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Chapter 4 pp nutrition guidelines

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Notes for 2nd period Lifespan Nutrition

Notes for 2nd period Lifespan Nutrition


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  • 1. Chapter 4: Nutrition Guidelines Essential Questions : What are the different components of a nutritious diet? How can I use these different components?
  • 2. Essential Information
    • GPS: FNW 1/C – Define and demonstrate an understanding of the components of a nutritious diet by planning menus for different age groups using Dietary Guidelines for Americans, other consumer dietary recommendations including MyPyramid, and the Exchange Lists for Meal Planning and Food Labels to plan menus.
    • Key Questions :
      • What are the tools for planning a healthful diet?
      • How can I use food recommendations and guidelines?
    • Key Vocabulary :
      • My Pyramid
      • Dietary Reference Intakes
      • Recommended Daily Allowances
      • Estimated Average Requirement
      • Adequate Intake
      • Upper Tolerable Level
      • Daily Values
      • Nutrient Density
  • 3. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Dietary Reference Intakes – DRIs
      • Developed by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences
      • A set of nutrient reference values
      • Used to plan and assess diets for HEALTHY people
      • Values are based on the most recent finding on nutrients
      • Purpose – prevent diseases caused by lack of nutrients and prevent chronic diseases linked to nutrition (heart disease and diabetes)
  • 4. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Dietary Reference Intakes – DRIs
      • Being released in a series of reports
      • Until all reports are released, professionals must use a combination of DRIs and RDAs
        • RDAs – Recommended Dietary Allowances
          • Planning tool published since 1943
          • Suggested levels of nutrient intake to meet the needs of most healthy people
          • Include recommendations for energy needs and a number of nutrients
          • Not available for every known nutrient because some information about nutrients is incomplete
          • Revised from time to time to reflect new research
          • Latest revisions show a move to using the DRIs
  • 5. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Dietary Reference Intakes – DRIs
      • DRIs include four types of nutrient reference standards:
        • Newly revised RDAs
          • Based on EARs and are 20% higher than the EAR to cover the nutrient needs of most people
        • Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
          • Nutrient recommendation estimated to meet the need of half the healthy people in a group.
          • If a group of people consumes a nutrient at this level, half would be fine and half would be deficient
  • 6. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Dietary Reference Intakes – DRIs
      • DRIs include four types of nutrient reference standards:
        • Adequate Intake (AI)
          • Determined for nutrients for which research is inconclusive (an EAR cannot be established for these nutrients and no RDA can be determined)
          • AIs will be replaced with EARs and RDAs as more information becomes available
          • AIs are used for all nutrients for infants
        • Upper Tolerable Intake Level (UL)
          • Represents the maximum level at which a nutrient is unlikely to cause harm to most people.
          • Intake above this level could cause a poisonous reaction
          • Not enough information is available to set a UL for all nutrients
  • 7. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Dietary Reference Intakes – DRIs
      • Can use DRIs for diet planning
        • Should aim to include the AI or RDA amount of each nutrient in your diet
        • A true nutrient lack or excess can only be determined through medical testing
        • Should also look at your overall eating pattern and health condition
          • Factors such as medications and diseases can affect your nutrient needs
  • 8. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Dietary Guidelines for Americans
      • Published by the US Department of Health and Human Services and Agriculture
      • Developed to give people an idea of how to eat better to stay active and healthy
      • Should guide food choices to help you feel better today and stay healthy for tomorrow.
      • Focus is on choosing a nutritious diet, maintaining a healthy weight, achieving adequate exercise, and keeping foods safe
      • Intended for the general population, regardless of lifestyle or cultural background
  • 9. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Dietary Guidelines for Americans
      • 2/3 of Americans are overweight or obese, and more than half get too little exercise
      • 2005 release placed a stronger emphasis on physical activity
      • Average American diet is too high in fats, cholesterol, and sugar.
      • Too low in the nutrients found in whole grains, vegetables, and fruits.
      • These issues are linked with an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, cancer, and liver disease which are among the leading causes of death in the US
  • 10. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Dietary Guidelines for Americans
      • Provide advise to people to help them reach achievable goals in weight control, stronger muscles and bones, and balanced nutrition.
      • The sooner you start the habits of choosing healthful foods and becoming physically active, the better.
  • 11. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Dietary Guidelines for Americans
      • Guideline #1: Make smart food choices from every food group
        • No single food can supply all nutrients in the amounts you need
        • Choose a variety of foods each day
        • Any food that supplies calories and nutrients can be a part of a nutritious diet
        • Your diet should include daily servings of whole grains, vegetables, fruits, fat free or lowfat milk.
