Improved city report copy

405 views
262 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
405
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
53
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Improved city report copy

  1. 1. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Better Cities of the Future CLOUD-9 SURVIVE AND THRIVE AMOS TAN CHI YI – 0318330 – FEB 2014 Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 1
  2. 2. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 1.Introduction For the final ENBE project, we students are put in a hypothetical scenario of being a mayor of a year 2114 city in dire straits. The city is no longer fit for surviving for reasons known only to us, and we have to propose a replacement city that is either floating, underground, underwater, flying (or on skyscrapers) or coastal/riverside- CityX. To prepare the proposal, we first have to conduct various case studies on cities that are ancient, modern and futuristic. We have to identify the characteristics of these cities that made them so successful and emulate their systems into CityX to make it self-sustaining and capable of survival for the citizens. Our CityX would be populated by around 300,000 Malaysians and should encompass an area of around 30 km^2. The purpose of this assignment is expose students to the built environment- the infrastructure, buildings, space, landscapes and all others that are associated with it. In addition, this assignment also gives us a glimpse of city planning and help us create a deeper appreciation of the cities we live in today. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 2
  3. 3. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 2.The City DEFINITION: city noun, often attributive ˈsi-tē : a place where people live that is larger or more important than a town : an area where many people live and work : the people in a city (taken from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary) CITIES: A BRIEF HISTORY: Nobody knows what exactly caused the formation of the first cities. While there has been many guesses, theories and speculation, nobody knows exactly the reason why people would suddenly become cooperative and build a large settlement. The popular theory is that cities were first established during the Neolithic era- after the discovery of agriculture. This discovery allowed humans to produce massive amounts of food, allowing it to sustain a significantly higher population than old hunter gatherers. In fact, some say that agriculture is necessary for a city to form. According to some experts, a city must have enough surplus of raw materials to support trade and a large population. Others say that cities exist only because their advantages outweigh this disadvantages, effectively saying that cities were an inevitable human invention. Regardless of how the earliest cities were formed, one cannot deny that the city has become a necessity for a modern society to function. No longer than one live practically alone in the wilderness or in a small collective town without being disadvantaged one way or another. For us as a species, we might as well consider the city as our habitat. Before we continue on this brief history lesson, it is useful to define what exactly a city is. In 1950, Gordon Childe defined a city as: 1.Differentiation of the population. Not all residents grow their own food, leading to specialists. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 3
  4. 4. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 2.Payment of taxes to a deity or king. 3.Monumental public buildings. 4.Those not producing their own food are supported by the king. 5.Systems of recording and practical science. 6.A system of writing. 7.Development of symbolic art. 8.Trade and import of raw materials. 9.Specialist craftsmen from outside the kin-group. 10. Size and density of the population should be above normal. It is also useful to distinguish towns and cities. A town is basically a loose confederacy of informal agreements between neighbours under the leadership of perhaps a mayor or a chief. A city is much more complicated, one with its own regulation and laws, taxation, religion, administration and even its own military. The first city in the world was Uruk, built in Mesopotamia circa 4000BC. Shortly after, various other such cities began popping up all over the Fertile Crescent, with famous examples such as Ur and Akkad. This culture spread to Syria and Anatolia (Turkey) as well as towards south to Egypt. Meanwhile, the Indus Valley Civilization and the ancient Chinese also began forming their own cities, with the early Chinese settlement on the banks of the Yellow River and the formation of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in the Indus Valley, these being particularly important as they were the world's earliest planned cities with early infrastructure. In Greece, sometime around 1000BC, the first city-states began emerging, with these introducing the concept of citizenship. These cities were themselves a self-sustaining nation, each with its own cultural identity. While these cities were often at war with each other, it is notable that at several times in history they have formed an alliance (such as during the Peloponesian Wars), and thus proving that a city must have diplomatic relationships. By this stage, the basic ingredients of a city is already known. From there, many other cities would rise and fall, with each success story bringing more innovation, and leading to an exponential rise in city population. Thousands of years after Uruk, the city of London achived a population of 1 million. City development was accelerated even further after the Agricultural Revolution and the Industrial Revolution, which allowed mass production of food and materials which in turn, caused a massive rise in population in cities. It also introduced the concept of the megacity: A city with a population of over 10 million. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 4
