The clinical interface of orthodontics and paediatric dentistry is
broad. Increasingly, for the undergraduate, teaching and
examinations in these specialties are combined to promote a
holistic approach to dental care for the child and adolescent patient.
This concise colour guide aims, therefore, to cover major clinical
aspects of orthodontic and paediatric dental practice in a format
suitable for quick reference and revision purposes. It assumes a
good working knowledge and competence in history taking/clinical
examination as well as an understanding of the principles of
treatment planning for both disciplines. Space restrictions preclude
the inclusion of some topics which are dealt with comprehensively
i n specialist texts (listed under Recommended Reading). Although
directed primarily at the undergraduate, we hope that this colour
guide will be of value also to the junior postgraduate and to those
preparing for membership examinations.
We wish to acknowledge particularly the help and support of Mrs K.
Shepherd, Mrs G. Drake, Mr J. Davies (Glasgow Dental Hospital and
School) and Mr B. Hill and Mrs J. Howarth (Newcastle upon Tyne
Dental Hospital) in the preparation of photographic material. We
would also like to thank Mr A. Shaw (Fig. 27b), Miss D. Fung (Fig.
28), Mr J. G. McLennan (Figs. 68, 100, 101, 103), Dr L-H. Teh (Figs.
78, 84) and Miss J. Hickman (Fig. 85). The Index of Orthodontic
Treatment Need is reproduced by kind permission of VUMAN
Limited. We also thank the staff of Harcourt Health Sciences who
have been very helpful throughout. Finally we pay special tribute to
Eithne Johnstone for her considerable skill and advice in preparing
and text editing the initial drafts of the manuscript.
Glasgow and Newcastle upon Tyne
D. T. M.
R. R. W.
The changes one would expect in the 'average'
child. For average eruption dates see page 83.
I ncisors are usually spaced and upright. No
spacing indicates the probable crowding of
successors (Fig. 1). 'Primate' spacing may exist
distal to cs and mesial to cs. Distal surfaces of es
are flush in most cases. By 5-6 years, an edge-toedge occlusion with incisor attrition is common.
Primary to mixed dentition
• 1 1 or 6s are usually the first to erupt; mild
i ncisor crowding is common (Fig. 2) but tends
to resolve by 9 years with an increase of about
2-3mm in intercanine width.
• Space for 21[12 i s provided by existing incisor
spacing, by intercanine width growth, and by
their greater proclination than ba ab.
111 are usually distally inclined initially; median
diastema reduces with 212 eruption. As 3 3
migrate and press on the roots of 212, their
crowns, and to a lesser extent those of 111, are
frequently flared distally with a median diastema
-'ugly duckling' stage (Fig. 3). This usually
corrects as 3s erupt.
• Space for 3, 4, 5s is provided by the slightly
greater mesiodistal width of c, d, es. Greater
l eeway space in the mandible (-2-2.5mm) than
i n the maxilla (-1-1.5mm) with mandibular
growth creates a Class I molar relationship.
Dental arch development
With the exception of intercanine width increase,
dental arch size alters minimally after the primary
dentition erupts. Permanent molars are accommodated by growth at the back of the arch.
Alveolar bone growth maintains occlusal contact
as the face grows vertically.
Normal permanent occlusion
Static occlusal relations (Andrews' six keys)
• Molar relationship ( Fig. 4). Distal surface of the
distal marginal ridge of 6 contacts and occludes
with the mesial surface of the mesial marginal
ridge of 7; the mesiobuccal cusp of 6 lies in the
_groove between the mesial and middle cusps of
6; the mesiolingual cusp of 6 seats in the central
fossa of 6.
• Crown angulation. Gingival aspect of the long
axis of each crown lies distal to its occlusal
• Crown inclination. The gingival aspect of the
l abial surface of the crown of 21112 li es palatal to
the incisal aspect. Otherwise, the gingival aspect
of the labial or buccal surface of the crowns of
all other teeth lies labial or buccal to the
i ncisal/occlusal aspect.
• No rotations.
• No spaces.
• Flat or mildly increased (<_1.5mm) curve of Spee.
Functional occlusal relations
• Centric relation should coincide with centric
• A working side canine rise (Fig. 5) or group
function should be present on lateral excursions,
with no occlusal contact on the non-working
side; the incisors should only contact in
Maturational changes in the occlusion
• Increase in lower incisor crowding (Fig. 6).
• Slight increase in interincisal angle with incisor
• Slight increase in mandibular prognathism.
Fig. 4 Normal molar relationship.
Fig. 5 Canine guided right lateral excursion; note that no nonworking side contacts were present.
Fig. 6 Late lower incisor crowding.
Fig. 7 Class I molar and incisor relationships.
Fig. 8 Class II molar ll Dlvlsion 1 incisor relatior ! ,
Fig. 9 Half unit Class II molar/II Division 2 incisor relationship.
Fig. 10 Class III molar and incisor relationships.
Classification to assess treatment need
Helps to identify those malocclusions most likely to
benefit in dental health and appearance from
orthodontic treatment; comprises two components:
• Dental health component (DHC)
• Aesthetic component (AC).
Dental health component (DHC) ( Fig. 11 a).
categorised objectively into five treatment grades,
from no need (Grade 1) to very great need (Grade
5). Occlusal features are assessed in the following
order: missing teeth (M), overjet (O), crossbite (C),
displacement of contact points, i.e. crowding (D),
overbite (O), giving the acronym MOCDO. A ruler
( Fig. 11 b) facilitates the grading process.
GRADE 5 (Need treatment)
GRADE 3 (Borderline need)
3.a Increased overjet greater than 3.5min but less
than or equal to 6mm. with incompetent lips.
I mpeded eruption of teeth (except for third
molars) due to crowding, displacement, the
presence of supernumerary teeth, retained
deciduous teeth and any pathological cause.
5.h Extensive hypodontia with restorative
implications (more than 1 tooth missing in
any quadrant) requiring pre-restorative
5.a Increased overjet greater than 9nmt.
5.m Reverse overjet greater than 3.5mm with
reported masticatory and speech difficulties.
5.p Defects of cleft lip and palate and other
5.s Submerged deciduous teeth.
3.b Reverse overjet greater than I mm but less
than or equal to 3.5mm.
3.c Anterior or posterior crossbites with greater
than Imm but less than or equal to 2mm
discrepancy between retruded contact
position and intercuspal position.
3.d Contact point displacements greater than
2mm but less than or equal to 4mm.
3.e Lateral or anterior open bite greater than
2mm but less than or equal to 4mm.
3.f Deep overbite complete on gingival or palatal
tissues but no trauma.
GRADE 2 (Little)
GRADE 4 (Need treatment)
4.h Less extensive hypodontia requiring
prerestorative orthodontics or orthodontic
space closure to obviate the need for a
4.a Increased overjet greater than 6mm but less
than or equal to 9mm.
4.6 Reverse overjet greater than 3.5 mm with no
masticatory or speech difficulties.
4.m Reverse overjet greater than I mm but less
than 3.5mm with recorded masticatory and
4.c Anterior or posterior crossbites with greater
than 2mm discrepancy between retruded
contact position and intercuspal position.
4.1 Posterior lingual crossbite with no functional
occlusal contact in one or both buccal segments.
4.d Severe contact point displacements greater
4.e Extreme lateral or anterior open bites greater
4.f Increased and complete overbite with
gingival or palatal trauma.
2.a Increased overjet greater than 3.5mm but less
than or equal to 6mm with competent lips.
2.b Reverse overjet greater than Omm but less
than or equal to I mm.
2.c Anterior or posterior crossbite with less than
or equal to I mm discrepancy between
retruded contact position and intercuspal
2.d Contact point displacements greater than
I mm but less than or equal to 2mm.
2.e Anterior or posterior openbite greater than
I mm but less than or equal to 2mm
2.f Increased overbite greater than or equal to
3.5mm without gingival contact.
2.g Pre-normal or post-normal occlusions with
no other anomalies (includes up to half a unit
GRADE 1 (None)
Extremely minor malocclusions including
contact point displacements less than I mm.
Partially erupted teeth, tipped and impacted
against adjacent teeth.
4.x Presence of supernumerary teeth.
Fig. 11a Dental health component of the index of orthodontic treatment need.
Fig. 11b Index of orthodontic treatment need ruler.
A esthetic component (AC) (Fig. 12). Uses a set of 10
photographs of anterior occlusion with increasing
aesthetic impairment. Assessment is made by
selecting the photograph thought to match the
aesthetic handicap of the case. Treatment need is
categorised as follows: score 1-2 = no need; 3-7 borderline need; 8-10 = definite need. The method
suffers from subjectivity.
Classification to assess treatment outcome
Objective assessment using DHC of IOTN, and
subjective assessment by AC of IOTN. Peer
assessment rating (PAR) may be recorded also. Six
aspects, each given a different weighting, of the
pre- and post-treatment occlusion may be assessed
from study models with the aid of a ruler (Fig. 13).
The percentage change in the PAR score measures
success. A 70% reduction in the PAR score
i ndicates 'greatly improved' occlusion, while
'worse/no different' is indicated by <- 20% reduction
i n ernrc
Fig. 12 Aesthetic component of the index of orthodontic treatment need.
Fig. 13 Peer assessment rating
Evaluation and interpretation of both lateral and
posteroanterior (PA) radiographs of the head
( usually confined to the former).
Standardised technique to ensure reproducibility
and minimise magnification:
Frankfort plane horizontal, ear posts in the
external auditory canal with the central X-ray beam
directed through them, teeth in centric occlusion,
X-ray source at a fixed distance to the midsagittal
plane (about 152.5cm) and to the film (see Fig. 14).
