Physical Properties of Fibe,rs


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Physical Properties of Fibe,rs

  2. 2. RAYON (A Cellulosic Man-Made Fiber) Composition Regenerated cellulose Physical Properties Microscopic Appearance - Striations seen in viscose and high-strength rayon - If DE lustered, scattered specks of pigment can be seen. Length - Filament and staple Color - Transparent unless dulled by pigments Luster - High unless DE lustering pigment added Strength - Fair to excellent - Regular rayon has fair strength - High tenacity types have well to excellent strength Elasticity - Regular rayon is low - High strength rayon is good Resiliency - High wet-strength rayon is better Moisture Absorption - Higher than natural cellulose - Fibers swell in water - Weaker when wet Heat - Loses strength above 300' F - Decomposes between 350 and 400' F Flammability - Burns rapidly unless treated Electrical Conductivity
  3. 3. - Fair and static charge can be reduced with special finishes Specific Gravity - 1.52 (similar to cotton) ACRYLIC (A Wool-Like Fiber) Composition Acrylonitrile and small amounts of other monomers Physical Properties Microscopic appearance - Uniform and smooth surface - Irregular spaced striations Length - Mainly a staple fiber Color - White to off-white Luster - Bright, semi dull, or dull Strength - Fair to good strength Elasticity - Good Resilience - Good – Water Absorption - 1-3% Heat - Yellowing may occur above 300' F - Softening or sticking about 450' F Flammability - Burns with yellow flame Electrical Conductivity - Fair to good
  4. 4. Specific Gravity - 1.14 to 1.19 - Good bulk and covering power NYLON (A Polyamide Fiber) Composition Nylon 66 - Polyhexamethylene Adipamide Nylon 6 - Caprolactam Physical properties Microscopic Appearance - Very smooth and even Length - Filament and staple Color - Off-white Luster - High natural luster can be controlled Strength - Exceptionally high (60,000 - 108,000) pounds per square inch Elasticity - Exceptionally high Resiliency - Very good – Moisture Absorption - 3.8% Heat - High resistance melts at 482' F Flammability
  5. 5. - Melts slowly - Does not support combustion Electrical Conductivity - Low, generates static Specific Gravity - 1.14 (low density) POLYESTER (Most Versatile Fiber) Composition Combination of Terephthalic Acid or Dimethyl terephthalate and Ethylene Glycol Physical Properties Microscopic Appearance - Smooth, even, rod like, different cross-sectional shapes Length - Filament and staple Color - White Luster - Bright or dull Strength - Good to excellent Elasticity - Fair to good - Greater than cotton or rayon Resilience -Excellent _ Moisture Absorption - Less than 1% Heat - Softening or sticking temperature is above 400' F (thermoplastic)
  6. 6. Flammability - Bum slowly Electrical Conductivity - Accumulates static changes Specific Gravity - Typically 1.38 ACETATE (A Cellulosic Man-Made Fiber) Composition Acetate Ester of Cellulose Physical Properties Microscopic Appearance - Striations farther apart than viscose rayon - Lobed cross-section Length - Filament and staple Color - Transparent unless dulled by pigments Luster - Bright, semibright, or dull Strength - Moderate - Less than rayon when wet Elasticity - Not very high - Similar to rayon – Resilience - Poor Moisture Absorption - 6%, little strength loss when wet
  7. 7. Heat - Ironing temperatures of 275' F are satisfactory Flammability - Slowly combustible Electrical Conductivity - Good Specific Gravity - 1.32 POLYPROPYLENE (An Olefin Fiber) Composition Propylene Physical Properties Microscopic Appearance - Smooth and rod like Length - Filament and staple Color - Translucent Luster - Dull, semi dull, bright Strength - Excellent strength (depends on degree of polymerization) Elasticity - Good Resilience - Good resistance to crushing Moisture Absorption - None Heat - Melts at about 330' F