  5. 5. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Today, our cities are a far cry from the early primitive attempts at cities. However, at its core, the formula for a city has not changed: a city must have more advantages than disadvantages. WHAT MAKES A CITY? In 1950, Gordon Childe defined a historic city as: Differentiation of the population. Not all residents grow their own food, leading to specialists. Payment of taxes to a deity or king. Monumental public buildings. Those not producing their own food are supported by the king. Systems of recording and practical science. A system of writing. Development of symbolic art. Trade and import of raw materials. Specialist craftsmen from outside the kin-group. Size and density of the population should be above normal. Today, of course, a city is a much more complicated entity than primitive ancient ones. Modern cities require various systems and infrastructure, and must have diplomatic relationships with other cities. Thus, we should include the following criteria: Has extensive diplomatic relationships between cities and nations Has self-sustaining infrastructure and systems. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 5
  6. 6. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation WHAT MAKES A GOOD CITY While the criteria of a good city is often debated and can never be agreed upon, there are a few basic rules that govern what makes a city livable. 1. A secure water and sanitation system 2. Solid economy 3. Extensive, efficient and effective transportation network 4. Strong tax base 5. Great education system 6. Strong civil defence 7. Affordable housing 8. A varied and constructive culture 9. Effective public services (Medical, fire protection, social, etc). 10. Community spirit 11. Excellent administration WHAT IS A FUTURE CITY This is a very open and objective topic, as even among experts and planners nobody could effectively pin down a definition of what exactly is a future city, but the general emerging trend is that cities are focusing more and more on sustainability. Future cities will most likely place an important emphasis on green energy, self-sustainability and power efficiency. No longer will cities be a massive unregulated urban sprawl; it will be a planned city, with proper infrastructure and an excellent public transportation system. From a political point of view, cities are also leaning to left; socialism and left-wing politics seem to be the general trend, what with massive initiatives to improve education and healthcare by providing free or subsidized service. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 6
  7. 7. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 3. Ancient Cities – Mohenjo-daro welcome to Mohenjo-daro Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 7
  8. 8. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 3.1 Ancient cities As discussed above, cities were an inevitable invention of human beings ever since the advent of agriculture. The first proper city is in Mesopotamia, the city of Uruk. This “city culture” then spread to all over the Fertile Crescent, reaching far places such as Anatolia, Syria and Egypt. At the same time, independent efforts in the Indus Valley and China also result in the creation of their own unique cities with their own unique characteristics. For example, Mohenjo-daro introduced the concept of urban planning with proper infrastructure and grid-like zoning. At the 1st millennium BC, independent city-states began emerging in Greece, and along with the notion of “citizenship”, the concept of one belonging to a specific city. Greek city states are often similar in terms of structure, with most, if not all, cities having an Agora, a massive town hall. In Athens, the idea of a people-elected government, a democracy, was born. In this report, special emphasis will be placed on the city Mohenjo-daro. 3.2. Introduction to Mohenjo-Daro Location of Mohenjo-daro Mohenjo-daro is one of the earliest cities in the Indus Valley. Built around the 26th century BC, it was also one of the largest cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. Mohenjo-daro is located presently in the Larkana District in Pakistan, on a prominent ridge surrounded by flood plains. This ridge allows the city to be above the plain when it is flooded as well as offering a commanding view of the surroundings. 3.3. Significance of Mohenjo-daro Mohenjo-daro introduces the concept of city planning, what with its highly innovative grid- like zoning as well as proper infrastructure. The city had a size of up to 200 hectares, with Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 8
  9. 9. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation grid-like zoning of the city a peak population of around 40,000 inhabitants. The city is divided into two parts, called the Citadel and the Lower City. The Citadel, a massive plane about 12 metres high, functions primarily as an administrative centre. Located in the Citadel are public baths, large residential structures designed to house 5,000 citizens, and two large assembly halls. The city also features a central marketplace, a large central well. Evidently, the Citadel is a the place of residence for the more influential individuals:- priests, officials and the wealthy. In the Lower City lives the rest of the population in either individual or groups of households. Located here are also smaller wells. Throughout the city are covered drains that channel waste water from all the households out of the city. Several major buildings are located in the city. One of which is the “Great Granary”, a massive wooden structure that includes several grain storage-bays, complete with air- ducts to aerate the grains. This massive granary houses most of the city’s food supply. In addition, and perhaps the most famous of these superstructures, is the Great Bath. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 9
