Reference List Arnold, B. (2008). Caslon Analytics bullying, retrieved April 28, 2012 from http://www.caslon.com.au/cyberbullyingnote7.htm Australian Communication and Media Authority . (2009). cyber(smart:). Retrieved April 9, 2012, from cyber(smart:): http://www.cybersmart.gov.au/ Australian Communications and Media Authority. (2008). Internet use and social networking by young people. Australian Government, Australian Communications and Media Authority. Australian Goverment. (2012). Cyberbullying: Teens. Retrieved 2012, 7-4 from Cyber(smart:): http://www.cybersmart.gov.au/teens/how%20do%20I%20deal%20with/cyberbullying.aspx Australian Institute of Criminology. (2010, February). Covert and cyber bullying- tip sheet No. 9. Retrieved 2011, 26th-March from Australian Government, AustrlianInsitute of Criminology: http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/current%20series/rip/1-10/09.aspxBamford, A. (2004). Cyber-bullying. AHISA Pastoral Care National Conference . Melbourne. Butler, D., Kift, S., & Campbell, M. (2009). Cyber Bullying in schools and the law: is there an effective means of addressing the power imbalance? eLaw Journal: Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, 16 (1), 84-114. Campbell, M. A. (2005). Cyber bullying: An old problem in a new guise? Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 15 (1), 68-76. Commonwealth of Australia. (2011). How to implement- Mapping Grid. Retrieved April 8, 2012, from Digital Citizenship: http://www.digitalcitizenship.nsw.edu.au/Sec_Splash/index.htm Cross, D., Shaw, T., Hearn, L., Epstein, M., Monks, H., Lester, L., et al. (2009 йил May). Australian Covert Bullying Prevalence Study. Retrieved 2012, 31-March from Departmentt of Education, Employment and Workplacce Relations: http://www.deewr.gov.au/Schooling/NationalSafeSchools/Pages/research.aspxFlegg, B. (2010, 17-September). Dr Bruce Flegg; Member for Mogill. Retrieved 2011 йил 31-March from Cyberbullying: Its time to act: http://www.moggill.net/education-matters/2910-cyberbullying-its-time-to-act.html11. Goff, W. (2011). The shades of grey of cyberbullying in Australian schools. Australian Journal of Education, 55 (2), 176-181.12. Holliday, J. (2010). Cyberbullying: The stakes have never been higher for students- or schools. Teahing Tolerance, 38, 42-45.13. Juvonen, J., & Gross, E. F. (2008). Extending the school grounds?- Bullying expereiences in cyberspace. Journal of School Health, 78 (9).14. Mckenna, P. (2007). The rise of cyberbullying. New Scientist, 195 (2613).15. Price, M., & Dalgleish, J. (2010). Cyberbullying: Experiences, impacts and coping strategies as described by Australian young people. Youth Studies Australia, 29 (2)16. Schneider, S. K., O'Donnell, L., Stueve, A., & Coulter, R. (2012). Cyberbullying, schol bullying, nd psychological distress: a regional census of high school students. American Journal of Public health, 102, 171-177.17. Shaha, A. (2011, 9-November). The Independent Blogs. Retrieved 2012 йил 8-April from Don’t ban mobiles in schools, let students use them: http://blogs.independent.co.uk/2011/11/09/don’t-ban-mobile-phones-in-schools-let-students-use-them-all-the-time/18. Slonje, R., & Smith, P. K. (2008). Cyberbullying: another main type of bullying? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49, 147-15419. Snakenborg, J., Van Acker, R., & Gable, R. (2011). Cyberbullying: Prevention and intervention to protect our children and youth. Preventing School Failure, 55 (2), 88-95.20. Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. (2012,13-March). Cyber-Bullying . Retrieved 2012, 31-March from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyber-bullying
Sticks and stones may break my bones but ‘texts’ will never hurt me!Tackling cyber-bullying in Australian Schools
Introduction… Young people spend an average one hour and 17 minutes per day online 64% of this time was spent on Social networking and other related online communication activities. Australian governments Internet use and social networking report 2008
Cyberbullying is:The use of the internet or other digital communicationdevices to insult or threaten someone Conducted Via: Behaviours include: •email •Anonymity/pseudonyms • mobile phones (text, pics & calls) •Masquerading •instant messaging (such as MSN) •Flaming •chatrooms and message boards •Harassment •video hosting sites (like you tube) •Outing •social networking sites (like facebook) •Webcams •Exclusion •virtual learning environments
Traditional v’s cyber bullying Similarities Differences• unwanted • Allows anonymity• Hurtful • 24/7/365• imbalance of power (real or perceived) • Large audience potential• intent to insult or threaten someone. • Permanency• carried out by individuals or peer groups
Consequences for the victim• Depression• Anxiety• greater interpersonal difficulties• higher absenteeism• lower academic performance• negative impacts on self confidence, self esteem, friendships & family relationships• higher levels of anger, fear, frustration, embarrassment, suicidal thoughts and self harming
Consequences for theperpetrator • higher levels of antisocial, violent and/or criminal behaviour in adulthood • Suspension/expulsion • Possibility of legal ramifications if charged for assault, threats, extortion, stalking, harassment and indecent conduct or misuse of telecommunications • All of the above affecting productivity as a positively functioning member of society in the future
consequences for the school • Schools have a duty of care: physical and psychological • offence for a person (staff or student) to be assaulted, stalked, harassed or intimidated when attending, entering or leaving school premises. • Can schools be charged for breach of duty of care for cyberbullying? What happens if the bullying occurs outside of school but is planned at school? What if it is carried out using school issued computers or over school virtual learning environments? What if it Involves groups of students from different schools? What if the perpetrator or victim is a not student? What if parents are alerted to the bullying first but take no action?
Mobiles and Social Networking @ school. Yes or No? Old school New school
Recommendations: taking action through policy Whole school policy in consultation with staff, parents and students whole school environment needs to be fostered where students feel comfortable reporting and talking about incidences of bullying and cyber bullying make explicit acceptable and unacceptable types of online behaviour, expectations of students and consequences of cyberbullying
Recommendations: taking action via classroom and school programsKEY DER-NSW DOMAINS AND THEMES OF DIGITAL CITIZENSHIP
Recommendation: taking action as individualsResearch Professional development YOU Implement strategies
Discussion questions1. Do you know of any specific examples of cyberbullying that have occurred in our school? What digital tools were used? What types of behaviour were manifest?1. How far do you believe a schools duty of care extends? Where does responsibility lie for students, parents, government and telecommunication companies?2. What cyberbullying prevention strategies do we currently implement in our school? What could we do in the future?
Resources Read:. • Campbell, M. A. (2005). Cyber bullying: An old problem in a new guise? Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling , 15 (1), 68-76 • Price, M., & Dalgleish, J. (2010). Cyberbullying: Experiences, impacts and coping strategies as described by Australian young people. Youth Studies Australia , 29 (2)Browse:• NSW Digital Citizenship http://www.digitalcitizenship.nsw.edu.au/• Australian Communication & Media Authority CYBER(SMART:) http://www.cybersmart.gov.au/View:• ‘Tagged’ http://www.cybersmart.gov.au/tagged/• ‘Cyber Safe: Identifying and Combating Cyber Bullies’- VEA 2007 (found in our school clickview collection online)