SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE TWO SHORT STORY,<br /> HOW TO HOOK A HUSBAND AND MARIAH<br /><ul><li>Both short story is about the marriage in life that we have to face as a human.
Both short story is about relationship between family and community. For example, in the short story of “ Mariah” relationship between Imam and Cik Yam that is husband and wife while Cik Gu Nab is village community. In the short story of “How to hook a husband” relationship between Malar and her parents is family while Muthu is a tenant of the neighbour’s back room.
The main character of both short story is women. Malar is the main character in the short story of How to hook a husband and Mariah in the short story of Mariah.
A short story is a short work of fiction. Fiction, as you know, is prose writing about imagined events and characters. Prose writing differs from poetry in that it does not depend on verses, meters or rhymes for its organization and presentation. </li></ul>CHARACTER<br />A character is a person, or sometimes even an animal, who takes part in the action of a short story or other literary work. <br />SETTING<br />The setting of a short story is the time and place in which it happens. Authors often use descriptions of landscape, scenery, buildings, seasons or weather to provide a strong sense of setting. <br />PLOT<br />A plot is a series of events and character actions that relate to the central conflict. <br />THEME<br />The theme is the central idea or belief in a short story. <br />MORAL VALUES<br />The good habits that must be followed in daily life.<br />COMPARE AND CONTRAST ELEMENTS IN THE SHORT STORIES.<br />PLOT<br /><ul><li>How To Hook A HusbandMariahEXPOSITIONThe story is about a Ceylonese family, who has five daughters and one son. Their lives depend on the father’s pension money. The parents ask their daughter to look for husband by themselves because they cannot afford to pay the dowry.RISING ACTIONMalar try the best to hook a husband. Malar always follow her mother to market, temples and wedding houses and constant attempt to attract male attention by wearing a beautiful dress and personal adornments. The situation is become worse when Mangales landed a husband but the eldest, Malar is still not married. Then, Malar tries to tackles Muthu whose they though work as a bank manager. She waiting for Muthu pass by the gates and learn how to ride a bicycles. After that, Muthu always attends dinner at Malar’s house.CLIMAXMalar’s parents began to drop hint to Muthu. Muthu agree to married with impose certain conditions. Malar was delirious with happiness. At the end they got married.FALLING ACTIONSAfter married, Malar stay leave at the rental room and plan to move later. After dinner, the family sits in the hall. The youngest brother has asked Muthu about his salary. Muthu tells the truth that he only gain RM220 every month. The family shocked because Muthu only get a peon pay. RESOLUTIONMalar accepted Muthu gratefully and still satisfied because she success to land a husband. “Malar turned away. “I don’t care,” she thought. “I don’t care at all. After all, I’m married. At last.”EXPOSITIONThe story is about Mariah. A widow who sell nasi belauk to the villagers. She was very attractive person and become an attention to the men in the village. “Rumour had it that her nasi weren't much to crow about, but it was a combination of Mariah's swaying as well as her smile that made all men flock to the village square”. Her husband had passed away soon after. RISING ACTIONCik Gu Nab, one of the local women leaders in the village come to Cik Yam house. the reason she came to Cik Yam house in not just a usual visit, but she come to gossip and slandering about Mariah. Tuk Imam’s remembering his past memories about his unforgettable love of the Sheikh’s daughter when he was studying at Pattani. CLIMAXTuk Imam asked for his wife’s permission to marry Mariah. Cik Yam said "Yes" to the Imam request. Cik Gu Leh, the Imam's emissary, came to Mariah's house asking for her hand. Mariah then agrees with the proposal.FALLING ACTIONSThe wedding is organised. She took out her savings and prepared for the wedding. Guests come to the house in Kota Bahru from morning until evening.RESOLUTIONImam kissed Mariah’s hand for a long time and thanks to God for His gift.“He came forward, took Mariah's hand in his own and kissed it fervently and long, inhaling the heady scent of Mariah's Tabu perfume. The Imam managed a hoarse "Thank You, God, for Your Bounty," before Mariah's perfume completely enveloped him and his senses”.