  8. 8. - Progressive shrinkage can occur at 140' F to 212' F Flammability - Slow burning Electrical Conductivity - Excellent Specific Gravity - 0.90 to 0.91 POLYETHYLENE (An Olefin Fiber) Composition Ethylene Physical Properties Microscopic Appearance - Smooth and rod like Length - Filament and staple Color - Translucent Luster - Dull, semi dull, bright Strength - Fair to good (depends on degree of polymerization) Elasticity - Good Resilience - Good resistance to crushing Moisture Absorption - None
  9. 9. Heat - Very heat-sensitive - Melts at about 260' F Flammability - Slow burning Electrical Conductivity - Excellent Specific Gravity - 0.90 to 0.91 SILK FIBRE Silk is a natural fibre that is a solidifies protein secretion produced by certain caterpillars. Physical Characteristics: The fibre is a fine continuous strand unwound from the cocoon of silkworm. Silkworms are generally cultivated. The fibre can be fine and coarse, is lustrous, smooth, light weight, strong and elastic. Specific gravity - 1.342 Moisture- St. M.R - 11%3 Strength- Tenacity – Dry 4.3 g/d; wet = dry 924 Elasticity- Braking extension – 23.4% Recovery (%) – 525 Resiliency - Moderate Abrasion resistance
  10. 10. - Good Dimensional stability - Good Applications: Silk has been used since a long time for a number of applications including: • Home furnishings • Apparels • Upholstery ASBESTOS FIBRE Asbestos is a natural fibre sourced from minerals, i.e. varieties of rocks found in Italy, Canada and South America. Physical Characteristics The soft, glossy, long and white fibres are pressed into sheets. Chrysolite asbestos has a fine and long staple that has lot of strength and flexibility. The fiber does not burn, but melts at a sufficiently high temperature. It is rustproof and acid proof. Applications: Asbestos has been used in making firefighting and fire resistant fabrics. It is used to manufacture commercial furnishings including theater curtains, draperies etc.
  11. 11. COTTON FIBRE Cotton is a natural fibre, growing in the seed pod, or boll of the cotton plant. The fibre is composed of about 90 % cellulose and around 6% moisture. The rest consists of natural impurities. Properties of cotton fibre: Strength: 1. It is relatively strong. 2. Strength of fibre can be defined by the ability to resist of being pulled or torn apart when undergoes to tension. Elasticity: Elasticity means the extent to which a fibre can be elongated by tension & then return to its original shape. 52 Resilience: 1. It means the extent to which a fabric can be deformed by compression & return to its original condition. 2. Finishing process does a lot to improve wrinkle resistant quality of cotton goods.
  12. 12. Drapability: 1. It is concerned with the ability of fabric to hang easily & fall into graceful to shape &folds. 2.This quality depends on the kind of fibre, yarn, fabric construction & finish used to final goods. Absorbency: 1. It determines the amount of moisture taken up by the fibre from air. 2. Cotton fibre is very absorbent. 3. Twist in the yarn also influences absorbency. 4. Low twist yarn absorbs more moisture than high twisted yarn. 5. Fabric structure also plays role in absorbency. Looser structure will be more absorbent than tighter one. Specific gravity - 1.52 Tenacity -4.0 Moisture Regain -7.5 LINEN FIBRE Linen is one of the oldest and a very popularly used fibre obtained from the stalk of the flax plant. The hair like fibres, are held together by a gummy substance known as pectin. Linen is composed of 70 percent cellulose, and 30 percent pectin, woody tissue, ash and moisture. Physical Characteristics: The fibre is smooth, straight and lustrous. It is more brittle and less flexible than cotton. The fibre is also more difficult to spin into yarn. It has a long staple fibre length when compared to cotton Properties of Linen Linen has a number of properties, which makes it useful for various industrial applications, use in home furnishings and apparels. Some of them are: • Strength: Linen is a durable fibre, as is two-three times as strong as cotton. It is second in strength to silk. • Elasticity:
  13. 13. Elasticity is the extent to which a fibre can be elongated or stretched and the then returned to its normal condition and size. Linen is the least elastic natural fabric. • Resilience: Resilience refers to the extent to which a fabric can be deformed by crushing or compressing it, and finally returning it to its original condition. Linen is quite stiff and wrinkles easily. • Absorbency: Absorbency refers to the extent to which moisture can penetrate into a fiber. The fiber absorbs moisture and dries more quickly. It is excellent for manufacturing towels and handkerchiefs. • Heat Conductivity : Heat conductivity refers to the extent to which heat can be conveyed through a fibre. It is most suitable for use in summers, as the fibre allows the heat to escape, leaving a cool effect. Applications: Linen is one of the widely used fibre used in: • Apparels • Home furnishings • Commercial furnishing • Upholstery • Industrial application JUTE FIBRE Known as the raw material for sacks all over the world. Jute is truly one of the most versatile fibres gifted to man by nature that finds various uses in the form of Handicrafts. Next to cotton, jute is the cheapest and most important of all textile fibres. Jute cultivation provides work for millions of farmers, landless laborers, industrial workers and provides jobs for many others, indirectly. Characteristics of Jute Fibre: Jute is a long, soft, shiny fibre that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is one of the cheapest natural fibers, and is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibres are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose, lignin, and pectin. Both the fibre and the plant from which it comes are commonly called jute. Physical properties: Specific gravity
  14. 14. - 1.482 Moisture – St. M.R 13.75 & absorb 35 – 40% water of its dry weight Strength- Tenacity -dry 3.5-5 g/d wet lower than dry Elasticity-Breaking extension – 1.8% Recovery (%) very low. For high tenacity, less extension, high stiffness Jute fibres is brittle & can holds less twist. So Emulsion is added to make it soft. Specific heat is - 0.3256 Resiliency -bad Abrasion resistance -Moderate Dimensional stability -good WOOL FIBRE Wool is a natural fibre sourced from animals. It grows from the skin of sheep, goats. Rabbit and alpacas are also used for producing high quality wool. This natural fibre is composed of a protein known as Keratin and is a relatively coarse fibre. Physical Characteristics: The fibre is wavy, crimpy and has scales on its surface. The appearance of wool varies, depending on the breed of sheep. While some fibres can be having finer scales, others can have crimp and coarser scales. Wool fibre is susceptible to heat and has a felting property, caused due to the scales on the surface.
  15. 15. Physical properties of wool: Strength: 1. Wool is the weakest of the natural textile fibres. 2. Wool fibre is strengthened by the used of ply yarns. 3. A hard twisted two ply yarn may be regarded as an assurance of durability. 4. Tightly twisted single yarns also make a strong fabric. Elasticity: 1. Depending upon the quality of wool, the fibre may be stretched from 25-30 percent of its natural length .2.This characteristic reduces the danger of tearing under tension. 3. This characteristic contributes to the free body movements 4. Wool & wool blend fabrics are given mechanical & chemical treatment to increase their elasticity & provide better two ways stretch. 5. The chemical treatment also gives better shape retention. Resilience: 1. Wool fibre has a high degree of resilience. 2. Good quality wool is soft & resilient .3.Poor quality wool gives a harsh feeling.4.Due to the high degree of resiliency, wool fabric wrinkles less than some others. Drapability: It has excellent draping quality due to its pliability, elasticity, and resiliency. Effect of heat: 1. Wool becomes harsh at 100˚C & begins to decompose at slightly higher temperature. 2. It has plastic quality which helps to have shape at melting temperature. Specific gravity - 1.31 Tenacity -1.6 Moisture Regain -14 to 18 Effect of light: Wool is weakened by prolonged exposure to sunlight. Applications: Wool is used for manufacturing various products including:
  16. 16. •Clothing •Carpets Rugs Felt