This image is attributed to the World Bank © 2012 CC BY-NC-ND 2.0               HOLDING GROUND:               Negotiating ...
March 11, 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake & Tsunami, 9.0 Magnitude                                                  Modif...
Sendai City, Aoba Ward, Central Urban DistrictThis image is attributed to the United States Marine Corps © 2011 CC BY-NC 2.0
Sendai City, Arahama District & Sendai Port, Coastal InundationThis image is attributed to the United States Navy © 2011
Source: Sendai City, Planning Department   Sendai City, Land Use Map
Sendai City, Proposed Plan, March 2012This image is attributed to the Sendai City, Reconstruction Planning Department © 2012
Sendai City, Senbiki, Urbanization Control Area (UCA)This image is attributed to the Sendai City, Reconstruction Planning ...
Sendai City, Agricultural Land Re-adjustment, March 2012This image is attributed to the Sendai City, Reconstruction Planni...
Sendai City, Municipal Housing Plans, March 2012This image is attributed to the Sendai City, Reconstruction Planning Depar...
Sendai City, Asuto Nagamachi Temporary                           HousingPhotographs by author © 2012
Asuto Nagamachi Petition to Sendai CityImages attributed to Asuta Nagamachi Temporary Housing Committee Chairman & Sendai ...
Sendai City,                               Arai                               Temporary                               Hous...
Sendai City, Wakabayashi Ward, Arahama DistrictThis image is attributed to NASA Earth Observatory © 2011
Sendai City, Wakabayashi Ward, Arahama District                                       BEFOREImages attributed to Google © ...
Yellow ArahamaPhotographs by author © 2012
THANK YOU   "TOHOKU’S ARK”   By RYOTA UNNO
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Holding Ground: Negotiating Recovery Through Land Use Change Adaptation in Tohoku, Japan

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  • This paper examines how coastal communities (municipalities and local residents) in Tohoku region in northeast Japan are employing and negotiating land use change strategies, after the March 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, to adapt to coastal land subsidence and the subsequent sea level rise. The paper is based on a qualitative case study of Sendai, the largest city in Tohoku region. The case study employs in-depth field interviews (20+, government officials and community leaders), on-site observations, review of government documents, reports and land use maps, and on current literature on Japanese urban planning and land use. Data collection for the research was carried out in the Summer of 2012 from May to August. The research was supported by the Japan Foundation through a Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Fellowship. The presentation shows some of the early findings, there is more analysis that needs to be done.
  • 9.0 Magnitude earthquake on March 2911 (US Geological Survey), followed by a tsunamiEpicenter off the east coast of northern Japan about 80 miles east of Sendai City (circled in red). More than 19,000 people dead or missing. National government estimates 16.9 trillion yen in damage to buildings, lifelines, social infrastructure, agriculture, fisheries, education and health. The plate movement caused permanent land subsidence in multiple cities and towns in the Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures on Japan’s northeast coast (Geospatial Information Authority of Japan).  The land subsidence in these three hardest hit prefectures in the northeast Tohoku region range from 0.20 meters (0.66 feet) to 0.84 meters (2.76 feet), causing large areas of the coastline to flood twice a day during high tide mimicking a sudden sea-level rise situation.
  • Sendai City Urban Center. March 2011 after the disaster. No visible damage.
  • Sendai City Coast10-15 km (6-10 miles) from city centerMassive Innundation – Sendai Port, Sendai Airport, Agricultural Land, Outlying settlements (ArahamaDistrict).Airport restored and re-operating within a month after disaster. Port operational in a few months.Area below mean sea level (Tokyo Bay, T.P.0m) 3 km2 before quake, 16 km2 after quake (5.3 times increase) – Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, April 2011
  • Sendai – Largest city in Tohoku. Population more than 1 millionDesignated city (cities with population >500,000). Functions normally carried out by prefecture delegated to the city (including urban planning functions).and towns Unique position of Sendai among other municipalities impacted by March 2011 disaster.As a designated city, does not have to go through Miyagi prefecture for recovery planning, deals directly with national government.Sendai Economy Booming – Services, commercial, retail, some industry (Other coastal cities in Tohoku based on commerce, industry, fisheries and tourism, problems with struggling small businesses & business districts, industries moving away, lack of jobs for young)Population centralization to Sendai prior to disaster, accelerated after disaster (+6000) (Other coastal cities in Tohoku - aging and shrinking population)No impact in city center. Tsunami hit marginal coastal area, not primary to the city’s economy (agriculture and outlying settlements) – City human resource capacity intact (Other coastal cities in Tohoku – lost administrative staff who died, municipal buildings, equipment, records damaged or destroyed)But similar to other municipalities, Sendai also subject to central government policy structures and timeline pressures, no room to think about land use issues in depth before finalizing recovery plans.Land Use Map: Blue – Industry; Red Outline – Coastal Innundation; Red Areas – Commercial; Green & Yellow – Residential; Black Line: New subway line in 2015
  • National Reconstruction Policy Framework – Central government would present reconstruction guidelines (municipalities and prefectures follow it), financial support (23 trillion yen over the next 10 years), human resource capacities & technical help.Municipalities are the local decision-making and implementing unit by themselves or with prefectures.Land Use Adaptation Policy: Realize swift re-organization of land use. Avoid, Disperse, and/or Control/Manage Risk through various structural and land use re-structuring strategies and models proposed in the national policy framework.Based on the national policy and in consultation with the ‘Sendai City Reconstruction Committee (academics and policy experts), Sendai city land use change plan finalized:Creation of a ‘Urbanization Control Area (UCA)’ along the coastline (using Senbiki – used to control urban sprawl)Residential settlements in this zone subject to relocation inlandCity will acquire land and prepare relocation sites – 3 years timelineCity will construct public housing for those who cannot afford to purchase land on relocation sites and build themselvesIncrease height of the current coastal levee to 7 meters. Height increases also for Shiogama-WatariPrefecture Road and Sendai-Tobu Road to serve as secondary tsunami defense.
  • Planning Issues / Challenges:Decentralization of recovery planning to municipalities, but reconstruction according to national policy guidelines and funded by central governmentHow it plays out in Sendai city - tight deadlines, plans tailored strictly to central government guidelines (may not be suitable for unique local contexts) and detailed plans for coastal levee and road height increases (100% funded by central government), but not much on relocation and public housing.Impact on marginal areas of Sendai, not the main city center, and impacted community dispersed, difficult to locate. Overall, no time, capacity or inclination to involve local communities in the planning process. Relocation decisions made without community consultation. Informational meetings held to explain the changes, not for community input.Relocation decisions heavily based on tsunami simulations, technical studies and advise. Little attention to socio-economic impacts on communities.Major land use decisions already made and finalized at a rapid pace, not much coordination with housing relocation decisions, using land use tools (Senbiki to create Urbanization Control Area - UCA) that may not be appropriate.Plans now contested by local communities in different ways, examples from two communities – AsutaNagamachi Temporary Housing & Arai Temporary Housing.
  • Example 1: Asuto-Nagamachi Temporary Housing (Asuto-NagamachiKasetsuJyutaku)Tight knit community, lots of group activities, located close to the subway line, health facilities, and funerary home.
  • Land Use Change & Housing Issues Interlinked – Conflicts & ContestationsCity will acquire and prepare for relocation – households can lease or buy land on relocation sites, city will buy out property in UCALargely elderly demographic impacted (50-70%), cannot get new mortgage to buy land or build new house, economically unfeasible for elderly households, buy out monies not enough to rebuildLittle subsidy for rebuilding house, households have to use savings, bank loans, non-profit helpHigh demand for public housing with subsidized rents (example of proposed public housing plans), city does not want to build too many public housing – not clear who will pay for long-term maintenance, will have a lottery system due to high demandDisagreements with relocation and public housing sites, communities do not want to relocate in the middle of nowhere without public transport, health facilities, other services.Elderly households trapped – cannot afford relocation sites and not sure if they will get public housing.A small but significant percent of community (15 out of 70 households) from Arahamadistrict do not want to give up original property rights in the face of such uncertainties and the prospect of living in tiny apartments, want to go back to original site.
