China in the Middle Ages (copy the underlined information) (copy the underlined information) The word “China” is derived from Cin ( ,) چینaPersian name for China, popularized in Europeby Marco Polo. - A theory is that “China” isderived from “Qin” ( 秦 , pronounced chin, thewesternmost of the Chinese kingdoms duringthe Zhou (jo-h) dynasty. Mr. Bluma
Background• Ancient China: (6 th grade) Warring States Qin Dynasty, Qin Shihunagdi, Han Dynasty• Medieval China: (7 th grade) Period of Disunion, Sui (sway) Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, Song Dynasty, Ming Dynasty
Sui Dynasty (589-618 A.D.)• Yang Jian (Emperor Wen): Northern Ruler, Conquered South, Unified China Dynasty, short time period, Grand Canal built Photo Credit: artofwaronwallstreet.com
Tang and Song Dynasties (618-1279 AD)• Golden Age of China, Many achievements, Empress Wu Only woman to rule China, Not Popular, Preserved Stability Photo Credit: wikipedia.org
Empress Wu• When Emperor Tai Tsung died and his son Kao Tsung took over, Wu was twenty seven years old. She managed to eliminate Kao Tsung’s wife, Empress Wang, by accusing her of killing Wu’s newborn daughter. Kao Tsung believed Wu, and replaced Empress Wang with Wu.
Empress Wu continued• Five years later Emperor Tsung suffered a crippling stroke. Wu took over, created a secret police force to spy on her opposition, and cruelly jailed or murdered anyone who stood in her way. Confucianism was against rule by women. Wu did not like that and began a campaign to elevate the position of women. She had scholars write biographies of famous women, and raised the position of her mother’s clan by giving her relatives high political posts.
Buddha• From India, Founder: Siddhartha (Buddha), Came to China during Han Dynasty,Very popular during and after Period of Disunion, spread from China to Korea and Japan, Basics: Four Noble Truths, Karma, Cycle of Rebirth, Nirvana/enlightenment. Photo Credits: latimes.com
Buddhism• Karma – accumulation of good and bad deeds, Rebirth – people live many lifetimes, Suffering – everyone suffers, Nirvana – the claim rebirth and suffering ends and one can reach enlightenment,The Wheel out of Kilter (Buddhist Symbol) Photo Credit: wikipedia.org
Censorship• Scholars persecuted/mistreated. “Useless” books = any book about anything except books about medicine, agriculture, or prophecy. “Useless” books were burned . Confucius’ books burned. Legalists believe that people are basically bad.They believe that it is necessary to control and regulate every minute of people’s lives (formed a bureaucracy) so they have the discipline needed to work hard in the fields and in battle.
U.S. Constitution Amendment I• “Congress shall make no law...abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press”• Abridging: cutting off• Press: news, media, communication, books Photo Credit: http://dunetosk9.com/
Bureaucracy• To control his people, First Emperor Qin developed a system of bureaucracy. He divided his empire into 36 provinces. Each province was divided into districts. He put two government officials in charge of each province. Workers were well trained and paid.They reported to supervisors. People at each level supervised those below them.
Fine Arts• Porcelain is generally believed to have originated in China. Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating clay in a kiln (oven) to temperatures between 1,200 °C (2,192 °F) and 1,400 °C (2,552 °F). The new breed of porcelain industry grew rapidly, as the making of celadon during the 3rd to 6th centuries became the fastest growing handicraft business in China Credit: orichinese.com
Fine Arts continued• Celadon, green glaze on clay, originated in China.Various kings, such as the Ottoman Sultans, liked its pristine beauty, its resemblance to Chinese jade, and the belief that the celadon would change its color if the food or wine were poisoned (a myth).
Poetry• “When I was fifteen, I was fond of sword play (sport), and with that art I challenged quite a few great men,” Li Bo• In 720, he was interviewed by Governor Su Ting, who considered him a genius.Though he expressed the wish to become an official, he never took the Chinese civil service examination. It is likely that he did not possess the proper heritage (family tree). Photo Credit: china-tour.cn
Poetry continued• “Quiet Night Thoughts” by Li Bo: The moonlight glistens in front of my bed. I thought it was the frost on the ground. I lift my gaze to view the shimmering moon, Then lower my head, and miss my homeland .
Marco Polo• Christian merchant from the Venetian Republic (northern Italy) who introduced Europeans to Central Asia and China. Christopher Columbus was inspired by Polo’s description of the Far East to visit those lands for himself; a copy of the book was among his belongings. Photo Credit: telegraph.co.uk
Marco Polo continued• “Description of the World”, also nicknamed Il Milione (“The Million”) is a 13th-century (1200s) travelogue written down by Rustichello da Pisa from stories told by Marco Polo, describing the travels of Polo between 1271 and 1291.The title comes from the Polo family’s use of the name Emilione to distinguish themselves from the numerous other Venetian (northern Italy) families bearing the name Polo.
Marco Polo continued• In the “Description of the World” Polo was impressed by his visit to Hangzhou (HAHNG-JOH), “richest and most exquisite (beautiful and wealthy) structure you can imagine”.
Serge Zenkovsky• Chronicled the destruction and raids of Asia and Eastern Europe by the Mongols. “There used to be a city of Riazan...and there is nothing to be seen in the city excepting smoke” Photo Credit: wikipedia.org
Great Wall• Built along the northern border near Mongolia for defense, Guards used smoke signals to communicate to each other along the wall, Emperor Shi Huangdi’s (she Huang-dee) laborers worked on Great Wall, later Ming dynasty improved
Governing• Emperors used harsh punishments, imprisonment, a dynasty system, created kingdoms, and took power from the people. Autocracy: from 589 to 1644 the Chinese formed a government in which one person possessed unlimited power. Song Tai Zu, founding emperor of the Song dynasty. Photo Credit: wikipedia.org
Timeline• B.C. = Before Christ A.D. = Anno Domini, Latin for The Year Of Our Lord, not “After Death”--If that were true, the thirty-three years of Jesus’ life would not be in any era, China reunified under Sui (sway) Dynasty: 589 A.D. Ming Dynasty ended 1644 A.D.
Costs and Benefits• The theory behind cost–benefit charts is that they can help evaluate the desirability of something, like bureaucracy. - A cost benefit chart; however, will not always show what is morally or ethically correct. Just because you can list many benefits, it does not mean it is really something good to do.
Culture and Changes• Chinese culture changed, new types of art, food, music, and clothing styles developed as a result of the mixing of cultures. - Buddhism influenced many aspects of the Chinese, including their art, literature, and architecture. - Paper money was printed for the first time in China in the A.D. 900s; however, so much money was printed that it lost value. Its use caught on in Europe , because it was easier to carry than coins.
Culture and Changes continued• Agricultural advancements = population growth. - Rivers and canals connected major cities and deliver trade goods. - Neo- Confucianism = spiritual matters + proper behavior (1+1), Confucianism = ethical behavior (1). - The Song dynasty formed a bureaucracy (regulations, management, rules, scholar-officials), which created stability. - The Mongols, led by Kublai Khan + Genghis (JENG-guhs) Khan, conquered and ruled China.
Culture and Changes continued• Chinese during the Song dynasty, like the ancient Egyptians , developed new irrigation techniques to increase food production. - Chinese exported many goods, including tea, rice, spices, jade, and silk. - Opening Pacific ports to foreign traders created a very strong economy. - Confucius taught “ren”, concern for others, and “li”, or appropriate behavior.