Graduate Intern, Office of International Education
McNair Scholars aims to increase the number of low-income first-generation undergraduates pursuing doctoral programs.
More low-income, students of color and undocumented students each year.72% Caucasian10% International7.2% Hispanic3% African-American1.6% Asian American4.1% Bi/Multiracial
Follows national trends with regards to study abroad participation rates of minority students:6% Latino, 81% White in 2008-2009 academic year nationally (Open Doors)Beloit College: 82% Caucasian, 2% Asian-American, 2% African-American, 5% Hispanic, 1% Other Minority, 2% International, 6% Unknown
Issue:Few articles on Latino students in study abroad, rather many on minority students in generalWay to answer my research question:Barriers to higher education (understand backgrounds of students for better support)Social identity issues not presented in literature review (backgrounds for better support)Minority students in study abroad – getting at the question of why they either choose or do not choose to study abroad
In 2007, only 13% of Latinos earned bachelor’s degreesBy 2017, number expected to increase by 39%
Desire to please one’s parents connected to sacrifice made to send children to schoolReasons to attend community college: can live at home, lower tuition, accommodate work schedules44% of Latinos attend community colleges
Financial situation: students still felt positive regard for study abroadDestination: majority of participants were heritage seekersGraduation: students created own deadlines
Efforts by the government administered through the Institute for International EducationGilman for pell-grant recipients, Fulbright for faculty and professionals, National Security Education Program Boren for critical language studyOther scholarships based on ethnic diversity offered by SIT, CIEE, and other program providers.
Talk about significance of Turtle
Importance of faculty-student interaction is apparent at Beloit College.Off-campus means both domestic and study abroad programs.Activity of Latino students in Voces Latinas – social change is important to these students.
Survey participants had varying levels of participationHandout survey and interview questions and discuss briefly
Became important to discuss rationale behind research studyClarified intention as not “selling” study abroad rather gathering reasons for and against participation in study abroadDo not discuss all limitations
Majority sophomores & juniors, femalesHow do you self-identify?Latino meaning Latin or “Latin American”Hispanic relating to Spain
Importance of having study abroad program fit one’s academic planFocus on study abroad among all professors
Importance of recruitment materials and First-Year Initiatives course75% of students had not already studied abroad however 10 of them had plans to study abroad
This question was intended to see whether the students who had no plans to study abroad found the opportunity valuable.
Trying to understand origin to see whether students chose locations based on heritage.Mexico (11 students)Other countries had 1 student each
Six of the nine interviewees commented that their families were supportive of their choice to study abroad.
Program choices not based on heritage seeking, rather on academic plans5 students or 28% had no plans to study abroad
This question is for students who had plans to study abroad or already did.18. Results contradict the literature by McClure et al. (2010) in which the majority of the students chose Spanish-speaking countries.
Importance related to cost of study abroad and financial affordabilityMajority at less than $50,000 a year (11 students)Financial aid and its importance to these students
Global perspective = understanding your situation in the world and how it may impact others
Global perspective: other students, language courses, courses, going abroad
In awe of the Latino/a students at Beloit College…
Factors impacting choice to study abroad: choice of country (contradicts the literature), program fit with academic plan, future career ambitionFactors preventing students from studying abroad: lack of finances, connection to family
Recruitment materials in different languages, send to parents with contact information of bilingual staffDiversity conferences help with becoming more well-versed in appropriate language and discourse on issues of raceReturned students of color serve as ambassadorsDiversify study abroad office staff including through language abilitiesStudy challenges of students of color related to study abroad and educate faculty and staff about themBe sure to return to research question
Just say two or three of these depending on how tired people are.
Student A = Latina who will be studying in China next year. Concerned about racism she might experience while abroad. How do you advise?Student B = concerned about leaving for a semester to study abroad in case something were to happen to a family member. What do you say to them?Student C = has a four-year scholarship and is worried about completing his degree, therefore he does not think he can study abroad. What can you say to him?