Collimate the beam to reduce radiation exposure.
An aluminium wedge enables the soft tissues to be
demonstrated (Fig. 15).
When anteroposterior and/or vertical skeletal
discrepancies are present (Fig. 15); when
anteroposterior incisor movement is planned in
Uses of lateral
• To aid diagnosis by allowing dental and skeletal
characteristics of a malocclusion to be assessed.
• To check treatment progress during fixed or
functional treatments and to monitor the position
of unerupted teeth.
• To assess treatment and growth changes by
superimposing radiographs or tracings on
reasonably stable areas: cranial base or its
approximation (S-N line holding at S; Fig. 16);
anterior vault of the palate; Bjork's structures in
Aim and objective of cephalometric analysis
To assess the anteroposterior and vertical
relationships of the upper and lower teeth with
supporting alveolar bone to their respective
maxillary and mandibular bases and to the cranial
To compare the patient to normal population
standards appropriate for his/her racial group,
i dentifying any differences between the two.
Practice of cephalometric analysis
Ensure that teeth are in occlusion and that the
patient is not postured forward.
I n a darkened room, by tracing or digitising,
calculate angular/linear measurements; identify the
points and planes shown in Fig. 17; always trace
the most prominent image. For structures with two
i mages (e.g. the mandibular border), trace both
and take the average for gonion.
For Caucasians, compare individual values with
SNA 81° ± 3°; SNB 78° ± 3°; ANB 3° ± 2°; S-N/Max
plane 8° ± 3°; 1 to Max plane 109° ± 6°; T to Mand
plane 93° ± 6°; Interincisal angle 135° ± 10°; MMPA
27° ± 4°; Facial % 55 ± 2%.
A-P. I f SNA < or > 81° and S-N/Max PL within 8° ±
3°, correct ANB as follows: for every °SNA > 81°,
subtract 0.5° from ANB value and vice versa.
Vertical. MMPA and Facial % should lend support
to each other usually.
• To assess if overjet reduction is possible by
tipping movement, do a prognosis tracing (Fig.
18), or for every 1 mm of overjet reduction
subtract 2.5° from _1 inclination. If the final
i nclination is not < 95° to maxillary plane, tipping
i s acceptable.
• Check 1 angulation to mandibular plane in
conjunction with ANB and MMPA. There is an
i nverse relationship between 1 angulation and
• Interincisal angle: as this increases, overbite
• 1 to APo: this is an aesthetic reference line but it
i s unwise to use for treatment planning
Useful for orthognathic planning.
• Holdaway line: lower lip should be ±1 mm to this
l i ne.
• Ricketts' E-line: lower lip should be 2 mm
( ±2 mm) in front of this with the upper lip
Fig. 17 Cephalometric points, planes and angles. Points: S (Sella); N (Nasion); Po (Porion);
Or (Orbitale); A ('A'point); B ('B'point); Pog (Pogonion); Me (Menton); Go (Gonion). Planes:
Frankfort (Po-Or); Maxillary (ANS-PNS); Mandibular (Go-Me).
Overjet reduction by tipping movement unacceptable
(note upper incisor root through labial plate)
Fig. 18 Prognosis tracing.
Ascribed by Kjellgren* in 1948 to the following:
• Extraction of cs at age 8.5-9.5 years to
encourage the alignment of permanent incisors.
• Extraction of ds about 1 year later to encourage
the eruption of 4s.
• Extraction of 4s as 3s are erupting.
To remove the need for appliance therapy.
Works best in Class I cases at about 9 years with
moderate crowding, average overbite and a full
complement of teeth, where there is no doubt
about the long-term prognosis of 6s.
• Seldom removes need for further appliance
• As three episodes of extractions are required,
often under general anaesthesia, the full extent
of the original technique is never adopted
Consider removal of _cs:
• when 2 erupting in potential crossbite (Fig. 22a)
• to create space for proclination of 2 or the
eruption of an incisor when a supernumerary
has delayed its appearance
• to promote alignment of a palatally displaced 3
( Fig. 23).
Consider removal of cs:
• to facilitate lingual movement of a lower incisor
with reduced periodontal support
• to allow lingual movement of the lower labial
segment in some Class III cases (Fig. 22a, b).
* Kjellgren B 1948 Serial extraction as a corrective procedure in dental
orthopaedic therapy. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 8: 17-43
( see also p. 101)
Conical. These commonly exist between J11 ( Fig.
24), often singularly, but sometimes in combination
with others of similar form.
a. None - if it/they are well above the apices of
111, and if there is no risk of damage to adjacent
teeth with tooth movement, leave and observe
b. Remove - if it/they are displacing adjacent teeth
producing a large diastema or delaying eruption
of 1. Also remove a conical supernumerary if it
Tuberculate. The most common cause of unerupted
1 ( Fig. 25). May be barrel-shaped.
Treatment: remove supernumerary and any
retained primary incisors followed by bonding of
gold chain or a magnet to the unerupted incisor
to allow provision for alignment if spontaneous
eruption is not forthcoming within 18 months of
surgery. Often removal of cs is also required and
URA to move 2L2 distally to create space for 1.
Supplemental. Resembles a normal tooth in
morphology and commonly produces crowding or
displacement of teeth (Fig. 26).
Treatment: extract the tooth most dissimilar to
the contralateral tooth, provided the more normal
tooth is not severely displaced.
(see also pp. 23, 101)
Third molars. Avoid extraction of 7 for distal
movement; calcification of 8 commences at 8-14
years of age.
Upper lateral incisors. ( Fig. 27a) Options are to open,
to maintain or to close the space. The decision
depends on: the patient's attitude to treatment;
anteroposterior and vertical skeletal relationships;
colour, size, shape and inclination of canine and
i ncisor teeth; whether arches are spaced or
crowded; the occlusion of the buccal segments.
Carry out a diagnostic set-up on duplicate study
models with joint consultation with a restorative
Extract cs early in crowded cases to facilitate
mesial drift of posterior teeth; use a fixed
appliance to align and approximate 31113 followed
by bonded retention and recontouring of 3s. If the
decision is made to maintain or open the space,
i t may be filled by autotransplantation of a lower
premolar (where this is being removed for relief of
crowding), or by the provision of a partial denture
or resin bonded bridge (Fig. 27b), or by an implant.
Retain e if the arch is uncrowded
and place occlusal onlay if it starts to submerge.
Remove e after 2s erupt if there is mild crowding,
to encourage space closure, but leave and remove
l ater if the crowding is severe. (NB: watch for late
Lower incisors. A fixed appliance is required to close
the space in a crowded arch or to open space in an
uncrowded arch prior to prosthetic replacement of
If there is severe hypodontia. ( Fig. 28)
care is needed.
Fig. 31 Right posterior crossbite with associated displacement.
First permanent molars (FPM) with poor long-term
Caries (Fig. 32) or enamel hypoplasia.
Timely removal of poor quality FPM may lead to
spontaneous correction of malocclusion in certain
cases (Figs 33 & 34) but does little to relieve
i ncisor crowding or to correct an incisor
relationship unless appliance therapy is instituted.
A 'cook-book' approach to each case with poor
quality FPM is not possible. Some guidelines,
however, are given below:
• Institute preventive measures.
• Assess the patient's motivation for orthodontic
treatment and level of dental awareness.
• Ensure that all permanent teeth, particularly 5s,
8s, present radiographically and all others are of
• Avoid extraction of FPM in a quadrant with an
absent tooth, or in uncrowded arches.
• Consider balancing or compensating for
extraction of a FPM (Figs 33 & 34).
• Timing of extraction of 6: this is best when the
bifurcation of 7s i s calcifying (Fig. 33) aged
approximately 8.5-9.5 years, and moderate
premolar crowding is present.
• The timing of the extraction of 6 is less
i mportant due to its distal tilt and downward and
forward eruption path.
• Extraction of 6 is best delayed
- in Class III cases until the incisor crossbite is
- in Class II Division 1 cases until 7s erupt
- in severely crowded cases until 7s erupt.
• Extraction of 6 may be deferred until 7s erupt in
Class III cases with marked incisor crowding.
• Monitor the eruption of 7s and 8s.
Fig. 32 Restored and carious first permanent molars.
Labial segment problems
Maxillary anterior occlusal radiograph if there is a
l arge diastema to exclude the presence of a
Sudden angular alteration in the long axis of the
crown or in the root of a tooth (Fig. 36).
Trauma: most commonly follows the intrusion of a;
i t is often accompanied by enamel and dentine
Developmental: characteristic labial and superior
coronal deflection of the affected tooth.
Surgical removal if dilaceration is moderate/severe.
Surgical exposure/orthodontic alignment is
occasionally possible if dilaceration is mild and the
apex is destined not to perforate the cortical plate.
Traumatic loss of 1
Immediate: reimplantation or fitting of URA with a
replacement tooth to prevent centreline shift and
tilting of the adjacent teeth (Fig. 37).
Later: consider autotransplantation of a premolar,
or adhesive bridgework if the reimplantation is
Retained primary incisor
See under 'retained primary tooth' (p. 23),
' mesiodens' (p. 19), and below.
I ncisors in crossbite
See page 53.
Remove the retained primary incisor if it is
deflecting the eruption of its permanent successor
( Fig. 38). If there is accompanying mandibular
displacement and a positive overbite is attainable
( Fig. 39), URA with a Z-spring to the offending
i ncisor usually suffices. The removal of cs may be
required to facilitate crossbite correction of 2, or of
cs to allow lingual movement of a labially-placed
l ower incisor (Fig. 22a, b; p. 18).
Depending on the positioning of the finger(s) or
thumb, and the frequency and intensity, the
habit may procline upper incisors, retrocline
l ower incisors, increase the overjet (often
asymmetrically), reduce the overbite, or lead to
crossbite tendency of the buccal segments (Fig.
Gentle persuasion to discontinue the habit is
Early correction of increased overjet
Consider an initial phase of functional appliance
therapy (see pp. 67-70) if there is marked risk of
i ncisor trauma, but fixed appliances (see pp. 63-66)
with or without extractions are often necessary at a
Treatment may be prolonged and patient
cooperation may wane. There is a slight risk of
resorption of incisor roots if they are retracted into
the eruption path of 3s.
Ectopic maxillary canines
About 2% of the Caucasian population have
ectopic maxillary canines (15% buccal; 85%
palatal); occasionally 3 is transposed with 4 or 2
(the former is more common).
• The longest eruption path of any permanent
• Buccal displacement is more common in a
crowded arch (Fig. 41).
• Palatal displacement is more common in an
uncrowded arch and is associated with small,
absent or abnormal root formation of 2s (Fig.
42a, b) and Class II Division 2 malocclusion.
Clinical: buccal and palatal palpation; observe the
i nclination of 2 (it will be labially inclined if 3 is
high and buccal or low and palatal).
Radiographic: dental panoramic tomograph
( DPT) is useful in the initial assessment but
requires a standard occlusal view (Fig. 42a, b) or
two periapicals taken with a tube shift to aid
l ocalisation by parallax. Assess the axial
i nclination, the apex location, the vertical and
mesiodistal position relative to the incisor roots,
and the root length of c.
As the arch is usually crowded, remove 4 as 3 is
starting to erupt (Fig. 41) to expedite spontaneous
alignment. If 3 is mesially inclined, alignment may
require a buccal canine retractor on URA; a fixed
appliance is required if 3 is upright or distally
I f there is severe crowding with 2 and 4 in
contact, consider the removal of 3.
I f eruption of 3 is delayed and the position
favourable for alignment, consider surgical
exposure of 3 with apically repositioned or
replaced flap with bonded attachment or magnet
to facilitate alignment.
• Remove c: in mixed dentition, if the arch is
uncrowded and 3 is mildly displaced, extraction
of c may allow the successful eruption of 3.
• Retain c and review the position of 3
radiographically to ensure that there is no cystic
change or resorption of adjacent teeth. Prosthetic
replacement of c is required when it is eventually
• Exposure of 3 requires a well disposed patient,
and good oral hygiene and dentition. For
exposure to be successful, 3 should overlap <
half width of 1 and be no higher than ? apex 2;
the root apex of 3 should not be distal to 5 and
i ts long axis to the mid-sagittal plane should be
<_ 30°; the arch should be spaced or it should be
possible to create space. A fixed appliance is
required to align the apex of 3.
• Transplantation: consider if the prognosis for the
alignment of 3 is hopeless, there is adequate
space in the arch for 3, intact removal of 3 is
possible, and there is adequate buccal/palatal
bone. The prognosis is improved if 3 root is twothirds formed, there is minimal handling at
surgery, and rigid splinting is avoided. Five year
survival rate is around 70%.
• Removal of 3: if the patient is not keen for
appliance therapy, 2 and 4 are in contact, or
there is good root length on c and the aesthetics
of c are acceptable (Fig. 43).
• Retain 3: occasionally in a young patient unsure
about treatment but who may elect to proceed
with alignment of 3 later. Monitor the status of 3
and the incisor roots with an annual radiographic
If there is incisor resorption. ( Fig. 44)
Removal of 3
may arrest resorption but if resorption is extensive,
removal of the incisor may be unavoidable,
allowing 3 to erupt.
If 3 is transposed. ( Fig. 45)
Assess if the root apices
are completely or partially transposed, assess the
degree of crowding and malocclusion type. It may
be necessary to accept the transposition, extract
the most displaced tooth, or align the arch.
8 / Class I malocclusion
50-55% of Caucasians.
Skeletal. Class I, Class II or Class III malocclusion
with incisor compensation for any underlying
skeletal discrepancy. Lower facial height (LFH) may
be increased or a mild transverse skeletal
discrepancy may exist.
Soft tissues. Not prime aetiological factors except in
bimaxillary proclination where labial movement of
i ncisors (Fig. 46) may result from tongue pressure
i n the presence of unfavourable lip tone.
Dental. Tooth/dental arch discrepancy leading to
crowding (Fig. 47) or spacing (Fig. 48) is the
principal cause. Early loss of primary teeth, large
or small teeth, supernumerary or absent teeth also
i nfluence inherent dentoalveolar disproportion.
• Class I incisor relationship.
• Variable molar relationship depending on
whether mesial drift has followed any
• Crowding is often concentrated in 3, 5 areas.
• Occasional crossbite with associated mandibular
displacement and centreline shift.
Some basic guidelines for Class I cases:
• Mild crowding is best accepted (Fig. 49).
• Moderate crowding usually requires first
premolar extractions; maximal alignment of
i ncisors and canines is likely in the first 6 months
post extraction when 3s are mesially tilted and
there are no occlusal interferences.
• Severe crowding is often managed expediently
by the removal of most displaced teeth or by the
extraction of more than one tooth per quadrant.
Anchorage planning is critical (Fig. 50a, b).
• Late lower labial segment crowding is common
i n mid to late teens. It is best accepted if it is
mild. If the posterior occlusion is Class I and the
arches are aligned with slight overbite increase
and moderate to severe crowding, consider the
extraction of one or two lower incisors followed
by fixed appliance alignment and bonded
Proclination of upper and lower incisors is seen
typically in people of African origin, but may also
occur in Caucasians with Class I, Class II Division 1,
or Class III malocclusion. Overjet is increased in
Class I cases due to incisor angulation. Incisor
retraction is generally unstable unless the lips have
good muscle tone and become competent with
treatment - otherwise permanent retention is
Spaced dentition is generally rare in Caucasians. It
results from a disproportion in the size of the teeth
relative to the arch size, or from the absence of
teeth. When spacing is mild, acceptance is usually
best, or consider composite additions or porcelain
veneers to increase the mesiodistal width of the
l abial segment teeth. If spacing is more marked,
orthodontic treatment to localise spacing at
specific sites may be necessary prior to fitting a
prosthesis or to implant placement.
Consider the patient's age, skeletal pattern, pattern
of mandibular growth, form and relationship of lips
and tongue at rest and in function, and space
requirements (Fig. 52a, c).
Class I or mild
Class II skeletal
particularly if the
i nclination of canines and maxillary incisors is not
amenable to tipping; rotations are present;
i ntrusion of incisors is required for overbite
reduction; and space closure is desired (Fig. 52c, d).
Fixed appliance is indicated
Moderate Class II
This is only possible just before
and during the pubertal growth spurt using a
functional appliance (see pp. 67-70), headgear, or
Orthodontic camouflage. This usually involves the
extraction of 4[4 and fixed appliances to bodily
retract upper incisors. It is only acceptable where a
Class II skeletal pattern is no worse than moderate,
vertical facial proportions are good, and arches are
This is indicated where there is
a marked Class II skeletal pattern with considerably
reduced or increased facial proportions and/or a
gummy smile in an adult.
Provided the interincisal angle is within the normal
l i mits, overjet is completely reduced with the upper
i ncisors in soft tissue balance (Fig. 52b, d) (i.e. no
tongue thrust and the lower lip covering at least
the incisal third of the upper incisors): a few
months of retention will often suffice, but retention
until growth is complete is required following
functional appliance therapy.
10% of Caucasians.
Usually mildly Class II but may be
Class I or mildly Class III; reduced FMPA associated
with anterior mandibular growth rotation which
tends to increase overbite; a relatively wide
maxillary base may lead to buccal crossbite of
Lips are usually competent with a high
l ower lip line. If the lower lip is also hyperactive,
bimaxillary retroclination will result.
Dental. Often a poorly developed cingulum on
the upper incisors and occasionally an acute
crown/root angulation. Crowding is worsened by
retroclination of incisors.
Class I or mild
Class II skeletal
Class II skeletal
Where overbite and retroclination of 111 or 21112 are to be
accepted. Confine treatment to the relief of upper
arch crowding and upper labial segment
3% of Caucasians.
Usually Class III associated with a
l ong mandible, forward placement of the glenoid
fossa positioning the mandible more anteriorly
( Fig. 58), short and/or retrognathic maxilla, short
anterior cranial base or a combination of these
( Fig. 59); it may be Class I with Class III incisor
relationship due to incisor position or inclination.
FMPA may be reduced/average/increased. There is
commonly a transverse discrepancy with a narrow
maxillary and a wider mandibular base but
worsened by a Class III skeletal pattern.
Consider the degree of anteroposterior and vertical
skeletal discrepancy, the potential direction and
extent of future facial growth, incisor inclinations,
the amount of overbite, the ability to achieve edgeto-edge incisor relationship, and the degree of
upper and lower arch crowding. The prognosis is
usually more favourable where the skeletal pattern
i s mildly Class III with average to low FMPA, deep
overbite, upper arch crowding, proclined lower
i ncisors, and the ability to achieve an edge-to-edge
i ncisor relationship exists.
Normal or mild
Class III skeletal
When the skeletal pattern is mildly Class III and/or
i ncisor relationship is acceptable with minimal
crowding and no mandibular displacement.
accept the incisor relationship
and align teeth with possible extractions. Delay
upper arch extractions until after crossbite
correction as space will be forthcoming from arch
If overbite is reduced,
Mild to moderate
Class III skeletal
Severe Class III
Either align arches and accept the incisor
relationship or resort to orthognathic surgery.
