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  • 1. Identify the possibility of predication of seismic activity through the ionosphericdisturbances by DEMETER micro satellite (Indroducation and cases studies) by A.M.Rateb Reseacher Assistant arateb@narss.sci.egNational Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences, (NARSS). EGYPT A.M.Rateb –
  • 2. Contents 1- What is the Earthquake? 1.a-Definition. 1.b-Plate tectonic theory. 1.c-Distribuation of earthquakes. 2-Ionoshere and earthquakes. 2.a-Electromagnetic emissions theories. 2-.b- Lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere (LA I) Coupling. 3-The observation with Satellites. 4-Demter Micro satellite. 4.a- Scientific Objectives. 4.b-Scientific Payload. 4. c-Science Payload. 5 – Case Studies. 5.1-Examples of unusual ionospheric observations made by the DEMETER satellite over seismic regions. 5.2-Observations made by demeter micrsatellite for ultra low frequency and extremely low frequency emissions During indonesian earthquake. 6-Conclusions. 7-Recommendations . A.M.Rateb –
  • 3. 1-What is an earthquake?(1) Earthquake is a result of sudden fault movement.3 kinds of faults: normal, reverse and strike slip(2) Fault movement is a result of plate motion.Inter-plate and intra-plate earthquakes(3) Plate motion is due to mantle convection.(4) Mantle convection the cooling process of hot earth.(5) Pre-seismic, co-seismic and post –seismic phases. D. Ouzounov: Multisensor approach of analyzing atmospheric signals …Sept 11, 2007A.M.Rateb –
  • 4. 1.b-Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics… …what’s the connection ? A.M.Rateb –
  • 5. 1.c-Distribuation of eartquakes Earthquake locations map narrow plate boundaries, broadplate boundary zones & regions of intraplate deformation&even Earthquake locations map narrow plate boundaries, broad plate boundary zones in underwater or remote areasregions of intraplate deformation even in underwater or remote areas A.M.Rateb –
  • 6. 2-Ionoshere and earthquakes. A.M.Rateb –
  • 7. 2.a-Theories2.a-Theories Ionospheric EM observations Ionospheric EM observations 2.a..1-Emissions of EM Waves from the ground 2.a..1-Emissions of EM Waves from the ground 2.a..2-The Piezo-electric and tribo-electric effects 2.a..2-The Piezo-electric and tribo-electric effects 2.a.3-The emissions of aerosols (radioactive gas 2.a.3-The emissions of aerosols (radioactive gas or metallic ions or metallic ions 2.a.4-Propagation of acoustaic gravity waves (AGW) 2.a.4-Propagation of acoustaic gravity waves (AGW) The sketch of various EM observations and EM signal generation mechanisms The sketch of various EM observations and EM signal generation mechanisms A.M.Rateb –
  • 8. A.M.Rateb –
  • 9. 3-The observation with Satellites Geographic map of EM emissions Geographic map of EM emissionsA.M.Rateb –
  • 10. Major international dedicated missions to study earthquak Major international dedicated missions to study earthquake precursors in atmosphere and ionosphereDEMETER, CNES/France, Detection of Electro-MagneticEmissions Transmitted from Earthquakes (2004-2008) COSMIC – Taiwan/USA, 2006-2010 Kompass-2, CANOPUS, Russia (2006-2010)Mexico UNAMSAT-3, (2007-2009) SESS, China (2008-2010)Kazakhstan, (2008-2010)But DEMETER is the only satellite whichhas the capability to survey on a vast scalethe Earth’s electromagneticenvironment in the ionosphere A.M.Rateb – D. Ouzounov: Multisensor approach of analyzing atmospheric signals …Sept 11, 2007
  • 11. 4-Demter Micro satellite Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake RegionsSpacecraft:Chronologies: 2004 payload #27 ; 2004-025C 6247th spacecraft.Type:. Earth sciencesRanks:. 