</li></ul>RESOLUTIONMalar don’t care about the job of his husband. Instead she accepted Muthu gratefully and still satisfied because she success to land a husband.FALLING ACTIONSMuthu tells the truth that he only gain RM220 every month. The family shocked because Muthu only get a peon pay. CLIMAXMalar’s parents began to drop hint to Muthu. Muthu agree to married with impose certain conditions. At the end they got married.RISING ACTIONMalar try the best to hook a husband. Malar tries to tackles Muthu whose they though work as a bank manager. She waiting for Muthu pass by the gates and learn how to ride a bicycles.EXPOSITIONMalar was asked by her parents to look for a husband because they cannot afford to pay the dowry. In fact, Malar was 25 years old.PLOT : HOW TO HOOK A HUSBAND<br />RESOLUTIONImam kissed Mariah’s hand for a long time and thanks to God for His gift.FALLING ACTIONSThe wedding is organised.Tuk Imam and Mariah were married.CLIMAXTuk Imam asked for his wife’s permission to marry Mariah.RISING ACTIONGossip by the villagers (women) Flashback of Tuk Imam’s past.EXPOSITIONIntroduction of Mariah Nasi sellerPLOT : MARIAH<br />CHARACTERS<br /><ul><li>How To Hook A HusbandMariahMain characterMalarEldest sister in a family – 25 years oldLoyal and obedient wifeVery proud of her husbandAmbitiousVery determined to hook a husbandTall, and big womenshe has an enormous breast and hipsOther charactersMuthuMuthu has a thick, longish hair. He is a tenant of the back room He is a humble man and not too choosy because he accepts Malar even she has a big size. Malar’s fatherHe is a pensioner.“Father is a pensioner”. He is the head of familyHe like to praise people “A good chap. So humble, so modest. Difficult to find boys like that, nowadays”.Malar’s motherShe is a responsible mother “The mother had done everything she could to enable her ( Malar) to meet boys”.She is a motivator. She become a motivator to Malar for looking a husband “Grab whom you can and don’t let go”.Main characterMariahA widow“mariah had been married once, but her husband had passed away soon after”Nasi belauk seller“mariah was a nasi seller in molo, in fact the nasi seller in molo”Beautiful and flamboyantOther charactersTuk ImamHead of the mosque Pious Respectable Referent to solve problem.Cik YamPerfect wife Good cook“Her (Cik Yam) culinary skills were not her only attribute; her housekeeping was also a model to be followed by other womenfolk in the village. One could always call at the Imam’s house at any time of the day, guaranteed to be greeted by a well-turned-out wife, hot tepung and fragrant surroundings.” (pg 72-73)Cikgu NabGossip Loves to find other’s fault Hopeless cook Jealous wifeCik Gu Nab sent threatening messages to MariahCikgu LehCik Gu Nab’s husband and Tuk Imam’s friendRepresent Tuk Imam in asking Mariah’s hand for marriage</li></ul>THEMES<br /><ul><li>How To Hook A HusbandMariahWomen’s hopeThe possible theme of this story is the women’s hope. Malar was hope that she will get a husband by dressed in bright sarees and following her mother to the temple and wedding- houses but she still do not has a husband. Malar also hope that there is an encourage response from Muthu after she took herself around her gate everyday at 5.45 p.m. But after two weeks, Muthu did not give an encourage response to her and she gave up.Causes of the custom of Indian marriageIn the custom of Indian marriage, a woman needs to provide a dowry for men.“Forget Ceylonese men, they won’t even look at you without a dowry”.Female vs femaleWidow is considered as underclass which she would be socially oppressed Sacrifice of a wifeThe possible theme of this story is the sacrifice of a wife. This is because the story is about a wife was willing to have a co-wife only for the happiness of her husband. Life can be hard and be ready to face itCik Yam faced a problem that disappointed her heart because her husband want to marry another women and Cik Yam firstly cannot accept the fact but after she is calm, she faced the problem positively by accepting her husband request.