        • Choose foods low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, salt and added sugars
  • 12. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Dietary Guidelines for Americans
      • Guideline #2: Mix up your food choices within each food group:
        • Focus on fruits – should have about 2 cups (4 servings) of fruit each day which equals a small banana, apple or large orange
        • Select a variety of vegetables, including dark green vegetables (broccoli, spinach) and orange vegetables (carrots, sweet potatoes) – need 2 ½ cups (five servings) per day
          • Select from ALL vegetable groups (dark green, orange, legumes, starchy vegetables, and other vegetables) several times a week
        • Add more beans and peas
        • Get more calcium by drinking 3 cups a day of fat free or lowfat dairy products or equivalent amounts of cheese or yogurt
        • Make half your grains whole grains
        • Go lean on protein
  • 13. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Dietary Guidelines for Americans
      • Guideline #3: Find your balance between food and physical activity.
        • Regular exercise is important
        • Children and teens should be physically active for 60 minutes every day or most days of the week
        • To help control body weight, a teen can increase intensity and consume lower-calorie foods
  • 14. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Dietary Guidelines for Americans
      • Guideline #4: Get the most nutrition out of your calories
        • There is a RIGHT number of calories for you to eat each day based on your age, body size, activity level, and other factors
        • Your calorie needs will differ if you are trying to gain, maintain or lose weight.
        • Include nutrient dense foods from each food group – foods high in vitamins and minerals compared to the number of calories they provide
  • 15. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Dietary Guidelines for Americans
      • Guideline #4: Get the most nutrition out of your calories
        • Be sure to read the nutrition facts panel which will help guide your selection of foods
        • Eat foods high in potassium, calcium, iron, fiber, and vitamins A and C.
        • On the panel, a percent Daily Value is considered low if it is 5 % or less and high if it is 20% or higher
        • Select foods low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, and sodium.
        • The label will give the number of calories in a serving – any food providing more than 400 calories per serving is considered high
  • 16. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Dietary Guidelines for Americans
      • Guideline #4: Get the most nutrition out of your calories
        • Drink alcoholic beverages in moderation because it merely supplies calories to the diet.
        • Alcohol can be harmful to health.
        • Can be a contributing factor in accidents, and drinking alcohol can lead to addiction.
        • Excessive consumption may cause cirrhosis of the liver and inflammation of the pancreas
        • Damage to the heart and brain and an increased risk for many cancers are associated with high alcohol consumption
        • Children, teens, and pregnant women should completely avoid alcohol
        • Nursing mothers, alcoholics, and anyone taking medication or planning to drive or operate machinery should also avoid alcohol
  • 17. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Dietary Guidelines for Americans
      • Guideline #5: Play it safe with food
        • You must know how to prepare, handle, and store foods safely.
        • Illness from food mishandling can result in days of discomfort, lost time away from school or work, and even death.
        • Infants, young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people who have a reduced immune system due to illness are at greater risk
  • 18. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Dietary Guidelines for Americans
      • Not a guideline, but part of all five guidelines – Using Variety, Moderation, and Balance
        • Sum up the spirit of healthful eating
        • Variety – include many different types of foods in your diet
        • Moderation – avoid eating too much of any one type of food
        • Balance – selecting some foods that are lower in salt, sugars, saturated fats, cholesterol and calories which will help offset food choices that are higher in these components
        • Also need to choose foods that are equal to your calorie needs
        • Guidelines are to help people look at eating behaviors with a lifestyle perspective – not one day, but every day
  • 19. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • MyPyramid
      • Developed in 2005 by the USDA
      • Based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans
      • Provides an individualized approach to a healthy diet and physically active lifestyle
  • 20. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • MyPyramid
    • Divides food into six categories – grains, vegetables, fruits, milk, meat and beans, and oils
    • Should eat food from each category – including oil!
    • The width of the band indicates how much to consume – the wider the band, the more you should eat from that group (proportion)
    • Moderation is shown by the bands getting smaller at the top – bottom of the pyramid is the healthier options and the tip is for foods high in fat, sugar and sodium
    • Physical activity is shown by the person climbing the steps
    • The person in the pyramid indicates that each plan is individualized and will differ depending on the person’s needs
  • 21. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • MyPyramid
      • How it works :
        • Visit the www.mypyramid.gov website .
          • Click on “get a personalized plan”
          • Enter your age, sex and activity level
          • For a more personalized plan, enter you height and weight
          • Submit
        • The plan then selects the food intake pattern that is right for you
          • Many teens require 2000 calories daily
          • Your plan includes specific daily amounts from each food group and a limit for sugar and fat
          • You need to make smart choices from each group
        • The plan also aims to help people balance food intake and physical activity and encourages 60 minutes of activity each day
  • 22.
