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Gamification Workshop 2010

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Think Like a Game Designer

Think Like a Game Designer


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  • Using game mechanics to drive desired behavior IS NOT THE SAME as taking someone on a journey towards mastery – once you understand the journey your player is on, you can support that with game design – which INCLUDES but is not focused around game mechanics
  • Using game mechanics to drive desired behavior IS NOT THE SAME as taking someone on a journey towards mastery – once you understand the journey your player is on, you can support that with game design – which INCLUDES but is not focused around game mechanics
  • Using game mechanics to drive desired behavior IS NOT THE SAME as taking someone on a journey towards mastery – once you understand the journey your player is on, you can support that with game design – which INCLUDES but is not focused around game mechanics
  • A less obvious - but even more interesting - social rating system is Flickr’s measure of “interestingness” -- this is a cumulative measure of people’s viewing and tagging and commenting behavior within the site. This is an “emergent” form of social points - and it allows Flickr to identity and reward photographers who create art that Flickr users collectively find interesting. What’s exciting about this rating system is that it INFERS points, based on existing behavior. So ask yourself - is there something similar in the applications that I’m currently working on?
  • A less obvious - but even more interesting - social rating system is Flickr’s measure of “interestingness” -- this is a cumulative measure of people’s viewing and tagging and commenting behavior within the site. This is an “emergent” form of social points - and it allows Flickr to identity and reward photographers who create art that Flickr users collectively find interesting. What’s exciting about this rating system is that it INFERS points, based on existing behavior. So ask yourself - is there something similar in the applications that I’m currently working on?
  • Leaderboards can be a double-edged sword. Wherever you see LeaderBoards for user ratings, You’ll inevitably see people begging others to “vote for me” - but you’ll also see people who are motivated to put their best foot forward - to upload their best videos, and their most “attractive” photos.
  • Back when I studied Psychology, the most memorable and useful thing I learned was the “one-armed bandit” schedule of reinforcement. Which you can see here, in red. The essence is this: if you give random, sizeable rewards for user actions (e.g. how a slot machine works), you will get an addictive behavior pattern - in mice, in pigeons, or in humans.
  • Back when I studied Psychology, the most memorable and useful thing I learned was the “one-armed bandit” schedule of reinforcement. Which you can see here, in red. The essence is this: if you give random, sizeable rewards for user actions (e.g. how a slot machine works), you will get an addictive behavior pattern - in mice, in pigeons, or in humans.
  • Back when I studied Psychology, the most memorable and useful thing I learned was the “one-armed bandit” schedule of reinforcement. Which you can see here, in red. The essence is this: if you give random, sizeable rewards for user actions (e.g. how a slot machine works), you will get an addictive behavior pattern - in mice, in pigeons, or in humans.
  • Back when I studied Psychology, the most memorable and useful thing I learned was the “one-armed bandit” schedule of reinforcement. Which you can see here, in red. The essence is this: if you give random, sizeable rewards for user actions (e.g. how a slot machine works), you will get an addictive behavior pattern - in mice, in pigeons, or in humans.
  • Back when I studied Psychology, the most memorable and useful thing I learned was the “one-armed bandit” schedule of reinforcement. Which you can see here, in red. The essence is this: if you give random, sizeable rewards for user actions (e.g. how a slot machine works), you will get an addictive behavior pattern - in mice, in pigeons, or in humans.
  • Back when I studied Psychology, the most memorable and useful thing I learned was the “one-armed bandit” schedule of reinforcement. Which you can see here, in red. The essence is this: if you give random, sizeable rewards for user actions (e.g. how a slot machine works), you will get an addictive behavior pattern - in mice, in pigeons, or in humans.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Amy Jo Kim, Ph.D. © 2010 All Rights Reserved Gamification Workshop
    • 2. Products/Brands I’ve worked on • Trained in Psychology, Neuroscience, CompSci • Designed Social Games, Metagames, Communities
    • 3. Gamification is…
    • 4. A Loyalty Program on Steroids
    • 5. Using Game Techniques to turbo-charge products & services
    • 6. Using Rewards & Status to drive behavior
    • 7. Turning real-world issues & activities into games
    • 8. … currently experiencing a Hype cycle 
    • 9. Let’s Cut Through the Hype
    • 10. Gamification Glossary Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun
    • 11. Game Techniques ≠ Core Experience
    • 12. Need both Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivators work for clear-cut mechanical tasks Autonomy Group Identity Fun Meaning Mastery Power Love Rewards Points Levels Leaderboards Punishments Badges Learning
    • 13. Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun Player the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer) Gamification Glossary
    • 14. Get to Know Your Players & Their Social Style
    • 15. Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun Player the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer) Journey a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle) Gamification Glossary
    • 16. Good games balance Skill & Challenge
    • 17. Player Journey = Lifecycle + Progression
    • 18. Player Journey = Lifecycle + Progression Good games takes the player on a journey towards mastery Novice Expert Master
    • 19. Dynamics Mechanics Aesthetics Player Journey Use game techniques to guide and motivate the players journey Mechanics, Dynamics, Aesthetics
    • 20. Think Like a Game Designer
    • 21. Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun Player the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer) Journey a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle) Dynamics the time-based patterns & systems in your game Gamification Glossary
    • 22. Progressive Unlocks Appointments Dynamics Game Dynamics = patterns over time Dynamic Systems Reward Schedules Pacing
    • 23. Patterns are programmed into game systems Reward Schedules  Habits, Surprise, Addiction
    • 24. Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun Player the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer) Journey a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle) Dynamics the time-based patterns & systems in your game Mechanics the systems & features that make progress visible Gamification Glossary
    • 25. Game Mechanics make progress visible Levels Player Journey Points Leaderboards Badges Missions Mechanics Virtual Goods
    • 26. Mechanics “light the way” in a player’s journey
    • 27. Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun Player the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer) Journey a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle) Dynamics the time-based patterns & systems in your game Mechanics the systems & features that make progress visible Aesthetics the overall experience that yields emotional engagement Gamification Glossary
    • 28. Fun Delight Envy Pride Aesthetics Game Aesthetics evoke emotion Surprise Satisfaction Trust Connection Curiosity
    • 29. Emotion drives action & engagement A good game takes the player on an emotional journey over time
    • 30. Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun Player the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer) Journey a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle) Dynamics the time-based patterns & systems in your game Mechanics the systems & features that make progress visible Aesthetics the overall experience that yields emotional engagement Social Actions how players engage with each other in your game Gamification Glossary
    • 31. Player Journey Social Actions  Building Blocks of Social Engagement WHO am I playing with? HOW are we engaging? WHAT are we engaging around?
    • 32. Design In Context Know Your Players – Design for their PlayStyle
    • 33. Why are they playing? What problem are they solving? Who’s playing? What’s their style?
    • 34. What Game Are They Already Playing? Where’s the Fun?
    • 35. What are your business/revenue goals? Who’s funding this project? Why? What’s the payoff?
    • 36. What are your personal goals? What’s driving you? What are your hopes & fears for this project?
    • 37. Elevator PitchGoal: create a short, compelling elevator pitch Purpose: clarify and articulate your project vision #Players: 1-8 Duration: 20-30 min Rules: Fill in the boxes below, with these caveats: 1) this pitch is directed at people who can greenlight & join your project 2) your secret sauce CANNOT reference game mechanics My company (company name) is developing (a defined offering) to help (target player) (solve a problem) using (secret sauce / unique differentiator)
    • 38. As they progress, Players have different needs Design Over Time
    • 39. Novice needs onboarding (welcome + goals + progress)
    • 40. Expert needs fresh content/activities/people
    • 41. Master needs exclusive activities/access/unlocks
    • 42. Your Community has a Lifecycle, too Build social systems that identify & leverage high-value players
    • 43. Case Study: GetGlue “the easiest way to find your next favorite thing”
    • 44. Rate content to build your taste profile
    • 45. Explore content & other people
    • 46. Like/comment/review content to earn points
    • 47. Earn Stickers for exploring, rating, socializing
    • 48. Discover “neighbors” who share your tastes
    • 49. Lightweight quests suggest what to do next
    • 50. Become a Guru by interacting with content
    • 51. (Some folks have lots of time on their hands…)
    • 52. Leaderboards showcase active, engaged players
    • 53. Share content you like via status updates
    • 54. Player JourneyGoal: describe key stages of your player’s lifecycle / journey Purpose: design a game that will attract and support Newbies, Regulars AND Enthusiasts Novice Expert Master Step 1: create a Persona (AKA Player Story) for a canonical early-adopter Player Description can include gender, age, socio-economic status, gaming experience, aspirations, fears, daily technology or shopping habits – whatever is most relevant for your product Step 2: fill in the boxes with “day in the life” scenarios for each key stage
    • 55. Design for Social Friends Groups Crowds Families
    • 56. What’s the preferred social style of your players?
    • 57. Competition Bragging, Taunting, Challenging
    • 58. Cooperation Sharing, Helping, Gifting, Greeting
    • 59. Self-Expression customizing, selecting, designing, creating
    • 60. Canonical Player Types (Bartle’s Four 1996) Killers Achievers Socializers Explorers
    • 61. Social Actions (Engagement Loops 2010) Win Challenge Showoff Create Achievers Compare
    • 62. Social Actions (Engagement Loops 2010) Win Challenge Showoff Create Achievers Compare Express Give Help Comment Like Socializers Share Greet
    • 63. Social Actions (Engagement Loops 2010) Win Challenge Showoff Create Achievers Compare Express Give Help Comment Like Socializers Share Greet Explorers Explore Rate View Review Vote Curate
    • 64. Social Actions (Engagement Loops 2010) Win Challenge Showoff Create Achievers Compare Taunt Express Give Help Comment Like Socializers Share Greet Explorers Explore Rate View Review Vote Curate Killers Heckle Hack Cheat Harass Tease
    • 65. Social ActionsGoal: identify and rank the top 3-5 social actions in your game Purpose: understand the social style of your players & community #Players: 1-8 Duration: 10 min Express Show Off Compete Compare Curate Comment Like Vote Rate Explore View Read Help Give Share Greet Harass Step 1: Choose Top 5 Social Actions Step 2: Rank-order & Customize
    • 66. Achievers Socializers Explorers Killers Social Actions IIStep 3: Place your Social Actions on the graph. What do you notice?
    • 67. Newbie Enthusiast Regular Annotate the Journey Novice Expert Master Now add these SOCIAL ACTIONS to your player journey
    • 68. Design for Progress Progress Mechanics “light the way” along a player’s journey
    • 69. Keeping Score Points & Progression in the Player’s Journey Anytime you make numbers visible, you’ve enabled a game
    • 70. How will you track & define progress? Experience Points (XP) earned directly via players’ actions - used to track & reward certain activities uni-directional metric – only goes UP (reflects persistence + skill) Redeemable Points (credits, coins) earned directly via player actions – used to track & reward certain activities bi-directional metric - can “cash in” points to purchase goods or services Currency (bucks, $$) bi-directional metric - purchased with real money to acquire (often exclusive) goods & services Skill Points (Score, Rank) earned via interacting with the game or system – reflects mastery of the activity or game Social Points (Social XP, Reputation, Ratings) earned via the actions of OTHER players – can be a proxy for quality/reputation/influence lets you track & reward socially valuable contributions & actions
    • 71. Experience Points (XP)Experience Points (WOW)
    • 72. Redeemable PointsRedeemable Points (Stardoll)
    • 73. Redeemable PointsSkill Points (Brain Buddies)
    • 74. Social Points (eBay reputation)Social Points (eBay reputation)
    • 75. Social Points (Amazon reviews)Social Points (Amazon reviews)
    • 76. Social Points (Flickr “interestingness”)Social Points (Flickr interestingness)
    • 77. Social Points (Flickr “interestingness”)Social Points (Stack Overflow Reputation)
    • 78. Game Pacing  Flow The better you get, the harder you need to work to earn rewards
    • 79. Levels give you Pacing, Status, Unlocks
    • 80. Global Leaderboards showcase your most skilled and devoted players
    • 81. Social Leaderboards enable Social Actions
    • 82. Social Leaderboards enable Social Actions
    • 83. Daily Puzzle percentage ranking percentile rankings enable comparison
    • 84. How to Play Rules, Hints, Missions, Tutorial
    • 85. Missions Guide & Motivate the Player
    • 86. Tutorial == Newbie Onboarding Guide players through actions that will advance their progress
    • 87. What to Collect Badges, Collectibles, Decorations, Items
    • 88. Badges = goals + progression + collecting
    • 89. Collections = goals + completion + surprise
    • 90. Case Study: Ravenwood Fair clear the scary forest, build a beautiful fair
    • 91. Tutorial introduces key elements & goals
    • 92. Basic actions framed as quests
    • 93. Progressive Quests drive the action…
    • 94. … and create an emotional arc
    • 95. New quests unlocked when player is ready
