INTRODUCTION• Pregnancy symptoms differ from women to women and pregnancy to pregnancy.• However, one of the most significant pregnancy symptoms is a delayed or missed period• For a woman who has regular menstrual cycles and is sexually active, a period delayed by more than a few days to a week is a suggestive of pregnancy• Understanding the signs and symptoms of pregnancy is important because each symptom may be related to something other than pregnancy.• Early symptoms include missed period, headaches, tender breasts, nausea and lower backaches.
Missed Period• Is often the first sign of pregnancy.• Sometimes a woman who is pregnant may still experience some bleeding or spotting around the time of the expected period. This small amount of bleeding that occurs at the time of the expected menstrual period happens when the fertilized egg attaches to the uterine wall and is referred to as implantation bleeding.• A missed menstrual period also does not confirm that a woman is pregnant even if she has regular cycles, since both emotional and physical conditions may cause absent or delayed periods.
Breast swelling, tenderness, andpain• Swollen or tender breasts is a pregnancy symptom which may begin as early as 1-2 weeks after conception. Women may notice changes in their breasts; they may be tender to the touch, sore, or swollen.• Fullness or heaviness• A deepening of the color of the area surrounding the nipple (areola) and/or a dark line going down from the middle of the central abdomen area to the pubic area (linea nigra).• Linea nigra typically disappears in the months following delivery of the baby.
Nausea and Vomiting• Nausea and vomiting are also common in early pregnancy. "morning sickness,“• Its typical onset is anywhere between the 2nd and 8th weeks of pregnancy.• Elevations in progesterone that occur early in pregnancy are thought to slow the emptying of the stomach and may be related to the development of nausea.• Cravings for, or aversions to, specific foods or even smells.• In most women, nausea and vomiting begin to subside by the second trimester of pregnancy.
Fatigue and Tiredness• Fatigue is another symptom that may be experienced early, in the first weeks after conception
Abdominal Bloating• Some women may experience feelings of abdominal enlargement or bloating, but there is usually only a small amount of weight gain in the first trimester of pregnancy.• Sometimes women also experience mild abdominal cramping during the early weeks of pregnancy, which may be similar to the cramping that occurs prior to or during the menstrual period.
Elevation of Basal BodyTemperature• A persistently elevated basal body temperature (the oral temperature measured first thing in the morning, before arising from bed) is another characteristic sign of early pregnancy.• An elevation in the basal body temperature occurs shortly after ovulation and persists until the next menstrual period occurs.
Mood swings and Stress• Mood swings and stress are common symptoms reported by many women in the early stages of pregnancy.• The rapid changes in hormone levels are believed to cause these changes in mood.