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  • http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/fuelcells/fc_types.html#pem
  • http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/fuelcells/fc_types.html#pem
  • http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/fuelcells/fc_types.html#pem
  • http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/fuelcells/fc_types.html#pem
  • http://www.fuelcells.org/basics/apps.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_vehicle
  • http://www.fuelcells.org/basics/apps.html
  • http://www.fuelcells.org/basics/apps.html

Transcript

  • 1. FUELCELLS
  • 2. What is a Fuel Cell?A Fuel Cell is an electrochemical device that combineshydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, withwater and heat as its by-product.
  • 3. Why is Fuel Cell Technology Important?• Since conversion of the fuel to energy takes place via an electrochemical process, not combustion• It is a clean, quiet and highly efficient process- two to three times more efficient than fuel burning.
  • 4. ENERGYSTORAGE SystemsPerformance of Energy Storage Specific EnergyFuel Wh/kgGasoline 12,300Natural gas 9,300Hydrogen 33,000Lead-acid battery 30Advanced Lead Acid 48
  • 5. Major Types of Fuel Cells In general all fuel cells have the same basic configuration - an electrolyte and two electrodes Regenerative Fuel Cells
  • 6. Proton Exchange Membrane Phosphoric Acid(PEM)
  • 7. Phosphoric Acid Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell
  • 8. Solid Oxide Alkaline Fuel Cell
  • 9. How does a fuel cell work? It operates similarly to a battery, but it does not run down nor does it require recharging As long as fuel is supplied, a Fuel Cell will produce both energy and heat
  • 10. How does a fuel cell work? A fuel cell consists of two electrodes sandwiched around an electrolyte. Oxygen passes over one electrode and hydrogen over the other generating electricity, water and heat.
  • 11. How does a fuel cell work?
  • 12. How does a fuel cell work? Individual fuel cells can be placed in a series to form a fuel cell stack. The stack can be used in a system to power a vehicle or to provide stationary power to a building.
  • 13. How can Fuel Cell technology be used? • Transportation • All major automakers are working to commercialize a fuel cell car. • Honda Motors have developed FCX Clarity as the first commercial fuel cell vehicle. • Trains, planes, boats, scooters, forklifts and even bicycles are utilizing fuel cell technology.
  • 14. How can Fuel Cell technology be used? • Telecommunications • Due to computers, the Internet and sophisticated communication networks there is a need for an incredibly reliable power source • Fuel Cells have been proven to be 99.999% reliable
  • 15. How can Fuel Cell technology be • Micro Power used? • Consumer electronics could gain drastically longer battery power with Fuel Cell technology. • Cell phones can be powered for 30 days without recharging. • Laptops can be powered for 20 hours without recharging.
  • 16. Hydrogen Production Technologies• From nuclear energyWater splitting by thermochemical process. Need temperature of 700 to 1000 . No CO2 emitted.
  • 17. Hydrogen Production Technologies• From natural gas Already import natural gas. If natural gas costs $6.50/Btu, H costs $3.51/kg
  • 18. Hydrogen Production Technologies•Renewable Liquid Reforming • Biomass is processed to make renewable liquid fuels, such as ethanol or bio-oil, that are then reacted with high-temperature steam to produce hydrogen
  • 19. Hydrogen Production Technologies•Electrolytic Processes • Electrolytic processes use an electric current to split water into hydrogen and oxygen • The electricity required can be generated by using renewable energy technologies such as wind, solar, geothermal and hydroelectric power
  • 20. What are the benefits of Fuel Cell technology? Physical Security • Both central station power generation and long distance, high voltage power grids can be terrorist targets in an attempt to cripple our energy infrastructure • Fuel Cells allow the country to discontinue reliance on these potential targets
  • 21. What are the benefits of Fuel Cell technology? Efficiency • Because no fuel is burned to make energy, fuel cells are fundamentally more efficient than combustion systems • Additionally when the heat comes off of the fuel cell system it can be captured for beneficial purposes • This is called Cogeneration • In combination with a turbine, electrical efficiencies can exceed 60%
  • 22. What are the benefits of Fuel Cell technology? Environmental Benefits of Fuel Cell Vehicles • Fuel Cell Vehicles with hydrogen stored on-board produce ZERO POLLUTION in the conventional sense • The only byproducts of these Fuel Cell vehicles are water and heat • Fuel Cell Vehicles with a reformer on board to convert a liquid fuel to hydrogen would produce a small amount of pollutants, but it would be 90% less than the pollutants produced from combustion engines
  • 23. What are the benefits of Fuel Cell technology? Battery replacement/alternative • Fuel Cell replacements for batteries would offer much longer operating life in a packaged of lighter or equal weight • Additionally, Fuel Cell replacements would have an environmental advantage over batteries, since certain kinds of batteries require special disposal treatment
  • 24. Click icon to add pictureCar working on hydrogen fuel cell.
  • 25. Internal structure.
  • 26. Challenges to Fuel Cell Technology•Cost •The cost of fuel cells must be reduced to compete with conventional technologies •Conventional internal combustion engines cost $25-$35/kW; a fuel cell system would need to cost $30/kW to be competitive
  • 27. Challenges to Fuel Cell Technology• Durability and Reliability • Durability of fuel cell systems have not yet been adequately established • The durability standard for automobiles is approximately 150,000 miles and the ability to function under normal vehicle operating conditions • For stationary systems 40,000 hours of reliable operation in a temperature range of -35 degree Celsius to 40 degrees Celsius will be required for market acceptance
  • 28. Challenges to Fuel Cell Technology• System Size • The size and weight of current fuel cell systems must be reduced to attain market acceptance, especially with automobiles
  • 29. Thank you!!!!