data collected will remain strictly confidential.  Classroom teacher/Principal:  Sighted all forms sent home.  Have been given a copy of all information.  Parents:  Information and consent forms.  Encouraged to voice any concerns/queries.  Students:  Information and consent forms.  Briefed by classroom teacher.  Free to withdraw at any time.  Permission will be asked if any interviews are to be recorded or work samples copied.
  11. 11. References  Bobis, J. (2011). Fractions: Best evidence and its implications for practice. In J. Way, & J. Bobis (Eds.), Fractions: Teaching for understanding. Adelaide, Australia: The Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers Inc.  Chamberlin, S. (2010). A review of instruments created to assess affect in mathematics. Journal of mathematics education, 3(1), 167-182.  Clarke, D., Mitchell, A., & Roche. A. (2008). Student one-to-one assessment interviews in mathematics: A powerful tool for teachers. Mathematics: Celebrating achievement, 66-80.  Lamon, S. (2007). Rational numbers and proportional reasoning: Towards a theoretical framework for research. In J. Way & J. Bobis. (Eds.), Fractions: Teaching for understanding. Adelaide, Australia: The Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers Inc.  Pajares, F. (1997). Current directions in self-efficacy research. Advances in motivation and achievement, 10(149).  Simon, M. (2006). Key developmental understandings in mathematics: A direction for investigating and establishing learning goals. Mathematical thinking and learning, 8(4), 359- 371.  Woolfolk, A., & Margetts, K. (2010). Educational psychology (2nd ed.) Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia.