The cold war full story s. white


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The cold war full story s. white

  1. 1. THE COLD WAR 1945-1991
  2. 2. THE POST WAR PERIOD • New lifestyle in America, including drive in restaurants, rock and roll music, and the television • TVs became more common in the homes in the 50s, ABC, NBC, and CBS are the main channels • Popular TV shows include “I Love Lucy”, “Bonanza”, and “The Mickey Mouse Club”.
  3. 3. THE COLD WAR • USA and Soviet Union’s relations became very tense after WWII. • Tension/hostility known as The Cold War (1945-1991) • The US and USSR were the most powerful countries post WWII “Super Powers” • USSR kept Eastern European countries under an “Iron Curtain” • US practiced “containment” against the USSR, led to wars in Korea and Vietnam. • Ended with the breakup of the USSR in the early 1990s and moved Russia towards a democracy
  5. 5. KOREAN WAR • 1950- N Korea (Communist forces) crosses the 38th parallel and invaded S Korea • United Nations, led by the US sends aid to S Korea • war/videos/sherman-pratt-survives-the-korean- war?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=fal se • Peace declared July 1953 with cease fire • 54,000 Americans killed, (500 Georgians) • Many GA business’s benefited from doing business with military
  6. 6. CASUALTIES OF KOREAN WAR • Dead — United States: 54,246,United Nations: 628,833 • Wounded — United States: 103,284, United Nations: 1,644,453. • Captured — United States: 7,140, United Nations: 92,970. • Missing — United States: 8,177, United Nations: 470,267. • macarthur?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false
  8. 8. THE IRON CURTAIN FALLS • scare/videos • Post WWII Europe divided in two • Soviets want to spread communism • U.S. promotes democracy & promises to protect our friends
  9. 9. TRUMAN DOCTRINE • (1947) Pres. Truman’s program of helping nations threatened by communism • “The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms. If we falter in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world— and we shall surely endanger the welfare of our own nation”- Truman
  10. 10. THE MARSHALL PLAN • (1947) large scale plan by U.S. General George Marshall to rebuild Europe post- WWII • Stalin rejected this because it weakened Soviet influence • U.S. provided $12 billion between 1948- 1952
  11. 11. GERMANY SPLIT (EAST & WEST) • Post WWII Germany divided into zones • 1948 U.S., France & Great Britain ready to re- unite Germany…. Stalin says no… • West Germany/Berlin-U.S. • East Germany/Berlin-Soviet Union • 1949 Stalin blockades West Berlin, leads to Berlin airlift…tensions high…May 1949 Stalin lifts blockade
  12. 12. BERLIN WALL (1961) • (1949-1961) 3 million East Germans escaped to West Germany via West Berlin…Soviet Union responds.. • August 1961 begin constructing concrete & barbed wire wall to divide Berlin...defining symbol of the Cold War • wall/videos/deconstructing-history-berlin- wall?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=fa lse
  13. 13. COLD WAR CONTINUES • September 3, 1949 Soviet Union tests their own atomic bomb • May 1949 China becomes Communist, fuels fear that Communism might overwhelm all of Asia… • 1950-1953 Korean War • 1953 Americans Ethel & Julius Rosenberg executed for stealing nuclear secrets for S.Union • 1946-1954 “Red Scare” panic in America that Communist spies were everywhere, many persecuted, fired, etc.