Buccolingual malrelationship of upper and lower
Anterior or posterior (unilateral or bilateral) with or
without mandibular displacement.
Lower teeth occlude buccal to
corresponding upper teeth (Fig. 63).
Lower teeth occlude
l i ngual to palatal cusps of upper teeth (Fig. 64).
Lingual crossbite (scissors bite).
One or more of the following may be implicated:
Mismatch in the widths of the dental
arches or an anteroposterior skeletal discrepancy l i ngual crossbite is common in Class II cases (Fig.
64); buccal and/or anterior crossbite occurs often
with Class III malocclusion (Fig. 63). Rarely, growth
restriction of the mandible following condylar
trauma or condylar hyperplasia is implicated.
With a digit-sucking habit, the tongue is
l owered and cheek contraction during sucking is
unopposed, displacing the upper posterior teeth
i nto buccal crossbite.
Retention of a primary tooth or early
l oss of e in a crowded arch may lead to crossbite
of the successor.
I f there is associated mandibular displacement,
crossbite may predispose to temporomandibular
j oint dysfunction syndrome in susceptible
i ndividuals; displacing anterior occlusion may
compromise lower incisor periodontal support
( Fig. 22a; p. 18).
I f one or two incisors are in crossbite, mandibular
displacement usually exists. Correct early in mixed
dentition if adequate overbite is likely (Fig. 22a, b;
p. 18). Extractions may be needed to allow tooth
I f tooth inclination is amenable to tipping, use
URA with buccal capping to free the occlusion and
Z-spring for proclination (Fig. 66), or consider a
screw section clasping the teeth to be moved. If
i nsufficient overbite is likely or an incisor is bodily
displaced, use a fixed appliance in the permanent
dentition. For correction of two or more incisors
see page 49.
For crossbite correction of a premolar or molar,
consider the use of a T -spring or screw section,
respectively, on an URA.
If reciprocal movement of opposing teeth is
required, use fixed attachments and cross elastics.
Consider also the relief of crowding if a tooth is
mildly displaced, or extraction of a tooth in
crossbite if there is more marked displacement.
For correction of unilateral buccal segment
crossbite associated with a mandibular
displacement, use an URA with a midline
expansion screw and buccal capping or quadhelix
( Fig. 67), provided teeth are not tilted buccally.
I f there is unilateral buccal segment crossbite
with no mandibular displacement, as there is no
functional problem, correction is not usually
i ndicated unless it is part of a more comprehensive
treatment in cases of cleft palate or condylar
Usually accept, as a functional problem is rare.
Rapid maxillary expansion (Fig. 68) of the midpalatal suture can be tried, but no later than early
teenage years. As half of the dental expansion is
l ost, some overexpansion is advisable.
Where a single tooth is displaced due to crowding,
i t can often be corrected by its extraction or by
alignment with the buccally approaching arm on
an URA once space has been created.
With displacement. Use fixed appliances to expand
l ower arch/contract upper arch. Stability is likely if
good buccal intercuspation has been achieved.
No displacement. Consider surgery.
Some commonly used means are:
Used posteriorly in the arch (Figs 74,
75, 76). Arrowheads engage about 1 mm of mesial
and distal undercuts on the tooth. 0.7mm wire is
used for molars; 0.6mm wire is advisable for
premolars and primary molars. The clasp is easily
modified to incorporate hooks for elastics, or tubes
may be soldered for extraoral anchorage (Fig. 75).
Recommended anteriorly with 'u'
l oop engaging the undercut between incisors (Fig.
0.7 mm wire (0.8 mm if it includes
reverse loops). This is useful in preventing buccal
drifting of teeth during mesial or distal movement
( Fig. 71; p. 58); it can also be fitted to the teeth as a
Long labial bow.
This is usually made of cold-cured acrylic but may
be heat-cured. It connects the other components;
guards palatal springs; aids anchorage by contact
with the palate and with teeth intended not to
move; and transfers active component forces to
the anchorage. It may also be active.
Used to reduce overbite
( Fig. 74) or to remove occlusal interference to
allow tooth movement. FABP should contact two or
three lower incisors.
Flat anterior biteplane (FABP).
To remove occlusal
i nterferences and to facilitate tooth movement
when overbite reduction is unnecessary. It is
commonly used in the correction of unilateral
buccal crossbite with displacement or incisor
crossbite (Fig. 76).
Posterior bite platform.
anchorage loss is
Resistance to the force of reaction generated by
the active components. It is best thought of in
terms of available space for intended tooth
Bodily movement is more anchorage
demanding than tipping movement.
Teeth with a larger RSA or a
block of teeth with a large RSA will resist
anchorage loss more than those with a smaller
Root surface area (RSA).
This is greater in the upper
than in the lower arch, and will be worse if URA is
l eft out.
Mesial drift tendency.
FMPA. Space loss is easier with increased than
with reduced FMPA.
Where this is good, mesial
drift is less likely.
Use force as light as possible for the intended
tooth movement (about 30-50g for tipping; about
150-250g for bodily movement), move the
minimum number of teeth at one time, and
i ncrease the resistance of the anchor teeth.
Intramaxillary: i ncorporate the maximum number
of teeth in the same arch in the anchorage unit.
Mucosal coverage: URA is better than a fixed
In term axillary: use teeth in the opposing arch.
Suitable with fixed appliances - Class II (Fig. 77) or
Class III (Fig. 78) traction.
By headgear ( Fig. 79): to URA or fixed appliance.
Anchorage requires 200-250g for 1011/day;
extraoral traction requires 500g for 14-1611/day.
Fit two safety mechanisms, preferably a facebow
with locking device (e.g. NitomTM) and a safety
release spring mechanism attached to the headcap
( Fig. 79). Issue verbal and written safety
i nstructions to both patient and parents and check
the headgear at each visit.
An appliance fixed to teeth by attachments through
which force application is by archwires or
Brackets and bands ( Fig. 80). Brackets (bonded to
teeth, by acid etch/composite resin or alternative
system) allow the teeth to be directed by active
components (archwires and/or accessories). Bands
are cemented to molars or used when repeated
bond failure occurs.
These may be round or rectangular.
Usually, round active wire is used initially (Fig. 81);
rectangular passive wire with auxiliaries is used
l ater in treatment (Fig. 80).
Elastics or elastomeric
modules/chain/thread (Figs 80, 81); springs.
Bodily movement, particularly of incisors to correct
mild to moderate skeletal discrepancies; overbite
reduction by incisor intrusion; correction of
rotations (Fig. 81); extensive lower arch treatment;
alignment of grossly misplaced teeth, particularly
those requiring extrusion; closure of spaces;
multiple tooth movements required in either one
or both arches.
Cooperative patient with excellent oral hygiene;
adjustment visits at 4-6-week intervals.
Bodily rather than tipping movement places
greater strain on the anchorage. Reinforce
anchorage by bonding more teeth and ligating
them together; palatal (Fig. 82) or lingual arches;
i ntermaxillary traction; extraoral means.
Most common pre-adjusted appliances
Edgewise. Uses an individual bracket with a
rectangular slot for each tooth to give it 'average'
i nclination and angulation and to allow placement
of flat archwires. Bracket prescriptions described
by Andrews (Fig. 83) and Roth are available.
Based on the Begg philosophy but the
narrow brackets also have preadjusted values to
allow the placement of rectangular wires in the
final stages of treatment (Fig. 84).
Uses brackets bonded to the lingual/palatal
surfaces of the teeth and specially configured
archwires. Aesthetic, but uncomfortable for the
patient and difficult to adjust.
Components are attached to teeth in (usually) one
segment of the arch, normally for localised
alignment as part of adjunctive treatment,
especially in adults (see Fig. 92; p. 72).
Fixed - removable
URA with bands cemented to _6s for extraoral
traction (Fig. 85); bracket bonded to a rotated
i ncisor and whip spring hooked to labial bow for
derotation; bracket bonded to a favourably inclined
palatal canine and traction applied from the buccal
arm on the appliance to the bracket via elastic.
As the sole means of Class II correction in a
growing child if the following conditions are met:
mild skeletal Class II due to mandibular retrusion;
average/reduced FMPA; uncrowded arches; upright
or slightly retroclined lower incisors (Fig. 89a, b).
( Functional appliances have limited use for Class III
or anterior open bite correction (pp. 49, 55).
May also be used for the preliminary phase of
treatment in mixed dentition in severe Class II
malocclusion to aid occlusal correction prior to
fixed appliances and possibly extractions.
( Fi gs 89a-d)
When used for correction of Class II with deep
Enhancement of mandibular growth by movement
of mandibular condyle out of the fossa promoting
condylar cartilage growth and anterior migration of
glenoid fossa (effect very variable); inhibition of
forward maxillary growth; lower facial height
i ncrease (Figs 89a-d).
Overall growth is modified, the total amount of
mandibular growth is unaffected, but growth
expression is altered.
Retroclination of upper incisors/proclination of
l ower incisors; inhibition of lower incisor eruption;
promotion of mesial and upward eruption of lower
posterior teeth; prevention of eruption and mesial
movement of upper posterior teeth. Arch
expansion in some cases.
• Adults are usually highly motivated but also
have high expectations.
• There is a greater likelihood of systemic disease
( e.g. diabetes), and adults are more prone to
• There may be a compromised dentition, such as
periodontal disease, tooth loss, extensive
restorative treatment (Fig. 90) with perhaps
retained roots, periapical pathology or root
resorption. Multidisciplinary input is often
necessary to achieve the best result.
• Lack of growth means that skeletal discrepancies
other than mild ones are often best dealt with by
an orthodontic/surgical approach rather than by
camouflage. Where camouflage is considered,
overbite reduction by incisor intrusion rather
than by molar extrusion is necessary.
• Anchorage planning in adults is more
demanding than in adolescents due to previous
tooth loss and/or reduced bony support (Fig. 91).
Headgear is not realistic - use palatal/lingual
• Reduced cell population, and often reduced
vascularity of alveolar bone, mean slower initial
tooth movement but otherwise movement is as
efficient as in adolescents. Retention is often
l engthy as there is slower tissue remodelling and
it must be permanent if there is reduced
• Lighter forces are required in reduced
• There is less adaptation to disruption in
occlusion, so stable functional occlusion posttreatment must be ensured.
• Aesthetic brackets are often required to improve
the appearance of the appliance (Fig. 92).
Aim to correct one aspect of malocclusion to
i mprove dental health or function. Typically
treatment is of < 6 months duration and integrated
with periodontal or advanced restorative
procedures (e.g. crossbite correction, alignment of
drifting incisors (Fig. 93a, b), uprighting of teeth
prior to bridgework, extrusion of teeth with
Aim to achieve an optimal aesthetic and functional
occlusal result. If there is mild skeletal discrepancy,
camouflage by dentoalveolar movement is
possible with fixed appliances. The principles are
similar for major malocclusion types but overbite
reduction is by intrusion rather than by molar
extrusion (Fig. 94). If there is a more marked
skeletal discrepancy, a combined surgical/
orthodontic approach is required. Comprehensive
treatment can still be undertaken where significant
l oss of periodontal support is present, provided
that disease has been controlled before treatment
and there is regular periodontal recall during
Fig. 93a Pre-treatment with drifting incisors.
Fig. 93b Following fixed appliance alignment of labial segments.
Fig. 94 Adult patient where incisor intrusion is required for
Fig. 95 Moderately severe Class III
Fig. 97 Severe facial asymmetry.
Fig. 96 Markedly increased lower
anterior face height.
Fig. 98 Bolton standard (blue)
superimposed on computer-generated
Usually decompensate for any dentoalveolar
compensation so that true jaw discrepancy is
revealed (Fig. 99a, c). Align and coordinate arches
or arch segments and establish the vertical and
anteroposterior position of the incisors so that
jaws can be positioned in the desired location
without interference from tooth positions. Place
rigid rectangular stabilising archwires with ball
I ntermaxillary traction on round lighter wires to
finalise occlusal result. Retention regime is usually
as follows fixed appliance therapy. Surgical followup for a minimum of 2 years.
This is enhanced when surgical movement is
modest and does not induce soft tissue tension
( Fig. 99b, d).
Le Fort I osteotomy. This is the most common
procedure. It allows repositioning of the maxilla
superiorly, inferiorly or anteriorly.
This allows correction of marked
maxillary retrognathism and nasal retrusion.
Le Fort II osteotomy.
Used to correct Crouzon's
syndrome. It may be combined with a Le Fort I
Le Fort III osteotomy.
These include Wassmund for
premaxillary prominence; they are now used rarely
since there is a risk of root damage from
i nterdental cuts.
I nferior dental nerve damage
i s common.
Vertical subsigmoid osteotomy.
Used to correct
Useful if existing space or space
created by extraction orthodontically. Valuable if
there is mandibular prognathism and asymmetry.
Usually of the anterior
dentoalveolar segment only, but may involve the
entire arch. Loss of pulpal vitality is possible.
Allows chin repositioning.
I n Caucasians, CLIP) occurs in 1 in 750 live births;
CP in 1 in 2000 live births. CL(P) is more common
i n males; CP is more common in females.
Aetiology is incompletely understood. There is a
family history in 40% of CL(P) and in 20% of CP
cases. Genetic predisposition may possibly be
triggered by environmental factors.
Primary palate (lip and alveolus to the incisive
foramen) and/or secondary palate (hard palate
from incisive foramen back and soft palate),
unilateral or bilateral, complete or incomplete
( Figs 100, 101). Also submucous cleft.
Common clinical features
Patients show a tendency to retrognathic maxilla
and mandible; reduced upper and increased lower
face height with excess freeway space. Class III
skeletal relationship is common.
On the cleft side, 2 is either absent, of abnormal
size and/or shape, hypoplastic or as two conical
teeth on either side of the cleft; a supernumerary
or supplemental tooth may exist on either side of
the cleft; 1 is often rotated and tilted towards the
cleft and may be hypoplastic, particularly in
bilateral cases; eruption is delayed. Tooth size
elsewhere in the mouth tends to be smaller. Class
III incisor relationship is common with crossbite of
one or both buccal segments and occasionally a
l ateral open bite (Fig. 102).
Post-surgical scarring in patients with CL + P
restricts midfacial growth.
Hearing difficulties are common in patients with
CP. Palatal fistulae and adverse palatopharyngeal
function impair speech.
Cardiac and digital anomalies are present in about
a fifth of those with clefts, and are most common
i n those with CP only.
Fig. 100 Left complete unilateral cleft lip and palate.
Fig. 101 Bilateral complete cleft lip and palate.
Fig. 102 Occlusion in a patient with left unilateral cleft lip and
Management of care
This is best coordinated in a specialised centre by
a team comprising orthodontist, speech therapist,
health visitor, plastic, ENT and maxillofacial
surgeons. Dental care should be monitored
regularly by a general dental practitioner.
Neonatal period to 18 months
Parental counselling and reassurance by the
orthodontist; feeding instruction; advice and
support from a specialised health visitor. Presurgical orthopaedics may be needed to reposition
displaced cleft segments. Lip closure is usually
carried out at 3 months (usually Millard technique),
with bilateral lip repair in either one or two stages.
Palate repair is usually at 9-12 months (usually von
Preventive advice; regular speech and hearing
assessment; speech therapy as required. Possibly
pharynoglasty and/or lip revision at 4-5 years.
Correct incisor crossbite in early mixed dentition or
postpone until preparation for alveolar bone
grafting (8-11 years). Usually align incisors and
expand upper arch prior to bone grafting. Graft
restores arch integrity (Fig. 103a, b), allows
eruption of 3, space closure, supports alar base
and aids closure of oronasal fistulae. Once 3
erupts, correct the centreline and move buccal
segments forward so 3 replaces missing or
diminutive 2. Consider relief of crowding in the
non-cleft quadrant and in the lower arch. Delay
l ower arch extractions if orthognathic surgery is
I n late teenage years
I f there is gross midface retrusion (Fig. 104), Le
Fort I or II advancement is likely with possible
mandibular setback and/or genioplasty. Consider
Bonded permanent retention in the upper arch in
Primary teeth erupt at the following times: incisors
6-9 months; first molars 12-14 months; canines
16-18 months; second molars 20-24 months.
Permanent teeth erupt at the following times:
i ncisors 6-9 years; first molars 6-7 years; lower
canines 9-10 years; first premolars 10-11 years;
second premolars 11-12 years; upper canines
11-12 years; second molars 11-13 years; third
molars 17-21 years.
Natal (present at birth). Neonatal (erupt within
28 days of birth).
1 in 700 to 1 in 6000 births.
They are usually lower incisors (Fig. 105) of the
normal dentition (only 10% are supernumeraries).
They may cause tongue trauma, nipple trauma
(if the child is breast fed), or be a danger to the
airway if they are very mobile.
Retain if possible. Extract for any of above reasons.
A type of dentigerous cyst.
Smooth, rounded swelling with a bluish
appearance, sited on the alveolar ridge where a
tooth will erupt (Fig. 106).
They usually, but not always, affect primary teeth
and permanent molars (i.e. teeth with no
Reassurance. This is a self-limiting condition.
Rarely, analgesia and antibiotics are required.
Fig. 105 Neonatal teeth.
Fig. 106 Eruption cyst over an upper permanent incisor.
Fig. 108 Nursing caries of the upper incisors and first primary
Fig. 109 Severe nursing caries.
A etiology and
Caries progresses from a nursing caries pattern to
i nvolve lower anterior primary teeth and second
Frequent consumption of liquids and foods
containing non-milk extrinsic (NME) sugars.
Can involve any tooth, primary and permanent, as
they erupt (Figs 110, 111, 112).
Prevention. 3 day dietary analysis. Optimal systemic
and topical fluoride. Toothbrush instruction. Fissure
sealant placement on first permanent molars as
Fig. 110 Rampant caries with a pulp polyp of the upper second
Fig. 111 Rampant caries with poor oral hygiene.
Fig. 112 Rampant caries due to polo mint addiction.
Poor oral hygiene (chrornogenic bacteria):
Drugs: iron supplements - black; minocycline black; chlorhexidine - brown/black; rifabutin - red.
Poor oral hygiene: gingivally (Fig. 113).
Beverages/food: affects all surfaces but mainly
gingivally (Fig. 114).
Drugs: affects all surfaces but mainly gingivally.
• If due to beverages/food/drugs, it can be
removed by prophylaxis.
• Poor oral hygiene requires tooth brush
i nstruction with the use of disclosing
tablets/solution ( Fig. 115).
Fig. 113 Chromogenic extrinsic stain due to poor oral hygiene.
Fig. 114 Black extrinsic stain secondary to beverages/food.
Fig. 115 Disclosing solution identifying plaque deposits.
Fig. 116 Tetracycline staining.
Fig. 117 Non-vital tooth discoloration.
Fig. 118 Green staining of haemoglobin breakdown products in
a liver transplant patient (prepared for veneers in upper arch).