241sEuropean spacecraftSponsor: Frances CNES 29June 2004 at 6h30 UTC, fromLaunch: BaykonurOrbit: 696 km x 722 km x 98.3 DEMATER is a French minisatellite (125 kg) that monitors the electromagnetic activity in the ionosphere during and after earthquakes. The scientific satellite measures electrical effects generated by seismic events, it studies the ionospheric disturbances related to seismic activity, the ionospheric disturbances related toMission: human activity, the pre- and post-seismic effects in the ionosphere that contribute to understand the mechanisms generating those disturbances, and give global information on the Earths electromagnetic environment at the satellite altitude. This 130-kg spacecraft is the first project in the Centre National dÉtudes Spatiales microsatellite series. The Dnepr upper stage releases eight payloads while still firing — successively Demeter, Saudisat-2, SaudiComsat-1, Latinsat-C, SaudiComsat-2, Unisat-3, Amsat- Echo and Latinsat-D — and so they ended up in orbits with 698 km perigees andLaunch apogees increasing in order of separation time. At left, the Dnepr launch and, at right, the 8-satellite payload. (Photos: AMSAT). According to Spacewarn, Celestis 04/SL-24 (2004-25B) is just a monitor that was attached to the final stage of the Dnieper booster to log the performance of that stage. Jonathan Space Report No. 530 ; Spacewarn No. 609 ; National Space Science DataSource A.M.Rateb – Centers 2004-025C ; CNES
  • 12. The micro-satellite DEMETER in launch configuration (CNES document). The dimensions are 60 x 60 x 80 cm3and the weight is around 110 kg. The solar panel in black can be seen on the right. The scientific payload is locatedin the upper part. On the left there is a boom supporting the three magnetic sensors and the Langmuir probe.Three of the four spheres for the electric sensors can be seen in green. A.M.Rateb –
  • 13. 4.a- Scientific Objectives.The main objectivesSearch for the presence of electric and magnetic signals, in the highatmosphere, related to seismic and/or volcanic crises on the Earth and moreparticularly signals related to the seismic break or volcanic eruptionpreparatory phase;Determine the neutral atmosphere and ionosphere disturbancescharacteristics equally related to seismic activity after but also before events.Search for cases of particles precipitations that are related to theseevents A.M.Rateb –
  • 14. The Secocd objectivesDetermine the nature of these signals (closely related to the previousobjective) as well as all their spectral, spatial and temporalcharacteristics. to allow the determination of the signals apparitionconditions at high altitude as well as their variability following on one hand the eventgeophysical characteristics and, on the other hand atmospheric,ionospheric and magnetospheric conditions.This last aspect of theproject will constitute an essential contribution to the geophysicalCommunity effort to understand the generating mechanisms as well asthese signals propagation conditions. A.M.Rateb –
  • 15. 4.b-Scientific Payload The science payload is composed of five instruments: ICE – a set of electric sensors to measure the • -Frequency range, B 10 Hz – 20 kHz 3 components of the electric field from DC to • Frequency range, E DC – 3.5 MHz; 3.5 MHz IMSC – a three orthogonal search coil • Sensibility B : 2 10-5 nT Hz-1/2 at 1 kHz magnetometer to measure the magnetic field • Sensibility E : 0.2 μV Hz-1/2 at from a few Hz up to 20 kHz; 500 kHz IAP – an ion spectrometer to measure ion composition; • Particles: electrons 30 keV - 10 MeV IDP – an energetic electron detector; • Particles: ions 90 keV - 300 ISL – two Langmuir probes to measure the MeV density and the temperature of the electron associated with the BANT common electronic • Ionic density: 5 102 - 5 106 module for onboard data processing and ions/cm3 • Ionic temperature: 1000 K - handling. 5000 K A large onboard memory (8Gbits) is used to • Ionic composition: H+, He+, O+ collect the data all around the Earth and a • Electron density: 102 - 5 106 high bit rate telemetry in X band (16 Mb/s) cm-3 will download these data. • Electron temperature: 500 K – 3000k TABLE 2. Experimen capabilities. A.M.Rateb –
  • 16. Modes of Operations Working Modes DEMETER has two science modes of operation: 1)the Survey mode Collecting averaged data all around the Earth 128 channels from 70 keV to 2.5 MeV, time resolution = 4 sec 2) the Burst mode Collecting data with a high bit rate of 1.7 Mb above the seismic regions 256 channels from 70 keV to 2.5 MeV,time resolution = 1 sec.The triggering of the Burst mode is automatically realized when thesatellite crosses a seismic zone defined in the programmation plan. •The difference between the Burst and the Survey modes •Only concerns the time •Resolution of the data. • The number of telecommands is estimated to be of the order of 600 bytes/3 days. A.M.Rateb –