    • MyPyramid
      • Food Groups
        • Helps you identify what foods are in each group, what counts as a portion, and how to make a healthy selection
          • Grains – foods made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley, and other grains; half of the grains should be whole grains which include whole wheat flour, bulgur, oatmeal, brown rice, and whole cornmeal; refined grains include white bread, white rice, and other white flour products and should be consumed in moderation
          • Vegetables – provide a variety of nutrients and fiber; divided into five subgroups (Same as DGA); can be fresh, frozen or canned
          • Fruits – rich in nutrients and fiber; may be fresh, frozen, pureed, dried, or canned
          • Milk – high in protein and calcium; very little calcium is found in ice cream, cream cheese, butter so they are NOT included in this food group; consume 3 cups each day
          • Meat and Beans – provides a variety of nutrients including proteins, essential fatty acids, and vitamin E; includes meat, poultry, fish, dry beans and peas, seeds, nuts, and eggs; choose lean meats and poultry to avoid saturated fats and cholesterol ; beans and peas are also part of the vegetable group
          • Oils – fats that are liquid at room temperature; some are needed; high in calories
  • 23. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • MyPyramid
      • Measuring Portion Sizes
        • Unit of measured food, such as cups or ounces
        • Grains Group
          • Count as one ounce equivalent:
            • 1 slice of whole wheat bread
            • 1 cup of ready-to-eat cereal
            • 5-7 small crackers
            • ½ cup cooked pasta or rice
        • Vegetable Group
          • Count as 1 cup portion:
            • 1 cup broccoli, raw or cooked
            • 1 large tomato
            • 1 medium baked potato
            • 2 cups of romaine lettuce
  • 24. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • MyPyramid
      • Measuring Portion Sizes
        • Fruit Group
          • Count as one cup portion
            • 1 cup canned fruit or fruit juice
            • 1 small apple or medium banana
            • ½ cup dried apricots
            • ¼ of a medium cantaloupe
        • Milk Group
          • Count as a one cup portion
          • 1 cup fat free or low fat milk or yogurt
          • 1 ½ ounces natural cheese
          • 2 ounces processed cheese (American)
          • 2 cups cottage cheese
        • Meat and Beans Group
          • Count as a one ounce equivalent
            • 1 ounce cooked lean meat, poultry, fish
            • 1 egg
            • ½ ounce of nuts
            • 1 tablespoon peanut butter
            • ¼ cup dried beans or peas
  • 25. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • MyPyramid
      • Portion Sizes
        • It is important to be aware of portion sizes in order to lose, maintain or gain weight.
        • Read the labels on your food products to help you figure out portion size – food labeling laws require that serving sizes be uniform and reflect the amounts people usually eat.
        • They must be expressed on the label in common household and metric measures
        • You will need to be able to figure out how many portions of each food group are in that serving.
  • 26. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • The Daily Values on Food Labels
      • Recommended nutrient intakes based on daily calorie needs
      • Daily Values for carbohydrate, fat, and protein are used as references on food labels are based on a 2,000 calorie diet
      • The amounts of nutrients in a serving of a food product are expressed as a percentage of these Daily Values.
      • Most food labels do not have enough room to list all nutrients for each age range and sex – so they highlight only the nutrients most important to health of today’s consumer
  • 27. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • The Daily Values on Food Labels
      • Percent Daily Values are listed for fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, carbohydrate, fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium and iron.
      • Use the Daily Values to try to get 100% of all nutrients and to compare foods to get the most nutrient dense options
  • 28. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Nutrient Density
      • Comparison of the nutrients provided by a food with the calories provided by the food; an evaluation of the nutritional quality of food
      • Involves looking at a person’s daily nutrient and calorie needs
      • A food that provides a greater percentage of nutrient needs than calorie needs has a high nutrient density
      • A food that provides a lesser percentage of nutrient needs than calorie needs has a low nutrient density
      • You can analyze the ratio of a wide variety of nutrients and calories; a food can have a low density for one nutrient and a high density of another
      • You can use your knowledge of nutrient density to help you better the quality of your diet
  • 29. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Nutrient Density
      • Junk food vs. health food
        • There is no such thing as a perfect food AND there are very few foods that supply no nutrients.