  10. 10. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation the Great Bath The Great Bath is a large and elaborate public bath, where members of the public could wash themselves in it. The bath is 12 metres long, 7 metres wide and 2.4 metres deep. It is also possible that religious ceremonies were performed in this pool. Another interesting thing to note is the fact that Mohenjo-daro does not feature any walls. In its place are guard towers and other defensive fortifications located at strategic points of the city. Comparing the relatively weak defensive capabilities of Mohenjo-daro to more heavily fortified cities located in the vicinity of it, it is assumed that Mohenjo-daro relies on the fortifications and armies of the adjacent cities for its own defence. Mohenjo-daro was destroyed by frequent flooding from the Indus river. 3.4 Solutions for Cloud 9 Cloud 9 will feature innovations from Mohenjo-daro. Cloud 9 will feature the sanitation systems of Mohenjo-daro, as well as the grid-like zoning of the city. The defensive systems of Cloud 9 will also reflect that of Mohenjo-daro, with small but effective defensive measures to safeguard the city against threats. Lastly, Cloud 9 will also have massive public areas for the people to interact. A massive centralized food storage plant inspired by the Great Granary will also be installed in my city. 3.5 Conclusion Mohenjo-daro has greatly inspired the formation of my city, just as it has influenced the formation of other, more modern cities. The innovations of Mohenjo-daro has now been replicated in all cities henceforth. Today, most cities implement concepts and ideas pioneered by the people of Mohenjo-daro, and my city, Cloud 9, will be no exception. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 10
  11. 11. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 4. Modern Cities- Pyongyang welcome to Pyongyang Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 11
  12. 12. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 4.1 Modern Cities Cities after the Industrial Revolution were decidedly extremely different from cities built before the Industrial Revolution. These cities placed a heavy focus on industry, trade and commerce, with a much higher population density than those cities preceding them. The first city to reach one million in population was the city of London, achieved in the 17th century. Soon afterwards, many cities followed suit. The Industrial Revolution paved the way for mass production of materials, allowing buildings to be built at incredibly fast rates and thus furthering expansion of both city population and city borders. However, for many established cities, the Industrial Revolution did not had that much an effect. These cities, most of which had existed for centuries prior with examples like Kyoto, Athens, Pyongyang, etc. simply had invested too deeply into traditional means, and were not in a position to drastically change their city layout and infrastructure to comply with modern improvements. Then came wars of the 20th century. The 1st and 2nd World Wars devastated and leveled entire cities, reducing them to rubble and annihilating entire populations. Cities like Dresden, Berlin, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Kiev and St. Petersburg were razed to the ground and completely destroyed. This allowed them to be completely rebuilt from scratch after the war was over. Pyongyang was one of these cities. 4.2 Introduction to Pyongyang Pyongyang existed since 108BC when it was established by the Chinese Emperor Wu. Throughout its history, Pyongyang had been completely destroyed several times, the most recent ones being during the 2nd World War when the Japanese took over and the Korean War when American planes bombed the city and nearly destroyed it. After the Korean War, the city was quickly rebuilt with Soviet aid. As North Korea became a communist country under the leadership of Kim Il-Sung after World War Two, it was planned for the modern city of Pyongyang to be built in the style of Socialist Classicism. The rebuilt city was a typical example of Communist city planning: extensive and vast parks, broad boulevards, and high- rise high-density apartments. Pyongyang became the political, economic and transportation center of North Korea. As of 2007, the city is home to 3 million inhabitants. 4.3 Significance of Pyongyang Pyongyang is an example of Communist city planning, one that emphasizes on utility over design. The majority of buildings in Pyongyang are “prefab”, that is, pre-fabricated buildings that standardized materials and dimensions. While these meant the buildings in Pyongyang to be completely similar and, according to some, boring, it allows swift and easy maintenance and repair as well as fast construction. In addition, apartment blocks are never built far away from any industry. The people of Pyongyang are systematically arranged where they live, allowing easy access to their workplace and maximizing efficiency. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 12
  13. 13. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Prefab buildings- boring but effective Huge public parks and gathering areas dotted with massive monuments are plenty in Pyongyang, this characteristic also typical of Communist cities. These monuments give praise to their “dear leader”, and its inhabitants are often forced to pay great respect to these huge bronze statues. These huge public areas also serve as sites for events such as parades and celebrations which are often held in Communist countries in commemoration of important events like their Great Leader’s birthday and other trivial events their insane dictator were to state. Public spaces – gigantic and insane Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 13