  14. 14. THE ARMS RACE • 1953 U.S & Soviet Union test Hydrogen Bombs • 1957 Soviets launch Sputnik (worlds first satellite)…if Soviets can reach space… they have missiles to reach U.S. • 1958-60 U.S. tripled atomic stockpile from 6,000 to 18,000 • 1958 NASA established to give U.S. advantage in space race • race/videos/space-race-cold-war- front?m=528e38969e64d
  15. 15. CONFLICT IN CUBA • 1959 Fidel Castro leads Communist revolution in Cuba • 1961 John F. Kennedy elected President • scare/videos/jfk-a-new- generation?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&f ree=false • 1961 (April) Bay of Pigs invasion (U.S. supported) fails to overthrow Castro
  16. 16. CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS (Oct. 1962) • U.S. learns Soviets secretly building missile bases in Cuba (if allowed atomic missiles could reach U.S. cities within minutes) • Kennedy “strict quarantine” of Cuba, U.S. Navy would turn around any Soviet missile carrying ships • Over 13 day span U.S. & Soviet Union tensions rise as neither side would back down… nuclear war seems inevitable • At last moment Soviet ships turn back • Victory for Kennedy • Closest the world has ever come to full scale nuclear war
  17. 17. WHAT TO STUDY FOR EARLY COLD WAR/CIVIL RIGHTS TEST • Notes: -Cold War (#31 in notebook) -Chapter 12 Section 2 (#35 in notebook) -Chapter 12 Section 3 (#37 in notebook)
  18. 18. PRESIDENT KENNEDY ASSASSINATED • Nov., 22nd 1963 Kennedy shot & killed in Dallas, Texas • Lee Harvey Oswald charged w/murder but he was killed 2 days later in police custody • Warren Commission concludes Oswald acted alone… many conspiracies say otherwise… • kennedy/videos/john-f-kennedy-assassinated •
  20. 20. VIETNAM WAR (1961-1975) • North Vietnam- Communist (Soviet Union backed) • South Vietnam- Democratic (U.S. backed)
  21. 21. AMERICA’S LONGEST WAR (1961-1973) The Two Vietnams: -North Vietnam-communist gov’t led by Ho Chi Minh and backed by Soviet Union -South Vietnam-led by Ngo Dinh Diem and backed by the United States
  22. 22. GROWING AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT • Goal of the U.S. to prevent “domino theory” • 1964 a North Vietnamese ship supposedly attacked a U.S. navy ship • Congress passes Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (started the full scale war)
  23. 23. DIVISIONS AT HOME • Hawks supported the war • Doves opposed the war • Protests erupted around the country (led by hippies)
  24. 24. STRATEGY IN VIETNAM • Defeat the communists by killing the “Viet Cong” guerrilla fighters • Problem/Challenge it was almost impossible to know who was on what side (North & South Vietnamese look same) • Jungle fighting for the majority, rough conditions, high casualties • vietnam-war-history/videos/daily-life?m=51896f797a81d
  25. 25. The War Winds Down • Bombing of Cambodia sends them into a civil war • 1973 a cease fire agreement reached • 1975 last Americans leave Saigon, North Vietnamese invade the south and Vietnam was made fully communist (still is today)
  26. 26. EFFECTS OF VIETNAM • More than 58,000 American soldiers killed • More than 1,000,000 Vietnamese soldiers killed • Approximately 500,000 Vietnamese civilians killed • Bitterly divided our nation, soldiers treated poorly when they returned home (spit on, yelled at, denied jobs, etc.) • Enormous amount of $ spent on the war, only war in U.S. History that we did not win (we quit)
  27. 27. VIETNAM MEMORIAL (Washington, D.C.)
