1300-1600(Copy the underlined information) Mr. Bluma
• Conditions in Italy Thriving cities ✦ Milan, Florence, Rome, Naples, Venice, Genoa, and Pisa• Wealthy merchant class ✦ Patrons of the arts, caused major demand for art ✦ the Medici• Classical heritage of Greece and Rome ✦ Ruins of Rome ✦ Latin manuscripts from Constantinople, 1453
Literature✦ Dante ✦ Divine Comedy ✦ Vernacular: used the Italian language, the common language of the people✦ Machiavelli ✦ The Prince...”be both loved and feared”
✦ Renaissance: “rebirth” (re: Latin for again), “reborn” interest in Greek and Roman writings, followed what we call the Middle Ages.✦ humanism: the study of humanities, no more or less religious, a rediscovered interest in ancient history due to scholars that escaped Turks in the Byzantine Empire. Belief in human perfectibility.✦ Christian humanism: combination of humanism and religious ideas, a focus in northern Europe on the history of Christianity.
✦ England and France, after the 100 Years War, have strong central governments that sponsor the arts✦ War in northern Italy drives artists out of Italy, north✦ Northern Renaissance artists are more religious and more politically active than Italian artists
✦ Belgium: northeast of France✦ Germany: east of Belgium✦ Switzerland: east of France
✦ Rome: mid-left center of “the boot”✦ Florence: about 143 miles NW of Rome
Astronomy✦ Learned the Earth moves around the sun.
Miguel de Cervantes and François Rabelais✦ Used their writings to mock romantic tales of the Middle Ages, thought their own times were better.
Great Artists✦ Reflected the value of every human being through painting clear personalities.✦ Leonardo Da Vinci, Mona Lisa
Leonardo✦ Born in Vinci (da Vinci = of Vinci), a small town near Florence, Italy
Northern Renaissance Writers ✦ Erasmus, wrote The Praise of Folly ✦ Shakespeare ✦ The Elizabethan Age: named for Queen Elizabeth (1558–1603) of the Tudor dynasty. She oversaw the British expansion into North America. ✦ wrote Romeo and Juliet
Church Reform✦ Many northern scholars, like Erasmus spoke out against the corruption and break from the spirit of Jesus’ teachings within some of their churches. Wanted to get rid of rituals and emphasize devotion to God and the teachings of Jesus.
Shakespeare✦ “All the world is a stage” (As You Like It) reflects the theme that each human being is important and should be watched with great interest.
Petrarch’s letter to Boccaccio✦ Moral: You will be “plunged in darkness and delusion” if you are ignorant of history.
Humanities✦ Grammar, speaking (rhetoric), poetry, history, Greek, and Latin.
Duomo✦ City leaders in Florence hired architects and artists, such as Brunelleschi, to create this beautiful church.
Artistic Features✦ Middle Ages: “flat”, 2D, illuminated✦ Ancient/Classical and Renaissance: realistic, perspective, considered the male figure as ideal.
Middle AgesArt (400s A.D.to 1400s A.D.) in Europe
European Renaissance (1300s A.D. to 1600s A.D.): rebirth ofancient/classical(753 B.C. to 476A.D.) Greek and ✦ Medusa ancient Roman Mosaic Roman ideas ✦ The Last Supper, da Vinci and features. ✦ Discobolus of Myron ("discu s thrower" )ancient Greece