  • 17. 4.c-Science PayloadICE Experiment – Electric Field Instrument 2-Description of the 1-Detect and characterize the electromagnetic perturbations experiment. in the ionosphere that are associated with seismic activity. 2- Aims at characterizing the electromagnetic effects that can be generate by tropospheric storms in the ionosphere 3- Provide real time observations that can be of use for space weather purposes. 4- Perform a continuous survey of the DC and AC electric field over a wide frequency range and with a high sensitivit Figure 1: Position of the ICE sensors on the spacecraft 3-processing and data storage Data processing and data storage in the mass memory depend on frequency range and on the mode of operation of the spacecraft, Burst or Survey, 1- DC and ULF measurements. 2-ELF measurements. 3-VLF measurements. 4-HF measurements. A.M.Rateb –
  • 18. The magnetic field experiment IMSC The Strategy to record the data The BURST MODE. To record low bit rate data all around the Earth, During the BURST mode _Waveforms of 3 electric components up to 15 Hz, – Waveforms of the 6 components of the EM field up to 1 kHz, –Waveforms of 2 components (1B + 1E) upto 20 kHz, – Spectrum of one electric component up to 3.5 MHz – Waveform of one electric compone up to 3.5 MHz (snapshots). IN THE SURVEY MODE. To record high bit rate data above seismic regions • During the Survey mode – Waveforms of 3 electric components up to 15 Hz, – Spectra of 2 components (1B + 1E) up to 20 kHz, – Spectrum of one electric component up to 3.5 MHz, – Results of a neurone network to detect whistlers and sferics.Figure 2: The magnetic search-coil IMSC and its pre-amplifier. A.M.Rateb –
  • 19. IAP Experiment – Plasma Analyser Instrument 1- Scientific Objectives. 2.-Description of the experiment. a-characterize the state of the ionospheric plasma, . The IAP experiment makes use of two analyzers:in order to detect perturbations 1-A-PR (for Analyseur à Potentiel Retardateur, Retarding Potential Analyzer) performs the energy analysis of the rammed ionospheric ionsb-provide the plasma parameters that are neededto analyze the data from the plasma wave ADV (for Analyseur pour Direction de Vitesse, Velocity -2Direction Analyzer) determines the average angles of arrival of the ions.instruments, ICE and IMSC. APR measurements allow to determine the density, temperature and bulkc-Real time ionospheric data can be provided for energy of the ionospheric ionspace weather purposes. 3-Modes of operation. IAP has 2 modes of operation in the DEMETER Survey mode, respectively labeled Survey 1 and Survey 2. Survey 1 Corresponds to a medium energy resolution mode for APR with 28 VGR steps 12.8 ms long providing a complete set of plasma parameters every ~ 360 ms. Survey 2, With 56 VGR steps 12.8 ms long, corresponds to a high energy resolution mode with a lower temporal resolution providing a complete set of measurements every 720 mDensity fluctuations from ADV measurements are available with time resolution of 12.8 ms. There is only one mode of operation in the DEMETER Burst mode featuring high energy and high temporal resolution with 56, 6.4 ms long, VGR steps providing a complete set of plasma parameters every ~ 360 ms. Density fluctuations are available with a time resolution of 6.4 ms. A.M.Rateb –
  • 20. GROUND-BASED STATIONS and HOW I.S.E.P. Can be involved? The ground-based stations of the Demeter programme follow Several objectives:1. To seek and identify the abnormal variations in the ULF, ELF, and VLF frequency domains likely to be generated by a tectonic activity,2. To discriminate the origin of the signals (anthropogenic origin or tectonic)3. To evaluate the localization of the source(s)4. To evaluate propagation processes of the EM signals5. To seek and identify the abnormal occurrence of Earthquake Cloud and their connection with the changes of ULF, ELF Frequency domains likely to be generated by a tectonic activity also evaluate the localization of source of the earthquake clouds and Their connection with lithospheric events. A.M.Rateb –