  28. 28. EDWARD SCOTT THURMOND • Edward Scott Thurmond • Lance Corporal H&S CO, 3RD BN, 5TH MARINES, 1ST MARDIV, III MAF United States Marine Corps Augusta, Georgia August 10, 1947 to February 06, 1968 EDWARD S THURMOND is on the Wall at Panel 37E Line 072 See the full profile for Edward Thurmond • PERSONAL DATA Home of Record: Augusta, GA Date of birth: 08/10/1947 MILITARY DATA Service: United States Marine Corps Grade at loss: E3 Rank: Lance Corporal ID No: 2307954 MOS: 0351: ANTITANK ASSAULTMAN Length Service: 01 Unit: H&S CO, 3RD BN, 5TH MARINES, 1ST MARDIV, III MAF CASUALTY DATA Start Tour: 04/17/1967 Incident Date: 02/06/1968 Casualty Date: 02/06/1968 Age at Loss: 20 Location: Quang Nam Province, South Vietnam Remains: Body recovered Casualty Type: Hostile, died outright Casualty Reason: Ground casualty Casualty Detail: Gun or small arms fire
  29. 29. s/ipan37e.htm
  30. 30. Watergate • 1972: Group of men arrested for breaking into the Watergate Hotel in Washington, DC to “bug” Democratic National Committee offices • Evidence showed that President Nixon knew about the burglary and tried to cover it up • Nixon resigned and Vice-President Gerald Ford became president
  31. 31. The Energy Crisis (Déjà vu) • 1973: US supports Israel in its war with Egypt • Arab nations stop selling oil to the US • Price of gas went up and there were shortages • Georgians began to drive less and purchase fuel-efficient cars • Prudhoe Bay, Alaska: Alaskan Pipeline brought oil to the “lower 48” states •
  32. 32. COLD WAR NUCLEAR WARHEAD BUILD UP (in thousands)
  33. 33. COLD WAR CONTINUES • 1972 Pres. Nixon visits China • 1979 U.S. establishes diplomatic relations with China, tensions ease, trade begins, etc. • 1979 Soviets invade Afghanistan, endure costly 8 year war vs. U.S. backed rebels (including…Osama Bin Laden) • 1981 Ronald Reagan new President: Soviet Union: “the focus of evil in the modern world” Americans must “oppose it with all our might”
  34. 34. PRESIDENT REAGAN (1981- 1988) • Increased military spending by $100 billion • “Star Wars” program to shoot down Soviet missiles in outer space • Called Soviet Union the “Evil Empire” • Tough stance with Soviets on Cold War • presidents/ronald-reagan/videos
  35. 35. REFORMS IN SOVIET UNION • 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev comes to power in USSR • USSR in economic crisis… • Reagan & Gorbachev work out deals on short- range & medium range nuclear missiles • 1989 Soviets withdraw from Afghanistan
  36. 36. BERLIN WALL FALLS! (1989) • 1989 Gorbachev removes political restrictions in USSR • 1989 Poland holds 1st free elections in 50 years • Communist governments fall in Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and Albania • East Germans protest and begin tearing down Berlin Wall that had divided city for 38 years
  37. 37. SOVIET UNION BREAKS UP/COLD WAR ENDS! • 1991 Soviet Union broke apart (15 separate nations) • Boris Yeltsin new President of Russia (Democratically elected) • COLD WAR finally OVER! • fall-of-the-soviet- union?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false
  38. 38. PERSIAN GULF WAR • Aug 1990: Iraq invaded Kuwait to gain oil & port city • US Military & coalition of 26 other nations defeat Iraq in “Operation Desert Shield” • US victory in less than 2 months!
  39. 39. TERRORISM HITS HOME… • 1993 car bomb explodes in NYC World Trade Center parking garage by Islamic extremists Killed: 6 Injured: 1,000+ • 1995 two American radicals explode a homemade bomb in van outside Oklahoma City federal building Killed: 168 • 9-11-2001 World Trade Center bombings, Pentagon & United Flight 93 by Islamic extremists… Killed: 3,000+ • bombing/videos/911- timeline?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false
  40. 40. THE WAR ON TERRORISM • October 7, 2001: “Operation Enduring Freedom” launched in Afghanistan to retaliate for 9-11 attacks and install democratic gov’t. 70 other nations participate. Still on going… • March 19, 2003: “Operation Iraqi Freedom” launched to remove Saddam Hussein as dictator of Iraq and install democratic gov’t. Still on going…
  41. 41. “GERONIMO, GERONIMO” • May 1st, 2011 U.S. Navy Seal special forces unit stormed a house in Pakistan and killed Osama Bin Laden, mastermind of the 9-11-01 attacks • ?v=2eluMNbIW-w • ?v=dsvd-30Xtbs • The war on terrorism continues…
  42. 42. BOSTON MARATHON BOMBING April 15, 2013 • 3 killed and hundreds injured by terrorist bombing in Boston, Mass. • 2 Russian/Chechnian born Muslim terrorists responsible. 1 killed and 1 in custody