Tooth development can be disturbed by
constitutional disturbances. Maternal illness during
pregnancy can affect all primary teeth and first
permanent molar teeth (Figs 119, 120). Childhood
febrile illness or gastroenteritis can affect the adult
dentition (Fig. 121). These disturbances produce a
l i near pattern of hypoplasia corresponding to the
site of amelogenesis at the time ('chronological'
I nfection or trauma to a primary tooth may cause
hypoplasia of the underlying permanent successor.
Hypoplasia related to medical, dental and trauma
Restoration of original morphology with
Fig. 119 Enamel hypoplasia of primary and permanent molars.
Fig. 120 Enamel hypoplasia of permanent first molars.
Fig. 121 Enamel hypoplasia of permanent anteriors.
Amelogenesis can be disturbed by excessive
chronic ingestion of fluoride either from naturally
occuring sources in drinking water or from
overdosage by fluoride supplements and
toothpastes, or by a combination of the two.
I t can occur in the primary dentition but is
l argely confined to the permanent dentition. 20-24
months of age is a particularly vulnerable time for
upper permanent central incisors.
I t commonly affects the outer enamel layers.
May vary from diffuse white opaque lines to
scattered white flecking, or a more opaque and
confluent dense white chalky mottling that may
contain brown discoloration (Figs 122, 123), or all
the above with pitting hypoplasia.
Other causes of intrinsic discoloration.
Acid pumice microabrasion. Composite veneers.
Genetic with different 'modes' of inheritance as
well as a wide variety of presentations. Incidence is
1 in 10000.
There are three main types of enamel anomaly:
There is a deficiency of matrix but
normal calcification of matrix which is present. The
enamel is pitted and irregular and retains extrinsic
stain (Fig. 124).
The enamel matrix is normal but
there is inadequate calcification. The enamel may
be normal in the gingival third of the tooth.
Affected enamel is often opaque and retains stain.
It is soft and easily lost (Fig. 125).
The enamel matrix is normal but there
i s little maturation or calcification of the enamel
and the enamel is soft and porous (Fig. 126).
Other causes of intrinsic discoloration.
Complex treatment plan consisting of:
stabilisation/protection of the posterior occlusion
with onlays or preformed crowns, followed by
i mprovement of anterior aesthetics with composite
Autosomal dominant inheritance. Incidence is 1 in
Dentine is abnormal in structure and is translucent.
Three main types exist:
• Type I (associated with osteogenesis imperfecta)
• Type II (hereditary opalescent dentine)
• Type III (brandywine type).
Types I and II are similar: primary teeth are more
severely affected than permanent teeth. In the
permanent dentition, teeth which develop first may
be more severely affected than those which
The teeth are translucent and vary in colour from
grey to blue or brown (Figs. 127, 128). Enamel is
poorly adherent to abnormal dentine and easily
chips and wears. Crowns are bulbous with
pronounced cervical constriction. Radiographically
there are shortened roots, progressive pulp
chamber and canal obliteration, and spontaneous
periapical abscess formation (Fig. 129).
Other causes of intrinsic discoloration.
Complex treatment plan consisting of:
stabilisation/protection of the posterior occlusion
with onlays or preformed crowns followed by
i mprovement of anterior aesthetics with composite
Fig. 127 Dentinogenesis imperfecta. Onlays on first permanent
Fig. 128 Dentinogenesis imperfecta. Onlays on first permanent
Fig. 129 Dentinogenesis imperfecta. Radiographic
Additional teeth can either resemble the normal
dentition (supplemental) (Fig. 130) or be a simple
conical or tubercular shape (supernumerary).
Midline supernumeraries are also called mesiodens
and may be inverted (Fig. 131). Unerupted
supernumeraries often impede normal tooth
eruption (see p. 19).
1.5-3.5% of the population. Multifactorial genetic
Associated with syndromes: cleidocranial
dysplasia; Gardner's syndrome; Hallermann-Streiff
syndrome; cleft lip and palate.
Normal extraction or surgical removal. For
orthodontic management see page 19.
Absence of one or more teeth.
3.5-6.5% of the population (not counting third
Multifactorial genetic inheritance, cytotoxic
Hypodontia of genetic origin usually affects the last
tooth in a series: lateral incisors (Fig. 132); second
premolars; third molars. Microdontia (small teeth)
i s an expression of hypodontia.
Associated with syndromes: Albright's
osteodystrophy; hypothyroidism; Down syndrome;
ectodermal dysplasia; Goltz syndrome;
Hallermann-Streiff syndrome; orofaciodigital
syndrome; cleft lip and palate.
Joint orthodontic, prosthodontic, oral surgery and
paediatric dentistry treatment planning. For
orthodontic management see p. 21.
Fig. 130 Supplemental upper primary incisor.
Fig. 131 Radiograph of Fig. 130. A supernumerary permanent
i ncisor is present between developing central incisors.
Fig. 132 Absent upper lateral incisors.
Prominent additional cusp.
Commonly on the buccal surface of primary first
molars, the palatal surface of primary second
molars, and palatal surfaces of permanent incisor
teeth (Fig. 133).
Maxillary permanent incisor 'talon' cusps often
cause malocclusion and may require removal and
elective root treatment once the root is fully
Non-neoplastic, developmental anomalies or
malformations derived from dental formative
Complex odontome is an irregular mass of
recognisable enamel, dentine and pulp (Fig. 134).
Compound odontome is a collection of
numerous discrete tooth-like structures with
enamel dentine and pulp arranged as in a normal
Dilated odontome ( dens in dente; dens
i nvaginatus) is an invagination of enamel and
dentine to form a pouch of enamel (Fig. 135).
Compound and complex odontomes obstruct
normal tooth eruption. Dilated odontomes are
prone to caries and pulpal infection.
Surgical removal of compound and complex
odontomes. Dilated odontomes may be roottreated as long as the pouch of enamel is coronal,
and can be removed competely. Otherwise usually
extraction is required.
Fig. 133 Talon cusp.
Fig. 134 Odontome obstructing upper right
l ateral. The upper right primary canine is
Fig. 135 Dens in dente of upper lateral incisor.
Transplantation of a tooth in the upper or lower
arch to a prepared socket in the same mouth
( Fig. 136).
I ncreasingly common and successful treatment of
trauma cases where an incisor has been lost or in
hypodontia cases where there may be crowding in
Lower first and second premolars are the easiest
teeth to transplant.
Combined treatment planning with orthodontics,
oral surgery and paediatric dentistry.
I deally, root formation of the transplanted tooth
should be two-thirds complete, so that
revascularisation may occur.
Fig. 136 Autotransplanted canine in upper central region.
Non-carious loss of tooth tissue. There are three
Attrition. Wear of a tooth as a result of tooth-totooth contact.
Abrasion. Physical wear by something other than
Erosion. Wear by a chemical process not involving
bacteria (Figs 137, 138, 139).
This is the predominant form of tooth wear in
• 52% of 5-year-olds have palatal erosion on upper
• 27% of 15-year-olds have palatal wear on upper
• Citrus fruits
• Fruit juices
• Carbonated drinks
• Vinegar and pickles
• Vitamin C tablets.
• Gastro-oesophageal reflux
• Oesophageal strictures
• Chronic respiratory disease
• Mental disability
• Feeding problems.
• Dietary modification.
• Composite/metal veneers or onlays.
Fig. 137 Early erosion of primary molars.
Fig. 138 Labial and incisal erosion of permanent incisors.
Fig. 139 Palatal erosion of permanent incisors.
Fig. 142 Permanent incisor enamel hypoplasia.
Fig. 143 Maceration of permanent central incisor crown.
Fig. 144 Anatomy of developing dentition.
4-33% of children by 12 years of age. Twice as
many boys as girls.
World Health Organization (WHO) classification.
Majority of injuries occur at 7-10 years of age due
to falls during normal play.
Commonest injuries are uncomplicated (enamel
dentine) crown fractures (Fig. 145).
Appropriate management demands accurate
diagnosis and will include any of the following:
• Protection of exposed dentine.
• Pulp treatment which will differ depending on
• Monitoring of apical development (Figs 146,
• Reduction and splinting of displacement and
• Treatment of soft tissue or intra-bony infection.
• Anterior aesthetic considerations.
• Pulp death.
• Root resorption.
Fig. 145 Enamel dentine fracture.
Fig. 146 Enamel dentine fracture; immature
apex, left central incisor.
Fig. 147 Enamel dentine fracture. Continued
development and maturity of tooth in Fig.
Permanent tooth trauma I: reattachment of
Reattachment to the tooth (immediately or
delayed) of enamel dentine or minor enamel
dentine pulp fractures.
Procedure is possible since the development of
dentine bonding agents. If there is a minor pulp
exposure then appropriate pulp treatment can be
carried out, storing the fractured tooth fragment in
normal saline - replenished weekly - until the pulp
treatment is finished. The fragment is reattached
using dentine bonding agent and composite resin
as a luting cement (Figs 148, 149, 150).
• Few long-term follow-up studies.
• Opacity of the distal fragment.
Fig. 148 Enamel dentine and enamel dentine pulp fractures.
Fig. 149 The tooth fragments from Fig. 148.
Fig. 150 Fragments reattached.
Permanent tooth trauma I: total or sub-total
Removal of all coronal pulp (pulpotomy) or 2-3mm
of the coronal pulp (sub-total pulpotomy) after a
coronal fracture involving the pulp in a tooth with
an immature (open) apex (Figs 151, 152).
Periapical radiography to ascertain apical maturity
i nitially and during follow-up.
Monitor the maturity of the width of the root
canal as well as the apical maturity (Fig. 153).
The aim is to maintain radicular pulp vitality to
enable complete root growth.
• Remove coronal pulp with sharp excavators or
slow running bur under LA and rubber dam.