  14. 14. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Pyongyang metro-not bad! Pyongyang has features that mirror other Communist countries, perhaps most importantly an extremely efficient public transportation system. Pyongyang is well served by a two-line underground metro system with a length of 22.5km, an airport (Pyongyang Sunan Intl.) with links to Beijing, Shenyang, Moscow, and even Kuala Lumpur, trams, taxis, buses and both domestic and international railway lines. These public transportation systems are extensively used both to transport the inhabitants to and fro their workplaces and homes as well as to transport freight and goods from across the country. Pyongyang has extremely wide roads despite almost nobody own a car. Pyongyang’s defence is ridiculously rigid. As Pyongyang is the residence of Dear Leader, entirely regiments were established solely to guard the integrity of the city. Anti-aircraft missiles form a perimeter around the city, and military presence is often seen. 4.4 Solutions for Cloud 9 Cloud 9 will integrate various solutions from the city of Pyongyang into its design. For one, Cloud 9 will focus on utility as well as efficiency just like Pyongyang. As the world Cloud 9 will be in is post- apocalyptic, care will be taken to maximize efficiency in order for the citizens to both survive and thrive. For one, Cloud 9 will feature prefab buildings, allowing easy repair, maintenance and building. Although this will result in the creation of a drab, boring cityscape, at this point of time the city simply cannot focus on trivial matters such as aesthetics. The city will focus on survivability, and prefab buildings will allow just that. In addition, Cloud 9 will also feature population planning. People will be placed near where they work, maximizing efficiency and minimizing wastage of time. The public transport system will also be extensive, with comprehensive railway networks and an underground metro system delivering both manpower and freight. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 14
  15. 15. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Public spaces will also be common in the city, allowing local events to be held and celebrated and, at the same time, allowing congregation of the locals to fellowship with one another. 4.5 Conclusion As authoritarian Pyongyang is, nobody can deny its efficient design, careful zoning and extensive public transportation system. These three factors contribute greatly to Pyongyang’s rise as the capital of North Korea, and will greatly benefit the people of Cloud 9. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 15
  16. 16. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 5. Future Cities-Ringworld Welcome to Ringworld! WOW! Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 16
  17. 17. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 5.1 Flying Future Cities Unfortunately, there is no way flying cities could ever be built. It is simply not practical, offers too little benefits and is not cost-effective. In fact, the only way we will ever build a flying city is if all ground, underground and sea becomes entirely hostile to us. For the sake of this proposal let us allow it to be so. There are several ways to build flying cities. One of which is to build a city that “floats”, like a gigantic airship. These cities will have massive bags of lighter-than-air elements such as hydrogen or helium providing lift. There are several limitations to this approach, however. Firstly, the sheer weight of the structure will require such massive bags of helium that it would be completely impractical. To illustrate, lifting just one building would require 330 million cubic meters of helium, and that is discarding the weight of the balloon. Another problem is the structural integrity of the city. The city would need to have extremely strong structural support lest it falls apart will it lifts. The city would also need advanced computers to calculate which part requires more lift than the other parts, otherwise the city would tilt on one end. People would also need some way to breathe the thin air at high altitudes, thus requiring a pressurized environment at all times. This effectively means the city would be completely encased. To encase so massive a city perfectly without any leaks would be extremely hard and prone to tiny errors which could result in catastrophic failures, the worst being sudden decompression. The other way, and perhaps the most practical way, is to simply create a city that flies in the traditional sense. In order words, a gigantic passenger airplane. This city by its design would generate lift not by helium or hydrogen alone, but through its wings. The city would cruise at an altitude of around 10,000 metres flying at a velocity of 900 km/h, not unlike a modern jet airliner. Of course, there are also problems with this approach. The structural integrity of the plane would have to extremely strong yet light. In addition, the plane would need a massive constant fuel supply to feed the presumably hundreds of thirsty jet engines needed to provided thrust. The length and width of the runway needed to take off would also be ridiculously huge, in addition to the problems of pressurization and its respective problems. Ringworld is a fictional futuristic city portrayed in the novel Ringworld. Although fictional and it’s actually a space city, it offers several solutions for Cloud 9. 5.2 Introduction to Ringworld Ringworld is a fictional city set in space. It is a massive artificial ring about one million miles wide and has a diameter of Earth’s Orbit surrounding the Sun. This city is portrayed in the novel Ringworld by Larry Niven. Night is provided by an inner ring of “shadow squares” which are connected to each other. These move independent and simulate night by blocking light from the sun. Although it is in space, artificial gravity is achieved by having it rotate at around 3 RPM, simulating 9.69 m/s^2 gravity, akin to conditions on earth. On opposite sides of the ring are two large saltwater oceans, placed in there to counterbalance the ring lest it spirals out of control. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 17