</li></ul>SETTINGS<br /><ul><li>How To Hook A HusbandMariahPLACEResident neighborhood: Malar’s house is two doors to the left from the old pensioner house which is Muthu have rent a room. Every day, Malar learns to ride a bike along ground and try to tackle MuthuMarket, wedding houses and temples. : Malar always went marketing daily, went to temple every Friday and attended every wedding in town for hook a husband.Clinic: Mangales work as a nurse at a clinic.Cameron Highland: Muthu and Malar went a honeymoon at Cameron Highland.Pensioner’s house: Muthu has rented a back room in the house. Hall: Malar and Muthu would be left practically alone in the hall after dinner. Besides, the truth about Muthu’s job is exposed in the hall. PLACEsmall village town in Molo where Mariah sell the nasi - “Mariah was a nasi seller in Molo”. PATTANI, SOUTHERN THAILAND(Flashback) “ the Imam became transported to another time, his youth….”The place where Tuk Imam studied be an Imam“When the Imam was a young man of fifteen his father had voiced his wish for his son to be sent to Pattani in Southern Thailand to learn under a tutelage of a well known Sheikh. Mosque where Imam is having the prayer“He left the table, took his ablutions and quickly went to the mosque”.Cik Yam's house where Cik Gu Nab came to gossip.Cik Yam and Imam’s Bedroom“ Cik Yam threw the tudung saji on the floor, narrowly missing the Imam’s foot, then ran sobbing to their bedroom”. TIMEEvening : every evening, Malar will draping herself around gate to waiting Muthu back from work. Sunday Night: Muthu attend dinner at malar’s house every Sunday night. After dinner: After dinner, Malar and Muthu would be left practically alone in the hall and the truth about Muthu’s job is exposed.TIMEMorning : “In that particular morning, the Imam was with the men, falling on Mariah’s nasi belauk with much relish”.Lunch time- “Is lunch ready, Yam?”Asked the Imam.Thursday night when the Imam asked for his wife permission to take Mariah as a second wife.SOCIAL CONDITIONA poor family with five daughter which is requires to hook a husband by themselves because their father not afford to pay the dowry.SOCIAL CONDITIONMalay family and village society are the social condition for this short story </li></ul>MORAL VALUES<br /><ul><li>How To Hook A HusbandMariahDon’t judge a book by its cover.Malar thought that Muthu work as a bank manager because she always saw Muthu bring the briefcase and dressing smartly.We must have determination to achieve what we want.Malar did not give up easily hooking a husband. We have to honest to the othersWe have to be honest to other people although we have a weakness. The people will also know at last when the secret is exposed.Accepting the truthEventhough Malar knew that her husband just a peon in bank, but she loves her husband very much.Not talk other people matter especially slandering.Cik Gu Nab said that Mariah put “something” in her nasi.Willing to sacrifice for the lover.Cik Yam was willing to sacrifice to have a co-wife for her husband happiness.Become honest peopleTuk Imam told the truth to his wife about his old love on Sheikh’s daughter.Respect the othersImam was respect to his first wife by asking her permission before getting married with Mariah.</li></ul>TASK 2<br />I like the short story “Mariah” because this story has a very interesting plot. The plot is very strong and makes me clearly understand about what is this story is about. Briefly, it makes this story meaningful for those men who want to marry more than once. The event in this story has taught me many good values. For example, as a human, we should not talk bad about others people. In this short story, Cik Gu Nab said that Mariah put “something” in her nasi. She slandering Mariah about something that Mariah didn’t do. in fact, she didn’t even know either the story she makes is true or not. <br />Besides that, I also impressed with the attitude shown by Cik Yam. Cik Yam is a very good wife to Tuk Imam. She obeys her husband very much and carries out her responsibility very well. The most major thing that she does is allow her husband to marry with Mariah. She is willing to sacrifices her love for her husband happiness. Tuk Imam also is a very honest people. He told Cik Yam about his old love story. I also learned that we have to be honest in all condition. Then he respects his wife. He ask his wife permission to marry with Mariah. <br />On top of that, the moral value of faithful to the religion also found in this story. Imam was faithful in prayer. He punctual in his prayers. As a Muslim, I learned that the responsibility to the religious is the most priorities. Cik Yam also will be rewarded from God for the good deeds. As example, she being obey to her husband and the most important thing, she allow her husband to marry once again. In Islam, the wife that allows her husband to marry more than one will be given good reward. Finally, for the man who married more than once, he must be fair to his wifes. <br />REFLECTIONS<br />First and foremost, thank to God because with his blessing, I had successfully completed the short coursework that had been given to me and entire classmate. Many thanks to Pn Seethradevi A/P K. Krishnasamy, our lecturer because has guided me to complete my coursework. I would like to say many thanks to my friends, who had give the cooperation on completing this coursework.<br />To complete this coursework, at first, I have to read two short stories given that are How to Hook a Husband and Mariah. These two short stories are not so long and I didn’t have a problem completing reading them. In fact, these two short stories are not so bored and very interesting to read on. After I have finished reading them, I have to analyse about the elements contain in the short stories. I have to compare and contrast the plot, characters, settings, theme and moral values.<br />To complete this task, I have to recall what I have learnt about the elements in short stories. So I make a reference about it on the internet. Then I can understand clearly about them. To understand this two short stories are not hard for me because the language used are not so hard to understand. But, it took me for second reading to clearly understand the whole stories. <br />There are many moral values that I get from these two short stories. For example, we have to be honest to the others. This moral value are contain in two short stories. Besides, there are many moral values in these two short stories but these moral values did not contain in both short stories. The moral values stated are ready to sacrifice our love, not slandering others people, accepting the truth and determination in life. This moral value are very important to us as a human. I should use this moral value in my daily life.<br />Prepared by,<br />AMRI BIN ZAKARIA<br />(SN/PJ/BM)<br />SHORT STORY ELEMENTS<br />SETTING -- The time and location in which a story takes place is called the setting. For some stories the setting is very important, while for others it is not. There are several aspects of a story's setting to consider when examining how setting contributes to a story (some, or all, may be present in a story): <br />a) place - geographical location. Where is the action of the story taking place? b) time - When is the story taking place? (historical period, time of day, year, etc) c) weather conditions - Is it rainy, sunny, stormy, etc? d) social conditions - What is the daily life of the characters like? Does the story contain local colour (writing that focuses on the speech, dress, mannerisms, customs, etc. of a particular place)? e) mood or atmosphere - What feeling is created at the beginning of the story? Is it bright and cheerful or dark and frightening?<br />PLOT -- The plot is how the author arranges events to develop his basic idea; It is the sequence of events in a story or play. The plot is a planned, logical series of events having a beginning, middle, and end. The short story usually has one plot so it can be read in one sitting. There are five essential parts of plot: <br />a) Introduction - The beginning of the story where the characters and the setting is revealed. <br />b) Rising Action - This is where the events in the story become complicated and the conflict in the story is revealed (events between the introduction and climax). <br />c) Climax - This is the highest point of interest and the turning point of the story. The reader wonders what will happen next; will the conflict be resolved or not? <br />d) Falling action - The events and complications begin to resolve themselves. The reader knows what has happened next and if the conflict was resolved or not (events between climax and denouement). <br />e) Denouement - This is the final outcome or untangling of events in the story.<br />It is helpful to consider climax as a three-fold phenomenon: 1) the main character receives new information 2) accepts this information (realizes it but does not necessarily agree with it) 3) acts on this information (makes a choice that will determine whether or not he/she gains his objective). <br />CONFLICT-- Conflict is essential to plot. Without conflict there is no plot. It is the opposition of forces which ties one incident to another and makes the plot move. Conflict is not merely limited to open arguments, rather it is any form of opposition that faces the main character. Within a short story there may be only one central struggle, or there may be one dominant struggle with many minor ones. <br />There are two types of conflict: 1) External - A struggle with a force outside one's self.<br />2) Internal - A struggle within one's self; a person must make some decision, overcome pain, quiet their temper, resist an urge, etc. <br />There are four kinds of conflict: 1) Man vs. Man (physical) - The leading character struggles with his physical strength against other men, forces of nature, or animals. <br />2) Man vs. Circumstances (classical) - The leading character struggles against fate, or the circumstances of life facing him/her. <br />3) Man vs. Society (social) - The leading character struggles against ideas, practices, or customs of other people. <br />4) Man vs. Himself/Herself (psychological) - The leading character struggles with himself/herself; with his/her own soul, ideas of right or wrong, physical limitations, choices, etc. <br />CHARACTER -- There are two meanings for the word character: 1) The person in a work of fiction. 2) The characteristics of a person. <br />Persons in a work of fiction - Antagonist and Protagonist Short stories use few characters. One character is clearly central to the story with all major events having some importance to this character - he/she is the PROTAGONIST. The opposer of the main character is called the ANTAGONIST. <br />The Characteristics of a Person - In order for a story to seem real to the reader its characters must seem real. Characterization is the information the author gives the reader about the characters themselves. The author may reveal a character in several ways: a) his/her physical appearance b) what he/she says, thinks, feels and dreams c) what he/she does or does not do d) what others say about him/her and how others react to him/her <br />Characters are convincing if they are: consistent, motivated, and life-like (resemble real people) <br />Characters are... 1. Individual - round, many sided and complex personalities. 2. Developing - dynamic, many sided personalities that change, for better or worse, by the end of the story. 3. Static - Stereotype, have one or two characteristics that never change and are emphasized e.g. brilliant detective, drunk, scrooge, cruel stepmother, etc. <br />POINT OF VIEW <br />Point of view, or p.o.v., is defined as the angle from which the story is told. <br />1. Innocent Eye - The story is told through the eyes of a child (his/her judgment being different from that of an adult) . <br />2. Stream of Consciousness - The story is told so that the reader feels as if they are inside the head of one character and knows all their thoughts and reactions. <br />3. First Person - The story is told by the protagonist or one of the characters who interacts closely with the protagonist or other characters (using pronouns I, me, we, etc). The reader sees the story through this person's eyes as he/she experiences it and only knows what he/she knows or feels. <br />4. Omniscient- The author can narrate the story using the omniscient point of view. He can move from character to character, event to event, having free access to the thoughts, feelings and motivations of his characters and he introduces information where and when he chooses. There are two main types of omniscient point of view: <br />a) Omniscient Limited - The author tells the story in third person (using pronouns they, she, he, it, etc). We know only what the character knows and what the author allows him/her to tell us. We can see the thoughts and feelings of characters if the author chooses to reveal them to us. <br />b) Omniscient Objective – The author tells the story in the third person. It appears as though a camera is following the characters, going anywhere, and recording only what is seen and heard. There is no comment on the characters or their thoughts. No interpretations are offered. The reader is placed in the position of spectator without the author there to explain. The reader has to interpret events on his own. <br />THEME -- The theme in a piece of fiction is its controlling idea or its central insight. It is the author's underlying meaning or main idea that he is trying to convey. The theme may be the author's thoughts about a topic or view of human nature. The title of the short story usually points to what the writer is saying and he may use various figures of speech to emphasize his theme, such as: symbol, allusion, simile, metaphor, hyperbole, or irony. <br />Some simple examples of common themes from literature, TV, and film are: - things are not always as they appear to be - Love is blind - Believe in yourself - People are afraid of change- Don't judge a book by its cover<br />