        • This means that the terms “junk food” and “health food” are poor labels for food – terms like “high nutrient density” and “low nutrient density” are more accurate
        • Again, moderation, variety, and balance are key to a nutritious diet
  • 30. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Using Food Recommendations and Guidelines
      • Keep a Food Diary
        • Record of the kinds and amounts of food and beverages consumed for a given time
        • Includes snacks and foods eaten away from home along with condiments, such as catsup, pickles, salad dressings, syrups, and jellies
        • You need a complete diary in order to have an accurate analysis of your diet – you will find it easy to forget what you ate if you wait too long to record the information
        • For accuracy, you need to accurately estimate your portion sizes – look at measuring utensils to help you become familiar with the size of amounts
          • A 3 ounce portion of chicken or meat = size of deck of playing cards
          • Find out how much you bowls, cups, etc. hold which will help you estimate in the future
  • 31. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Using Food Recommendations and Guidelines
      • Analyze Your Diet
        • Use the information in your food diary to see if you are meeting your daily nutrient needs.
        • A number of software programs are available which contain food composition tables (reference guides listing the nutritive value of many foods in common serving sizes)
          • You can enter data into the computer about the foods you ate and the program will tell you such information as the calorie and nutrient values of those foods
          • You compare the data to your RDA and DRI to see which nutrients you need more or less of
  • 32. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Using Food Recommendations and Guidelines
      • Analyze Your Diet
        • If you do not have access to a computer, you can do the analysis yourself.
        • Create a chart with columns for the foods you ate, along with the calories and major nutrients.
        • List the foods recorded in your food diary, then use the back of your textbook to find the calories and nutritive values.
        • Food composition tables can also be found any where there is information about nutrition – library, book stores, etc. and many restaurants
  • 33. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Using Food Recommendations and Guidelines
      • Analyze Your Diet
        • Plan menus using MyPyramid
          • Using MyPyramid can help you correct the issues of having too much or not enough of nutrients
          • Following this plan, can help you get the balance you need
          • Eating right may be easier and tastier than you think and MyPyramid is flexible enough for everyone to use – it can suit different family lifestyles, ethnic backgrounds, and religious beliefs and can accommodate all of your favorite foods.
  • 34. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Tips from MyPyramid
      • Physical Activity – build more into daily activities; choose leisure activities that are more vigorous
      • Grains Group – choose more whole grains; add whole grain flour or oatmeal when cooking; choose regular and quick cook instead of instant
      • Vegetable Group – buy fresh in season vegetables; choose canned foods that are lower in sodium; use herbs rather than butter and salt; add vegetables to mixed dishes; include more dark green and orange vegetables and dry beans and peas to meals and snacks
  • 35. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Tips from MyPyramid
      • Fruits Group – choose whole or cut-up fruit instead of fruit juice; use fruit as a topping on cereal and pancakes rather than sugar, syrup; choose fruits canned in juice or water rather than light or heavy syrup
      • Milk Group – choose fat free (skim) or lowfat (1%) milk; replace sour cream with lowfat yogurt; choose lowfat, frozen yogurt, sorbet, or sherbets as an alternative to ice cream
  • 36. Tools for a Healthful Diet
    • Tips from MyPyramid
      • Meat and Bean Group – select fish more often, choose dry beans or peas as a main dish; choose lean cuts with little visible fat or marbling; choose light (white) poultry pieces over dark – they are lower in fat; limit processed sandwich meat; choose canned fish packed in water rather than oil
      • Oils – select baked, steamed, or broiled rather than fried foods; avoid coconut and palm kernel oil; use moderation when cooking with oils or solid fats
  • 37. Review
    • True or False. There is an RDA for every known nutrient.
    • Why were the Dietary Guidelines for Americans developed?
    • What do the Dietary Guidelines recommend for teens in terms of physical activity?
    • How many portions from each group in MyPyramid should you include in a 2,000 calorie menu plan?
    • True or False. Foods in all groups of MyPyramid can contain fats and sugars.
  • 38. Review
    • Give one example of a portion size for each food group in MyPyramid.
    • What is the recommended limit for saturated fat in the diet?
    • Daily Values used as a reference on food labels are based on a ________ calorie diet.
    • What determines if a food has a high nutrient density?
    • Give two tips for keeping a food diary that will increase the validity of a diet analysis.
    • What are food composition tables?
    • Give one tip for making wise choices when selecting foods from each group in MyPyramid.
  • 39. Exchange Lists
    • A system of determining a daily food plan based on units, or exchanges, of various food types.
    • The nutrient content of each item on a food exchange list is calculated according to its serving size, so that items in the same category have approximately the same nutritional value.
    • One serving size of a food in a category can be exchanged for one serving size of any other food in the same category, which is why a serving is called an exchange
    • Most common exchange lists are the Diabetic Exchange List and the MyPyramid