Leadership Perspectives
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Leadership Perspectives



Looking through four frames: symbolic, human resources, political and structural.

Looking through four frames: symbolic, human resources, political and structural.



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Leadership Perspectives Leadership Perspectives Presentation Transcript

  • Leadership Perspectives What you see is what you get!
  • There may be more than one way to see things
  • Organizational Frames Structural Human Resource Political Symbolic
  • Structural Frame Roots: sociology, management science Key concepts: goals, roles (division of labor), formal relationships Central focus: alignment of structure with goals and environment Structural
  • Structural Frame Assumptions Organizations exist to achieve established goals and objectives Specialization and division of labor increase efficiency and performance Appropriate forms of coordination and control are essential Organizations work best when rationality prevails Structure must align with circumstances Problems arise from structural deficiencies
  • Basic Structural Tensions
  • Vertical Coordination Vertical Coordination
  • Lateral Coordination
  • McDonald’s and Harvard: A Structural Odd Couple Clearer goals, more centralized, tighter performance controls Diffuse goals, highly decentralized, high autonomy for professors Why have two successful organizations developed such different structures?
  • Structural Imperatives
  • Structural Leadership Effective Ineffective Leader Analyst, architect Petty tyrant Leadership process Analysis, design Management by detail and fiat
  • Effective Structural Leaders…
    • Do their homework
    • Rethink relationship of strategy, structure, environment
    • Focus on implementation
    • Experiment, evaluate, adapt
  • Structural View of Change
    • Change alters the clarity and stability of roles and relationships, creating confusion and chaos .
    • This requires attention to:
    • Realigning roles
    • Clarifying goals and objectives,
    • Redesigning patterns, policies and procedures
    • Examples include:
    • Re-engineering
    • Matrix management
    • Knowledge management
    • Performance measures
  • Human Resource Frame Roots: personality and social psychology Key concepts: needs (motives), capacities (skills), feelings Central focus: fit between individual and organization Human Resource
  • Human Resource Frame Assumptions Organizations exist to serve human needs People and organizations need each other: organizations need ideas, energy, talent; people need careers, salaries, opportunities When the fit between people and organizations is poor, one or both suffer A good fit benefits both—individuals find meaningful and satisfying work; organizations get the talent and energy they need to succeed
  • Human Resource Leadership Effective Ineffective Leader Catalyst, servant Weakling, pushover Leadership process Support, empowerment Abdication, indulgence
  • Effective Human Resource Leaders…
    • Believe in people and communicate that belief
    • Are visible and accessible
    • Empower others
  • Human Resources View of Change
    • This requires:
      • Providing psychological support and opportunities for involvement
      • Providing training to help develop needed new skills and competencies and to manage conflict
    • Leaders need to:
      • Pursue change strategies that increase the capacity of individuals and human systems
    People feel needy, confused, powerless, incompetent -- they experience loss.
  • Key Concepts
  • Political Frame Roots: political science Key concepts: interests, conflict, power, scarce resources Central focus: getting & using power, managing conflict to get things done Political
  • Political Frame Assumptions
  • Organizations as Coalitions
    • Coalitions rather than pyramids
    • Organizational goals are:
      • Multiple
      • Sometimes conflicting because they reflect bargaining involving multiple players with divergent interests.
  • Sources of Power
  • Political Leadership Effective Ineffective Leader Advocate, negotiator Con-artist, thug Leadership process Advocacy, coalition building Manipulation, fraud
  • Effective Political Leaders…
    • Are clear about what they want and what they can get
    • Assess distribution of power and interests
    • Build linkages to key stakeholders
    • Persuade first, negotiate second, and coerce only if necessary
  • Skills of Leaders as a Politician
  • Skills of Leaders as a Politician
  • Political View of Change
    • Political leaders:
      • Create “arenas” in which issues can be negotiated.
      • Use negotiation skills
      • Manage relationships with internal and external stakeholders to build coalitions and networks of support that advance/protect the organizations interests.
    Change generates conflict and can create winners and losers—avoiding issues drives conflict underground.
  • Symbolic Frame Roots: social and cultural anthropology Key concepts: culture, myth, ritual, story Central focus: building culture, staging organizational drama Symbolic
  • Symbolic Frame Assumptions
  • Organizations as Cultures
  • Organizational Symbols
  • Organizational Symbols Symbols reveal and communicate culture
      • McDonald’s golden arches and the legend of Ray Kroc
    Values are what an organization stands for and cares about
      • Myths are deeply rooted narratives that explain, express, and build cohesion
    Harvard’s myth, mystique, and rituals
  • Organizational Symbols Organizational symbols: provide an indirect approach to issues that are too hard to approach head-on
  • Symbolic Leadership Effective Ineffective Leader Prophet, poet Fanatic, fool Leadership process Inspiration, framing experience Mirage, smoke and mirrors
  • Effective Symbolic Leaders…
    • Lead by example
    • Use symbols to capture attention
    • Frame experience
    • Communicate a vision
    • Tell stories
    • Study and use history
  • Symbolic View of Change
    • People form attachments to symbols, rituals, and symbolic activity—when the attachments are severed they find it difficult to let go and are in need of transition rituals.
    Creates loss of meaning and purpose
    • Symbolic leaders need to:
      • Help people find new symbols to shift their thinking and create meaning.
  • Structural Frame Human Resource Frame Political Frame Symbolic Frame Metaphor for organization Factory or machine Family Jungle Carnival, temple, theater Central concepts Rules,roles, goals, policies, technology, environment Needs, skills, Relationships Power, conflict, competition, organizational politics Culture, meaning, metaphor, ritual, ceremony, stories, heroes Image of leadership Social architecture Empowerment Advocacy Inspiration Basic leadership challenge Align structure to task, technology, environment Align organization and human needs Develop agenda and power base Create meaning
  • Reframing Change Frame Barriers to Change Essential Strategies Structural Loss of clarity and stability; confusion; chaos Communicating, realigning, and renegotiating formal patterns and policies Human Resource Anxiety, uncertainty; people feel incompetent, needy Train to build new skills; participation and involvement; psychological support Political Disempowerment; conflict between winners and losers Create arenas for negotiating issues, forming new coalitions Symbolic Loss of meaning and purpose; clinging to the past Transition rituals; mourn past, celebrate future
  • Matching Frames to Situations
    • Choosing a frame
  • Choosing a Frame Question If yes: If no: Are individual commitment and motivation essential? Human resource, symbolic Structural, political Is technical quality of decision important? Structural Human resource, political, symbolic Are there high levels of ambiguity, uncertainty? Political, symbolic Structural, human resource Are conflict and scarce resources significant? Political, symbolic Structural, human resource Are you working from the bottom up? Political, symbolic Structural, human resource