Latino/a Students in Study Abroad: Reasons For and Against Participation
Reasons for and against participation<br />Amy Dooley Bello (pim 68)<br />PIM Capstone seminar<br />Thursday, june 2, 2011<br />LATINO/A STUDENTS IN STUDY ABROAD<br />
Staff Quotation<br />The goal is for minority students going abroad <br />to no longer be the exception, rather <br />“just part of what we do here.”<br />(Cecil Youngblood, Director of Intercultural Affairs)<br />
Staff Quotation<br />“The majority of them are interested and the majority of them are also fearful that they will not have the funding, waste time and money in terms of being away, and have a certain discomfort with going overseas or abroad.”<br />(Aurora Chang, Director of McNair Scholars Program)<br />
Staff Quotation<br />“There is nothing that is more of a challenge than making this kind of education affordable to all who want it.”<br />(Bill Flanagan, Dean of Students)<br />
Teachers<br />Perceptions of Latino students’ abilities<br />Incorrectly assigning students to remedial programs<br />4% of teachers in K-12 and higher education are Latino/a<br />(Martinez et al., 2006)<br />
Family<br />Traditionally, females live at home until marriage<br />Desire to please one’s parents<br />Many Latinos attend community colleges<br /> (Fry, 2002)<br />
Minority Student Participation<br />(Salisbury et al., 2009)<br />
Study Abroad Concerns<br />Financial constraints<br />Lack of awareness<br />Perception of study abroad as not important<br />Familial and social constraints<br />Fear of racism abroad<br />(Salisbury et al., 2009)<br />
Concerns for Latinos<br />Importance of family<br />Family’s financial situation<br />Importance of destination<br />Graduation dates<br />(McClure et al., 2010)<br />
Efforts to increase participation<br />(Scholarships not based on ethnic diversity)<br />Boren<br />
Case Study: Beloit College<br />1,337 men and women <br />123 full-time faculty<br />11 students per faculty<br />50% of students study off-campus<br />(Beloit College Student Profile 2010-2011, Admissions)<br />
Research Participation<br />Survey via email<br /><ul><li>20 participants (21% of pop.)</li></ul>Interviews <br /><ul><li>9 interviewees (5 female, 4 male)</li></ul>Survey and interview topics: <br /><ul><li>social identity
Interview Question #13<br />What value do you see in study abroad?<br />“I think definitely if you have the chance to get out of the country, you should do it however I am not doing it because I am so connected to the campus, the big financial aspect, and because of my family.”<br />
Interview Question #19<br />How do your family and/or friends feel about your choice to study abroad?<br />“My mom was really happy. My dad however, the day before I left, he yelled at me for going so far away from home. He said that’s not what we are supposed to do.”<br />
Interview Question #18<br />How did you choose the location <br />for your study abroad?<br />“I was looking at programs in Brazil and Costa Rica and my dad asked why the hell I would want to go to Costa Rica since I had already been there.”<br />
Interview Question #16<br />Are you satisfied with your choice to study abroad or not study abroad?<br />“Sometimes you have to do things that don’t make you happy, a lot of Latino students don’t because legally, financially they can’t. So I’m happy about having the option of going abroad.”<br />
Interview Question #14<br />How would you support the cost of <br />study abroad?<br />“I have no idea. I have spoken with a few friends who have said that the amount that Beloit gives to help them go study abroad isn’t enough.”<br />
Global Perspective<br />If students gain a global perspective, they are better able to “approach the complex problems of the world ethically and thoughtfully” (Board of Trustees, 2005).<br />(Beloit College & Office of International Education Mission)<br />
How? (1, 2 & 3)<br />“While taking language courses, there was a strong emphasis on countries outside of our own…”<br />“Being in a different country and meeting people from many nationalities is different from talking with the exchange students at Beloit…”<br />“In the States, it is easy to identify as Latina, but abroad I was categorized as American…”<br />
Future career ambition</li></ul>Factors preventing students from studying abroad<br /><ul><li>Lack of finances
Connection to family</li></li></ul><li>Recommendations<br />Welcoming recruitment materials<br />Attend diversity conferences<br />Hire returned students of color as ambassadors<br />Diversify study abroad office staff<br />Study challenges of students of color<br />
Further Research<br />Specific ethnic groups or generational groups<br />Participation rates at different institutions<br />Biracial student participation vs. non-biracial<br />Social identity impact on study abroad experience<br />
Scenarios<br />Student A<br />Student B <br />Student C<br />
Bibliography<br /><ul><li>Bolton Tsantir, S. (2010). Heritage-seeking and study abroad: A case study. Retrieved September 26, 2010, from http://www.iienetwork.org/page/97399/
Brewer, E. (2010). 2009-10 Annual Report. Beloit, Wisconsin: Beloit College. Retrieved from http://www.beloit.edu/oie/international_education/annual_report/
Ethier, K. A., & Deaux, K. (1994). Negotiating social identity when contexts change: Maintaining identification and responding to threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(2), 243-251.
Fry, R. (2002). Latinos in higher education: Many enroll, too few graduate.Pew Hispanic Center Report. Pew Charitable Trusts, Washington, D.C.
Guerrero, E., Jr. (2006). The road less traveled: Latino students and the impact of studying abroad. (Doctor of Education, University of California - Los Angeles), 1-123. Retrieved from ProQuest database.
Hembroff, L. A., & Rusz, D. L. (1993). Minorities and overseas study programs: Correlates of differential participation. Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 1-90. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED368283.pdf
Ibarra, R. A. (1996). Enhancing the minority presence in graduate education VII: Latino experiences in graduate education: Implications for change. A preliminary report. Council of Graduate Schools, Washington, D.C.
Kuh, G. D., Arnold, J. C., & Vesper, N. (1991). The influence of student effort, college environments, and campus culture on undergraduate student learning and personal development (Conference Paper. Indiana University, Bloomington, IN: Center for Postsecondary Research and Planning. Retrieved from ERIC database. </li></ul> <br />
Q & A<br />THANK YOU!<br />Amy Dooley Bello<br />Master of Arts Candidate<br />International Education<br />SIT Graduate Institute<br />PIM 68 – May 2011<br />email@example.com<br />