  • 21. 5 – Case study -5.1 Examples of unusual ionospheric observations made by the DEMETER satellite over seismic regions.5.2- Observations made by demeter mico - satellite for ultra low frequency and extremely low Frequency emissions during indonesian earthquak. A.M.Rateb –
  • 22. 5.1- Examples of unusual ionospheric observations made by the DEMETER satellite over seismic regions.Fig. 1. Orbit of DEMETER above Japan on August 29, 2004. The starindicates the epicenter f a series of two earthquakes which occurs Fig. 3. For the same earthquake as in Fig. 1, anotheron orbit above Japan on August 31, 2004. A.M.Rateb –September 5, 2004 in the region of Kii-Peninsula. The thick line ontheorbit corresponds to the period where an ionospheric
  • 23. Fig. 2. From the top to the bottom the panels successively show a spectrogram of the electric component E34 between 0 and 2 kHz, a spectrogram of themagnetic component B3 between 0 and 2 kHz, the ion density given by IAP, the electron density, and the earthquakes seen by DEMETER along the orbit(see text for explanation). The data are presented as a function of the Universal Time (UT). The Local Time (LT), the geographic latitude and longitude,and the L values are also given A.M.Rateb –
  • 24. Fig. 4. From the top to the bottom, spectrogram of a magnetic component, spectrogram of an electric component, spectrogram of the energy flux ofparticles, and positions of the earthquakes along the orbit which is shown in Fig. 8. The data is recorded two days before the earthquake indicated by a A.M.Rateb –bright red triangle. (For interpretation of the references in colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
  • 25. 5.2-Observations made by demeter micrsatellite for ultra low frequency and extremely low frequency emissions During indonesian earthquake. We present results for a major earthquake that occurred in the Irian Jaya region of Indonesia (latitude 3.68 °S, longitude 135.46 °E, 07:36:47 hrs. UTC and depth 35 km) on 28 November 2004. Fig.1. shows location of the activity. The pass of DEMETER one day before the activity has been shown in Fig.2. Fig. 2. DEMETER satellite orbit no. 2153 up on 27-11-2004.Fig.1. Earthquake location in Irian Jaya region of Indonesia nearEnarotali.(courtsey USGS) A.M.Rateb –
  • 26. Fig. 3. Spectrogram results for electric and magnetic field components on 27-11-2004. A.M.Rateb –
  • 27. Fig. 4. Anomaly in ULF electric field variation on 27-11-2004. Fig. 5. ELF magnetic field variations on 27-11-2004.A.M.Rateb –
  • 28. ConclusionsData from low orbiting satellite have been employed topresent a correlation between seismic activity andelectromagnetic emissions.The above observations suggest the presence ofelectromagnetic anomalies during seismic activity inIndonesian region.It also suggests dominance of ULF and ELF range ascompared to other higher frequency emissions [5]. Under such conditions, long term investigations fortaking up such studies are felt mandatory to evaluate theelectric and magnetic field anomalies associated with earthquakes. A.M.Rateb –
  • 29. Recent years have evidenced large number of disastrous earthquakes, which have inflicted enormous damageto mankind. The various phenomenology associated with earthquakes have acquired specific attention of thescientists.Some of the interesting aspects found to be associated with seismic activities involve variations in ionosphericparameters and the generation of electromagnetic emissions in the large frequency range from Ultra LowFrequency to High Frequency. The experimental investigation on electromagnetic effects refer to the electricand magnetic field perturbations that are associated with major geophysical hazards such as earthquakesand volcanic activities and they could be used as short term precursors for studying the related phenomena.Electro-magnetic emissions are considered to be the most promising tool for studying ionosphericdisturbances associated with earthquakes.Demeter Micro satellite was lunched 4 years ago for to study the disturbances of the ionosphere due to theseismo‑ electromagnetic effects, and due to anthropogenic activities and give us good Promising resultsMore ecxellent results will come from perform a statistical analysis with many events in orderto determine the main characteristics of the seismo-electromagnetic effects. and this work will done through A.M.Rateb –