Medieval JapanNippon: the official name of “Japan”, literally means "suns origin". “Japan” came to theEnglish language through Portuguese traders. “Japan” is the name these traders called Nippon in the 16th century (1500s). (Copy the underlined words)
Form of GovernmentFeudalism--Derived from the Latin (Roman) word feodum (fief). Feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among warrior nobility and peasants. Feudalism--a set of political and military customs that flourished between the ninth and fifteenth centuries (800s-1400s A.D.).
The Reign of Prince Shotoku• In 593, Prince Shotoku came to rule as regent – regent: a person who rules for a monarch during periods of illness or absence or during the monarch’s extreme youth.
The Reign of Prince Shotoku• During his reign as regent, Prince Shotoku created Japan’s ﬁrst constitution and established a centralized government
Constitution• Shotoku used the constitution as a vehicle to strengthen the notion of the absolute authority of the emperor as well as to promote Buddhism as the official religion. The constitution was both a moral code and a code of personal and social behavior. Its basic tenet was harmony: “Harmony is the most precious asset. We all alternate between wisdom and madness. It is a closed circle.”
U.S. Constitution- Amendment I: Congress shall make no law...prohibiting the free exercise (of religion)- Amendment II: the right of the people to keep and bear Arms (guns), shall not be infringed (prohibited)
The Reign of Prince Shotoku • During Shotoku’s reign, there was a high importance placed on family loyalty – Family matters were to come ﬁrst
The Reign of Prince Shotoku• During Shotoku’s reign, Japanese women were not equal to men.• However, women were honored and they had some freedoms that women in other early societies did not have. – They could own their own property – They could inherit property – They could go to school
Kimono• During the Heian period, the Japanese expressed their perception of color and color changes of the four seasons through clothing. Their deep love of artistic beauty and colors were reﬂected in the kimono robes of this period.
Unification of JapanPrior to the ban on guns by later rulers Oda Nobunaga (ohd-ah no-booh-nah-gah) gave his soldiers guns from Portuguese traders to defeat his opponents. This helped protect Japan from Mongol invasion. In 1582 Nobunaga fell victim to the treachery of one of his own generals.In 1598 Hideyosh, the lord after Oda Nobuganaga, died without leaving a capable successor. Tokugawa Ieyasu (toh-koohg-ah-wuh ee-e-yahs-ooh) conquered enemies and was made a shogun by the emperor. Francis Xavier from Spain introduced Christianity to Japanese in 1549. Tokugawa later isolated Japan, persecuting Japanese Christians in 1597.
Shinto• A diverse system of nature worship and ancestor worship.• The word Shinto ("Way of the Gods")• Absolute loyalty to the Sovereign Emperor, who is regarded as a direct descendant and representative of the highest God. Family honor and good luck rituals also important.* Notice the political effect of Shinto beliefs, the resulting form of government and power structure was feudalism.
Collectivism• Confucianism: Japanese adopted Confucious teachings about "loyalty" and "benevolence".• Japanese proverb: “The nail that sticks up will be hammered down”-- individuality is sometimes not desired, “loyalty” to the collective (group-country-company) was highly valued.
Samurai• Samurai: military nobility, meaning "those who serve in close attendance to the nobility"• Bushidō: "the way of the warrior" or “preserving peace through the use of force”.• “The Nobles send their sons (future samurai) to monasteries to be educated as soon as they are 8 years old, and they remain there until they are 19 or 20, learning reading, writing and religion; as soon as they come out, they marry and apply themselves to politics." (Francis Xavier)
Samurai continued• Maintaining the household was the main duty of samurai women. This was especially crucial during early feudal Japan, when warrior husbands were often traveling abroad or engaged in clan battles.• After a male samurai child was born, he would receive his ﬁrst sword in a ceremony called mamori-gatana.
Haiku- Japanese poetry, means “playful verse”- Bashōs "Old Pond":old pond . . .a frog leaps inwater’s sound
Haiku continuedStructure: three lines, does not rhyme, line one = 5 syllables, line two = 7 syllables, line three = 5 syllablesExample: For/est ﬁn/er/y (ﬁnger clap 5) Of pur/est green, ferns boast their (ﬁnger clap 7) Del/i/cate beau/ty (ﬁnger clap 5)
Haiku continuedExample #2:To write a haiku (5)One must be able to count (7)To ﬁve and seven (5)Example #3: Winter Olympics (5) From Vancouver to Whistler (7) Unity in sports (5)
Academic Reminders- Replace negative thinking with positive thoughts.- TRUE SUCCESS IN LIFE MEANS TO TREAT YOUR BODY RIGHT! - Roman Room technique is an ancient and effective way of remembering: Imagine a room that you know well. Walk through the room and see the test information on objects like lamps and sofas.- Save money for college. 18