    • 96. Levels punctuate the action and unlock buying opportunities
    • 97. Story adds interest, motivation
    • 98. … and context for new quests & items
    • 99. Items are “collected” as a side-effect of clearing the forest
    • 100. Collections add interest & surprise to the main activity
    • 101. Progress Bar drives desired behaviors
    • 102. Progress Mechanics Goal: choose and rank-order your top-5 Progress Mechanics Purpose: identify the core system and features to guide and support your player journey #Players: 1-8 Duration: 20-30 min Step 1: Choose Top 5 Progress Mechanics Step 2: Rank-order & Customize Levels Global Leaderboards Social Leaderboards Badges Collections Progress Bar Missions Hints Tutorial Personal Stats Population Stats Virtual Goods Reputation Ratings
    • 103. Novices need clear, easy-to-earn rewards
    • 104. Experts need powertools, status, customization
    • 105. Masters need exclusive access, activities, unlocks
    • 106. Newbie Enthusiast Regular Annotate the Journey Novice Expert Master Step 2: Add PROGRESS MECHANICS
    • 107. Virtual Goods let players customize their experience & payments Design for Customization
    • 108. Virtual Goods = Digital Items w/Contextual Meaning
    • 109. Virtual Goods evoke real emotions
    • 110. Virtual Economies drive ongoing use..
    • 111. … and require ongoing production & service
    • 112. What can players Customize?
    • 113. Customize Your Page/Dashboard
    • 114. Customize Your Avatar
    • 115. Customize Your Location
    • 116. Case Study: Pogo
    • 117. Play games, earn tokens, win prizes
    • 118. Purchase gems to buy games & virtual goods
    • 119. Customize your avatar’s outfit, background, etc.
    • 120. Enter a weekly contest for best avatar
    • 121. Premium items add status, visual interest
    • 122. Locked items upsell players to premium service
    • 123. Subscription service offers badges & more
    • 124. Badge album shows off your collection
    • 125. Rich profile includes stats, badges, guestbook
    • 126. In-game chat facilitates meeting new people
    • 127. Prize winners made visible (to motivate entries)
    • 128. What to Customize? Goal: define the core Social Object that your players will customize Purpose: focus your Customization/Virtual Goods strategy Duration: 5-10 min Profile Dashboard Home Page Blog Avatar Location (specify) Other Step 1: Choose 1-3 Social Object(s) to Customize (fewer is better) Step 2: Briefly describe how Customization will work at key stages of the Journey Novice Expert Master
    • 129. Design for Engagement Player Journey + Social Actions = Social Engagement Loops
    • 130. Player Journey Social Actions drive Social Engagement WHO am I playing with? HOW are we playing together? WHAT are we playing with?
    • 131. Win Challenge Showoff Create Achievers Compare Taunt Express Give Help Comment Like Socializers Share Greet Explorers Explore Rate View Review Vote Curate Killers Heckle Hack Cheat Harass Tease Social Actions drive Social Engagement
    • 132. Case Study: Foursquare
    • 133. Core activity: the checkin
    • 134. Checkin to venues to earn Points & Stats
    • 135. Badges mark progress and suggest goals
    • 136. Badges have personality, attitude, humour
    • 137. Mayorship rewards loyalty, recency – drives competition
    • 138. Sharing checkins and badges promotes social engagement
    • 139. Why does Foursquare work? 1. Core activity has intrinsic motivation checking into venues delivers lightweight fun, has both personal & social value 2. Progress mechanics light the way badges guide players towards action & completion + have element of surprise mayorships mirror real-world dynamics, stimulate loyalty & competition 3. Social Actions are aligned with Social Needs explore, showoff, share, compare, compete
    • 140. Social Engagement Loop Motivating Emotion Fun / Delight / Trust / Pride / Curious (social) Call to Action Customize / Share / Help / Compete Player Re-engagement Task / Mission / Game / Quiz Visible Progress / Reward Pts / Stats / Awards / Messages
    • 141. Foursquare Engagement Loop: Novice Curiousity / Competition Checkin Earn Pts, Compare w/friends Checkin Again to explore & discover