• Place a layer of non-setting calcium hydroxide
over the amputated pulp and cover with a
restorative material that gives a hermetic seal.
• After 3 months, investigate for dentine bridge. If
the bridge is present and there are no signs of
periapical infection on radiography, then restore.
• If no bridge is present and there are signs of
i nfection, proceed to induced apical closure.
Pulp necrosis of retained radicular pulp.
Fig. 151 Enamel dentine pulp and enamel dentine fractures in teeth with immature
Fig. 152 Pulpotomy: early treatment (different
case to Fig. 151).
Fig. 153 Pulpotomy: full root growth with
vital radicular pulp (same case as Fig. 152).
Permanent tooth trauma I: induced apical
Removal of non-vital pulp in a tooth with an
i mmature (open) apex and placement into the roof
canal of non-setting calcium hydroxide cement to
i nduce apical closure.
Periapical radiography to ascertain apical maturity
and to calculate the working length of the canal.
Subsequent radiographs should assess the extent
of apical closure.
To induce apical closure which will allow adequate
obturation of the canal with gutta percha.
Remove pulp under local anaesthetic and rubber
dam. File canal. Working length is 1 mm short of
radiographic apex (Fig. 154). Dry canal. Spin nonsetting calcium hydroxide into the canal to the
working length (Fig. 155). Review and change the
non-setting calcium hydroxide 3-6 monthly.
Average time to apical closure is 1 year. Obturate
with gutta percha when apical closure has
occurred (Figs 156, 157).
Non-closure. Obturation will be difficult by either
the orthograde or the retrograde route.
Fig. 154 Working length calculation.
Fig. 156 Obturation of apical canal.
Fig. 155 Non-setting calcium hydroxide in
Fig. 157 Final obturation.
Fig. 158 Root fractures: indistinct on periapical view.
Fig. 159 Root fractures: more obvious on anterior occlusal
Permanent tooth trauma II: periodontal
Concussion. No abnormal loosening or
displacement but marked reaction to percussion.
Subluxation. Abnormal loosening but no
Partial displacement of tooth from
Lateral luxation. Displacement other than intrusion
with comminution or fracture of alveolar socket
( Fig. 160).
Intrusion. Displacement of tooth into the alveolus
( Fig. 161).
Avulsion. Complete displacement of tooth from
socket (Fig. 162).
Specific management for each definition will differ,
but all are covered by the following empirical
• Reduction/replacement of the tooth to its normal
position either manually or orthodontically.
• Splinting for a defined period (see p. 127).
• Regular clinical and radiographic review to
determine the need for endodontics.
Pulp necrosis. Root resorption.
Permanent tooth trauma II: dentoalveolar
Fracture of the alveolar bone involving the tooth
A number of teeth are 'carried' on the fractured
alveolus, producing an obvious step deformity in
the dental arch (Fig. 163).
Bilateral complete mandibular fractures through
the lower border of the mandible.
Periapical, lower occlusal and DPT radiography.
• Reduction of the fracture (Fig. 164).
• Splinting for 3-4 weeks (Fig. 165).
• Antibiotic cover for 5 days
• Regular clinical and radiographic review of pulp
Fig. 163 Displaced dentoalveolar fracture.
Fig. 164 Reduced and splinted dentoalveolarfracture.
Fig. 165 Sublingual haematoma in a dentoalveolar fracture.
Splinting is necessary in most periodontal ligament
i njuries to allow the fibres to heal. 60% of fibres
are healed by 10-14 days. With the exception of
dentoalveolar fractures which are splinted rigidly,
all other injuries should have functional splints
which allow some movement and prevent
replacement resorption or ankylosis.
Functional splint. 7-10 days. This allows some
functional movement. If using a composite-wire
splint, there should be only one abutment tooth on
either side of the injured tooth. It is used in
Functional splint. 2-3 weeks. One abutment tooth
either side of the injured tooth. It is used in root
fractures, subluxation, luxation, intrusion and
Rigid splint. 3-4 weeks. Two abutment teeth either
side of the injured tooth. It is used in dentoalveolar
Foil/milk bottle top. Filled with temporary cement.
Useful for single-handed operators out of normal
working hours (Fig. 166).
Composite-wire. Stainless steel wire is bent to the
correct shape and 'spot welded' to the centre of
the labial surface of the teeth with acid etched
composite (Fig. 167).
Temporary crown material/wire. As above but using
temporary crown material. It is more difficult to
apply than composite but easier to remove.
Thermoplastic suck-down mouthguard type. This needs
l aboratory equipment to make. The patient can
remove it to brush teeth.
Acrylic plate. This covers the occlusal surface of the
upper teeth. It is useful for injuries to newly
erupted upper centrals where there are no
abutment anterior primary teeth.
Permanent tooth trauma III: soft tissue
Facial swelling, bruises or lacerations may indicate
underlying bony and tooth injury. Lacerations
require careful debridement, to remove all foreign
material, and suturing (Fig. 168). Antibiotics and/or
tetanus toxoid may be required if wounds are
Swollen lip with evidence of a penetrating
wound, associated with a crown fracture, suggests
retention of tooth fragments in the lip (Fig. 169).
This may be clinically obvious (Fig. 169) or require
radiographic localisation (Fig. 170).
Any lacerations should be examined for tooth
fragments or foreign bodies.
Lacerations of lips or tongue require suturing but
those of the oral mucosa heal very quickly and
may not require suturing.
Antibiotics and/or tetanus toxoid may be
required if wounds are contaminated.
Fig. 168 deglov ,y soft . tissue injury y .
Fig. 169 Tooth fragment in upper lip.
Fig. 170 Tooth fragment in lower lip
l ocalised by radiography.
Permanent tooth trauma III: resorption
I nternal resorption
Resorption of the walls of the root canal giving the
pulp space a ballooned appearance. External root
surfaces are intact (Figs 171, 174).
I nduction of multipotent pulpal cells into
osteoclastic cells by necrotic pulp tissue.
Other types of resorption.
Clinical and radiographic assessment of pulpal and
Pulpal extirpation followed by mechanical and
chemical debridement of the root canal. Nonsetting calcium hydroxide. Obturation with gutta
percha when there is no progressive resorption.
Resorption of the external root surfaces to give an
ill-defined 'punched-out' surface. Internal root
canal surfaces are intact (Figs 172, 174).
I nduction of multipotent periodontal ligament cells
i nto osteoclastic cells by damage initially, and
subsequently by pulpal necrotic products via
Other types of resorption.
Clinical and radiographic assessment of pulpal and
Same as internal resorption.
Loss of periodontal ligament and periodontal
l i gament space with direct union of cementum and
bone (Figs 173, 174).
Extensive damage to PDL and cementum during
l uxation and avulsion injuries.
Other types of resorption.
Clinical and radiographic assessment of pulpal and
Placement of non-setting calcium hydroxide into
the root canal. If resorption is progressive, then
plan for prosthetic replacement.
Trisomic chromosome anomaly usually involving
chromosome 21. More prevalent in children born
to elderly mothers. Incidence is 1 in 600 births.
Typical mongoloid appearance with brachycephaly
and short stature; intellectual disability in nearly all
cases; white spots (Brushfield's spots) around the
i ris (Fig. 175); single palmar crease (simian crease);
clinodactyly of the fifth finger; macroglossia and
fissured tongue; midface hypoplasia; microdontia;
hypodontia; periodontal disease.
50% have congenital cardiac defects. Multiple
i mmune defects predispose to acute leukaemia,
blepharitis, keratitis, upper respiratory infections,
and periodontal disease.
Antibiotic prophylaxis will be required if there is
congenital cardiac disease. Aggressive prevention.
1 in 600 children under the age of 15 in the UK.
Leukaemias. Abnormal proliferation of white blood
cells (48% of all childhood cancers).
Solid tumours. Affecting tissues: central nervous
system 16%; lymphoma 8%; neuroblastoma 7%;
nephroblastoma 5%; others 16% of all childhood
Chemotherapy; radiotherapy; bone marrow
transplant (Fig. 176).
Susceptibility to bacterial, viral
and fungal infections.
Haemorrhage. No invasive dental procedures should
be carried out until platelets are 80 x 10 9 g/I.
hypodontia; thin roots; short roots; large pulp
chambers; enamel hypoplasia; dry mouth
( secondary to radiotherapy) (Fig. 177).
Oral and dental complications.
Fig. 175 Brushfield's spots.
Fig. 176 Leukoplakia in graft versus host disease after bone
Fig. 177 Xerostomia (dry mouth).
Congenital cardiac disease
Multifactorial inheritance. Chromosomal
abnormalities represent fewer than 5% of the total.
Ventricular septa[ defect 28%; atrial septal defect
10%; pulmonary stenosis 10%; patent ductus
arteriosus 10%; tetralogy of Fallot 10%; aortic
stenosis 7%; coarctation of the aorta 5%;
transposition of the great arteries 5%; rare/diverse
Shortness of breath, finger clubbing (Fig. 178),
cyanosis (Fig. 179), recurrent respiratory infections,
delayed growth and development.
Antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infective
endocarditis. Some surgical cardiac procedures are
completely curative. Always check with
cardiologist for the need for antibiotic cover.
I nfective endocarditis has a 20% mortality.
Any disorder that upsets the normal: local
reactions of the blood vessels; platelet activities;
i nteraction of specific coagulation factors that
circulate in the blood (Fig. 180).
• Inherited: factor deficiency, e.g. VIII haemophilia
• Acquired: liver disease; vitamin deficiency;
• Primary: lack of platelets, e.g. idiopathic
thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP).