  • Example 1: Asuto-Nagamachi Temporary Housing (Asuto-NagamachiKasetsuJyutaku)Tight knit community, lots of group activities, located close to the subway line, health facilities, and funerary home.
  • Strategy – Negotiating with City Government Asking Sendai city to build a public housing project next to their temporary housing location site, project designed by the community (not pre-designed units by city government)Handed petition to city in August 2012.Signed by 3939 residents. Accepted by Sendai City Vice Mayor
  • Example 2: Arai Temporary Housing (Arai KasetsuJyutaku)Tight knit community, lots of group activities, community improvement projects, comprising residents mainly from Arahama district.15-20 households want to go back to original site, do not agree with city’s relocation or public housing plans.
  • Outlying coastal agricultural district: Arahama District, Wakabayashi Ward, Sendai City
  • Arahama District Before and After March 11, 2012 Coastal Innundation
  • Strategy – Public protest against city government decisionThe Yellow Hankerchief Campaign – string of yellow handkerchiefs tied with metal poles on original housing site. Symbol of community’s protest against forcible relocation and their wish to stay at original site.
  • Holding Ground: Negotiating Recovery Through Land Use Change Adaptation in Tohoku, Japan

    1. 1. This image is attributed to the World Bank © 2012 CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 HOLDING GROUND: Negotiating Recovery Through Land Use Change Adaptation in Tohoku Anuradha MUKHERJI Assistant Professor of Urban and Regional Planning Department of Geography East Carolina University Supported By: Japan Society for Promotion of Science Fellowship JAPAN FOUNDATION
    2. 2. March 11, 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake & Tsunami, 9.0 Magnitude Modified Image, Source: USGS,
    3. 3. Sendai City, Aoba Ward, Central Urban DistrictThis image is attributed to the United States Marine Corps © 2011 CC BY-NC 2.0
    4. 4. Sendai City, Arahama District & Sendai Port, Coastal InundationThis image is attributed to the United States Navy © 2011
    5. 5. Source: Sendai City, Planning Department Sendai City, Land Use Map
    6. 6. Sendai City, Proposed Plan, March 2012This image is attributed to the Sendai City, Reconstruction Planning Department © 2012
    7. 7. Sendai City, Senbiki, Urbanization Control Area (UCA)This image is attributed to the Sendai City, Reconstruction Planning Department © 2012
    8. 8. Sendai City, Agricultural Land Re-adjustment, March 2012This image is attributed to the Sendai City, Reconstruction Planning Department © 2012
    9. 9. Sendai City, Municipal Housing Plans, March 2012This image is attributed to the Sendai City, Reconstruction Planning Department © 2012
    10. 10. Sendai City, Asuto Nagamachi Temporary HousingPhotographs by author © 2012
    11. 11. Asuto Nagamachi Petition to Sendai CityImages attributed to Asuta Nagamachi Temporary Housing Committee Chairman & Sendai City Reconstruction Planning © 2012
    12. 12. Sendai City, Arai Temporary HousingPhotographs by author © 2012
    13. 13. Sendai City, Wakabayashi Ward, Arahama DistrictThis image is attributed to NASA Earth Observatory © 2011
    14. 14. Sendai City, Wakabayashi Ward, Arahama District BEFOREImages attributed to Google © 2011 AFTER
    15. 15. Yellow ArahamaPhotographs by author © 2012
    16. 16. THANK YOU "TOHOKU’S ARK” By RYOTA UNNO

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