    • 142. Foursquare Engagement Loop: Expert Pride / Surprise / Delight Share with friends/followersCheckin Earn Badge
    • 143. Foursquare Engagement Loop: Master Pride / Competition Get Special PrivilegesCheckin Defend Mayorship
    • 144. Engagement Loop 1 Goal: fill in the boxesup your core engagement loop Purpose: identify key systems & actions that drive repeat play #Players: 1-8 Duration: 20-30 min Step 1: Fill in the boxes with actions specific to your game Motivating Emotion Fun / Delight / Trust / Pride / Curious Newbie Onboarding (social) Call to Action Customize / Share / Help / Compete Player Re-engagement Task / Mission / Game / Quiz Visible Progress / Reward Pts / Stats / Awards / Messages
    • 145. Newbie Enthusiast Regular Engagement Loop 2 Novice Expert Master Step 2: create a Social Engagement Loop for each Stage of the Player’s Journey
    • 146. Gamification Idol Step 1: Prepare your Game Pitch Goal: Define and communicate your project’s value prop and player journey Purpose: Design a game that will attract/support newbies AND Enthusiasts #Players: 1-8 Duration: 20-30 min + + Step 2: Pitch Your Game to the Judges & Audience – get feedback
    • 147. Gamification Idol Step 1: Prepare your Game Pitch Goal: Define and communicate your project’s value prop and player journey Purpose: Design a game that will attract/support newbies AND Enthusiasts #Players: 1-8 Duration: 20-30 min + + Step 2: Pitch Your Game to the Judges & Audience – get feedback
    • 148. Gamification Idol: Questions 1) Project Intro / Elevator Pitch What’s are you building? Why? For who? What’s the key benefit? Where’s the fun? 2) Player Journey What’s the core experience / system in your game? What journey are you taking players on? What does it mean to “play well”? What’s the intrinsic motivation? 3) Preferred PlayStyle and Social Actions How do players want to engage? Who are they playing with? What’s their social style? What key social actions will engage them? 4) Visible Progress How will your game “light the way” along the player’s journey? How will players know what to do? What techniques will you use to track and visualize progress? 5) Engagement Loops What is engaging about your game? What will pull players back into the game at different stages of their journey?
    • 149. Further Resources
    • 150. Daniel Pink TWITTER SUMMARY Carrots & sticks are so last century. For 21st century work, we need to upgrade to autonomy, mastery & purpose. COCKTAIL PARTY SUMMARY When it comes to motivation, there’s a gap between what science knows and what business does. Our current business operating system–which is built around external, carrot-and-stick motivators–doesn’t work and often does harm. We need an upgrade. And the science shows the way. This new approach has three essential elements: 1. Autonomy – the desire to direct our own lives. 2. Mastery — the urge to get better and better at something that matters. 3. Purpose — the yearning to do what we do in the service of something larger than ourselves.
    • 151. Tom Chatfield 7 Lessons Learned From Games 1) Progress: Bars, Levels, Points, Badges, Customization – we like to see our progress 2) Missions: Provide multiple long-and-short-term aims for players to tackle 3) Credit: track & reward effort, not just achievement 4) Feedback: tangibly link actions to consequences 5) Surprise: add the Element of Uncertainty to drive and sustain interest 6) People: we're most engaged by people – esp collaborating in groups 7) Engagement: games are perfectly tuned to dole out rewards that engage the brain and keep us questing for more
    • 152. Jesse Schell
    • 153. In practice, good game design (like all design) = vision + iteration. Start with a good idea, then iterate, experiment, learn & evolve. * Throw Sh*t in, Take Sh*t Out Brian Reynolds Keynote - GDCOnine 2010 TSI, TSO* http://www.gdcvault.com/play/1013798/Bears-and-Snakes-The-Wild
    • 154. Hearts, Clubs, Diamonds, Spades: Players Who Suit MUDs Richard Bartle, 1996 http://www.mud.co.uk/richard/hcds.htm MDA Framework + 8 Kinds of Fun Marc LeBlanc, Robin Hunicke, Robert Zubeck http://algorithmancy.8kindsoffun.com/ Punished by Rewards Alfie Kohn Web Reputation Systems Randy Farmer
    • 155. amyjokim@gmail.com amyjokim Twitter, Facebook, Slideshare Thank You!