• Secondary: systemic disease, e.g. leukaemia;
drug induced; radiation.
• Vascular wall alteration: scurvy; infections;
• Disorders of platelet function: inherited von
Willebrand's disease; drugs; allergy;
Close liaison with medical colleagues essential.
Fig. 178 Finger clubbing.
Fig. 179 Cyanosis of oral mucosa.
Fig. 180 Deep haematoma in haemophilia
A factor VIII deficiency.
Fig. 181 Primary herpetic gingivostomatitis.
Fig. 182 Recurrent herpes labialis.
Fig. 183 Ocular herpes of the left eye.
Herpes varicella zoster (HVZ) virus. More common
i n adults than in children.
Vesicular lesion develops within the peripheral
distribution of the trigeminal or cervical nerves
Coxsackie A virus infection (commonly A-16).
• Small, painful vesicles surrounded by
i nflammatory haloes, especially on the dorsum
and lateral aspect of the fingers and toes.
• Rash is not always present.
• May also affect more proximal limbs (Fig. 185) or
• Oral lesions are shallow, painful, small and
surrounded by inflammatory haloes.
Fig. 184 Herpes zoster of the cervical
Fig. 185 Hand-foot-and-mouth disease around the elbow.
The main causes of mouth ulcers in children are:
• Local causes (e.g. trauma)
• Recurrent aphthae
• Associated with systemic disease (e.g. coeliac
• Drugs (e.g. cytotoxics)
• Irradiation of the mucosa.
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS)
20% of children may have a haematinic deficiency.
1-3% may have coeliac disease. A smaller number
may be hypersensitive to food constituents. 40% of
those with RAS have a family history. It may be
precipitated by trauma, stress, or illness.
Small (2-4mm) in diameter, last 7-10 days, tend
not to occur on gingiva, palate and dorsum of the
tongue (Figs 186, 187), and heal without scarring.
• Eliminate haematinic deficiency, systemic illness
• Symptomatic application of antibacterial/steroid
Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis
Fusospirochaetal complex together with Gramnegative anaerobic organisms including
Porphyromonas gingivalis, Veillonella and
I n developing countries it may affect children as
young as 1-2 years.
I n developed countries it commonly affects
people in the 16-30 age range.
Necrosis and ulceration affecting interdental papilla
which then spreads to labial and lingual marginal
gingiva. 'Punched out' appearance (Fig. 188).
Oral hygiene, mouth rinses with chlorhexidine
0.2%, hydrogen peroxide or sodium
hydroxyperborate mouth rinse, antibiotics effective
against anaerobes (e.g. metronidazole).
I nflammatory infiltrate in response to the
accumulation of dental plaque next to the gingival
margin. Early flora in plaque are Gram-positive
cocci after 4-7 days, followed by filamentous and
fusiform Gram-negative organisms after 2 weeks.
Swelling and erythema of gingival margins.
Bleeding on brushing or eating. Halitosis (Figs.
Toothbrush instruction. Initial use of chlorhexidine
I f left untreated it will progress to periodontitis.
Fig. 188 Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis in the primary
Fig. 189 Chronic gingivitis around newly erupting teeth.
Fig. 190 Chronic gingivitis of upper labial gingiva.
Fig. 191 Juvenile periodontitis in a teenager with diabetes
Fig. 192 Chronic periodontitis in a 6-year-old child with cyclical
Fig. 193 Clinical appearance of the patient in Fig. 192.
Self-induced, usually with fingernail
Labial surface of tooth commonly (Fig. 194).
I dentification of habit.
Reassurance. Progressive damage in those with an
i ntellectual disability may require protection in the
form of a splint.
Narrow zone of keratined gingiva (e.g. when teeth
erupt labially to their predecessors). Aggravating
factors such as gingivitis or mechanical irritation
from excessive and incorrect toothbrushing may
Characteristic appearance (Fig. 195).
Conservative. Record the maximum distance from
the gingival margin to cementum - enamel
junction. Correct abnormal toothbrushing. Monitor
i nto adolescence as attachment will creep
Guided tissue regeneration or other
Fig. 194 Gingivitis artefacta: gingival recession in the upper and lower canine
Fig. 195 Localised gingival recession.
Localised gingival hyperplasia
Hyperplastic response to inadequate local oral
Localised hyperplasia in the presence of chronic
gingivitis and plaque accumulation (Fig. 196).
Toothbrush instruction followed by localised
Drug-induced gingival overgrowth
Side-effect of a number of drugs. The commonest
are: phenytoin (anticonvulsant); cyclosporin
(i mmunosuppressant); nifedipine
( anti hypertensive).
Exacerbated by poor oral hygiene.
Firm, progressive gingival hyperplasia with a drug
history (Fig. 197).
Surgery when oral hygiene is satisfactory.
Overgrowth will recur if the drug treatment
Hereditary gingival fibromatosis
Familial condition associated with hirsutism
( Fig. 198). Rare associations occur with epilepsy,
sensorineural deafness and some syndromes.
Histological analysis shows dense collagenous
Family history. Often apparent when permanent
teeth erupt. Generalised firm gingival enlargement.
Gingival surgery. Slow regrowth will occur.
Commonly affects the gingiva, lip or tongue and is
an exaggerated response to minor trauma.
Pyogenic granulomas are soft, fleshy, roughsurfaced, vascular lesions that bleed readily and
are usually seen on the buccal aspect of the
i nterdental papilla of the anterior gingiva (Fig. 199).
Plaque accumulation, calculus, or carious
cavitation are common irritants.
Characteristic swelling in the presence of irritants
and histological examination.
• Improved oral hygiene and restoration of carious
• Surgical removal of lesion (Fig. 200).
Giant cell granuloma (giant cell epulis)
Non-neoplastic swelling of proliferating fibroblasts
i n a highly vascular stroma containing
multinucleate giant cells. Characteristically occur
adjacent to permanent teeth that have
predecessors (Fig. 201). They are often a deep red
colour. Older lesions may be paler.
Characteristic swelling and histological
Surgical excision. The condition requires clinical
follow-up as recurrence is common. It may be a
feature of hyperparathyroidism.
Fig. 199 Pyogenic granuloma.
Fig. 200 Calculus and staining are visible after pyogenic
Fig. 201 Giant cell granuloma on the labial aspect of the upper
Traumatic lesions I
Chronic trauma, usually from biting, resulting in
fibrous hyperplasia (Fig. 202).
Differentiate from other soft tissue lesions by
histological examination of the excised lesion.
Excisional biopsy and histological confirmation.
Most are caused by saliva extravasation into the
tissues from damage to minor salivary gland ducts.
They are commonly seen in the lower labial and
ventral lingual mucosa (Fig. 203).
History of trauma and characteristic appearance.
Surgical removal may be required if there is
regular trauma. Recurrence may occur.
A mucocele that occurs from the sublingual gland.
Blue transparent appearance (Fig. 204).
Characteristic appearance and location.
Excision of the sublingual gland.
Traumatic lesions II
Most common after the ingestion of hot foods and
are seen particularly on the palate or tongue. Other
causes are cotton-wool when it is removed from
the sulcus quickly, analgesic tablets positioned on
the mucosa next to a painful tooth, and chemicals
used in restorative dentistry (Fig. 205).
Characteristic sites related to eating, restoration of
a tooth, or a painful tooth.
Reassurance that healing will occur without
Topical local anaesthetic may help.
Sharp teeth and restorations
The normal mammelons on newly erupted lower
i ncisors may produce frictional trauma to the
tongue (Fig. 206). This is often worse if the child
has a physical or intellectual disability. Sharp
restorations have a similar effect.
Lesion is site specific and related to a sharp edge.
Smooth the edge, apply an adhesive restorative
material, or make a soft 'blow down' splint.
Biting the area of anaesthetised mucosa.
Confined to the area of anaesthetised mucosa
( Fig. 207).
Reassurance. May require antibiotics if the bitten
area becomes secondarily infected.
Fig. 205 Dentine primer burn of the upper gingiva.
Fig. 206 Frictional trauma of the tongue from the mammelons
on the lower central incisors.
Fig. 207 Ulcer from biting anaesthetised mucosa.
I nflammation of the operculum over an erupting
Associated trauma from a tooth in the opposing
arch is usually present.
Pain, trismus, swelling and halitosis. The
operculum is swollen, red and often ulcerated
211). Fever and regional lymphadenitis may
Grinding or extracting opposing tooth and the local
application of caustic agents (trichloracetic acid
Systemic antibiotics may be required.
Poor appliance hygiene, trauma from an ill-fitting
appliance and Candida albicans.
Diffuse erythema associated with the appliance
base, often asymptomatic (Fig. 212).
• Correct oral and appliance hygiene and adjust
• Soak the appliance overnight in hypochlorite
• Use of antifungals such as amphotericin,
miconazole and nystatin.
Human papilloma virus (HPV).
Papillomatous cauliflower-like appearance (Fig.
213). Common on palate, gingiva and oral mucosa.
Spontaneous regression or excision.
An abscess is often a sequel of pulpitis caused by
dental caries or trauma. Mixed bacterial flora.
Pain and facial swelling is characteristic (Fig. 214).
I ntraoral swelling is common on the labial or
buccal gingiva adjacent to the non-vital tooth (Figs
215, 216), but may occur on the palate in relation
to the upper lateral incisors and the palatal root of
the first permanent molars.
Occasionally abscesses of the lower incisors or
molars may discharge extraorally.
Extraction or endodontic therapy of the affected
Fig. 214 Facial swelling resulting from periapical infection of a
Fig. 215 Periapical infection of a primary incisor.
Fig. 216 Periapical infection of a permanent incisor.
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