Chapter 8


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Chapter 8

  1. 1. CHAPTER 8:DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Biology 120 Ariuntungalag Otgonbayar
  2. 2. COLONOSCOPY  Colonoscopy is a test which allows doctors to examine the inner linings of your large intestine and your rectum.  Colonoscopy is also one of the tests that could be used to screen for colon cancer.  Tissue samples can also be taken during a colonoscopy.
  3. 3. PREPARATION AND PROCEDURE Preparation Procedure Before the colonoscopy for 1-3 days  After the cleansing of colon patients are required to follow a clean colonoscope, a small thin tube, with liquid diet to clean out the colon. digital camera is inserted into anus after A day before the colonoscopy patients examination of rectum. are given laxatives.  Then from anus it goes further into the Drinking plenty of water or clear liquid colon and the doctor could take will help to stay hydrated. pictures or videos of the large intestine. Enema could be used by doctor 30-60  On the average the whole procedure is min before the procedure to completely done within 20-30 minutes. clean out the colon.  Colonoscopy is usually done by Often sedatives are given to patients to gastroenterologist, doctors who work help relax with digestive system.
  4. 4. CACHEXIA  Cachexia is a syndrome which causes a loss of weight, muscle and appetite, fatigue and weakness in person who is not trying to lose weight.  It is mostly found in people who have cancer or other chronic diseases.  Since it is a progressing syndrome, it starts wasting skeletal muscle and showing more by the late course in cancer. So it is often called “cancer cachexia.  The waste of skeletal muscle could become severe making the person not being able to move.
  5. 5. CAUSE AND TREATMENT C AU S E TREATMENT Although the cause is not Although it is hard to reverse weight completely knows it maybe loss due to cachexia these treatments triggered by tumor factors. It are used by doctors: could be the response of body to a tumor.  Various medicines Another cause is that cachexia is  Nutritional supplements dominated by the catabolic  Diet which slowly increases intake metabolism, which is a reverse of of calories normal metabolism. Instead of building muscles, it breaks down  Exercise to increase appetite muscles.
  6. 6. ANASTOMOSISAnastomosis could be defined asfollowing: A natural communication, direct or indirect, between two blood vessels or other tubular structures. See: communication An operative union of two structures (e.g., vessels, ureters, nerves). An opening created by surgery, trauma, or disease between two or more normally separate spaces or organs.
  7. 7. EXTRACTION Extraction means simply pulling out or removing, but in thischapter we’re learning it as dentalprocedurewhich is removing or pulling ofteeth. Extraction is done for couple reasons, such as wisdom tooth, baby teeth that is not falling, decayed or teeth with cavities and sometimes braces could be the reason for extraction too.
  8. 8. PREPARATION AND PROCEDURE Preparation Procedure X-ray is done by the doctor  A simple extraction is performed on a tooth that can be seen in the mouth.. In Sometimes doctors prescribe a simple extraction, the dentist loosens antibiotics before and after the the tooth with an elevator. Then the dentist uses an instrument called a procedure forceps to remove the tooth. No eating or drinking 6-8 hours  A surgical extraction is a more complex before procedure procedure and are done by oral surgeons or by general dentists. The It is recommended to wear short doctor makes a small incision (cut) into sleeved shirt for the procedure gum. Sometimes its necessary to remove some of the bone around the because of the possible IV tooth or to cut the tooth in half in anesthesia order to extract it.