  18. 18. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Ringworld is encapsulated and pressurized, allowing the inhabitants to freely breath. It also has its own climate, complete with seasons and weather. Ringworld sounds like a completely far-out futuristic city, but there are a lot of solutions that Ringworld provides that would be immensely useful to Cloud 9. 5.3 Significance of Ringworld Because Ringworld is so big and massive, it is split into several semi-autonomous sections. Each section is dedicated to one task only, such as filtration, sanitation, telecommunications, etc. and is governed by its own semi-independent government. There is an overarching government, but it rarely exercises direct authority on these sections. This allows a very efficient form of government, with each section operating independently, alleviating most of the burdens of ruling from the central government. Ringworld has its own climate control and pressurized systems, complete with its own full seasons, weather and climate. This allows the temperature of the city to be controlled, allowing it to optimize productivity. For example, it would create a rainy climate on agricultural sections, allowing fast growth of food to feed the massive populations. Ringworld also has an extensive telecommunications network, allowing communication between individuals, communities and sections to be done conveniently and efficiently. An inter-computer network similar to our Internet would link sections, districts and individuals together, allowing knowledge to be shared extensively. 5.4 Solutions for Cloud 9 Cloud 9 would benefit greatly from the advanced technologies Ringworld has to offer. First of all, Cloud 9 will need to have a climate control and be completely encapsulated and pressurized. This would allow the inhabitants of Cloud 9 to breathe normally despite flying at extremely high altitudes like 10,000 metres. The climate control, though not to the point of actually having its own weather, would allow the inhabitants of Cloud 9 to live with comfort every day, as well as boost the productivity of the city. Advanced telecommunications would also link the inhabitants together, sharing knowledge and information with ease, thus improving the livelihood as well as the literacy of the population. People will educated and smart, creating a workforce that is both efficient and dedicated. 5.5 Conclusion Although Cloud 9 is an extremely ambitious city, what with its flying characteristic, it pales in comparison to the extremely technological sophistication of Ringworld. The technologies in use in that highly fictional city would benefit Cloud 9 to no end, and would drastically raise the standard of living to high levels. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 18
  19. 19. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 6. The Flying City 6.1 Flying Flying cities basically boils down to two categories: actual flying cities that rely on wings to provide lift, and floating cities that rely on the buoyant force of lighter-than-air elements such as hydrogen or helium to remain in the sky. While both of these are extremely impractical today and offers little benefit, let us assume for the sake of this report that the world in 2114 is so polluted that the only option is to look up into the sky and live among the clouds. Floating cities will have massive bags of lighter-than-air elements such as hydrogen or helium providing lift. There are several limitations to this approach, however. Firstly, the sheer weight of the structure will require such massive bags of helium that it would be completely impractical. To illustrate, lifting just one building would require 330 million cubic meters of helium, and that is discarding the weight of the balloon. Another problem is the structural integrity of the city. The city would need to have extremely strong structural support lest it falls apart will it lifts. The city would also need advanced computers to calculate which part requires more lift than the other parts, otherwise the city would tilt on one end. The other approach is a city that flies in the traditional sense. In order words, a gigantic passenger airplane. This city by its design would generate lift not by helium or hydrogen alone, but through its wings. The city would cruise at an altitude of around 10,000 metres flying at a velocity of 900 km/h, not unlike a modern jet airliner. Of course, there are also problems with this approach. The structural integrity of the plane would have to extremely strong yet light. In addition, the plane would need a massive constant fuel supply to feed the presumably hundreds of thirsty jet engines needed to provided thrust. The length and width of the runway needed to take off would also be ridiculously huge, in addition to the problems of pressurization and its respective problems. A good model to look at for flying cities would be to look at existing jet airliners and how they function. Modern jetliners are basically mini communities: they hold a population (passenger + crew) count from 100 to over 800, have proper sanitation/water/electrical infrastructure, some are even equipped with comprehensive telecommunication networks such as GPS and internet. Today, the largest jetliner is the Airbus A380, a massive 414.4 million USD aircraft that can carry up to 853 people. This aircraft can fly up to 15,700 kilometers at an altitude of 10,000 metres at a cruising speed of Mach 0.85 (900km/h). This shall be our starting point. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 19
  20. 20. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Cloud 9 will be a flying city with a population of up to 150,000, equipped with all the necessities and with a total surface area of around 30 km^2. Obviously this is extremely far off from a normal A380, and would require completely new approaches in order to make this thing fly. While it would be tempting to just extrapolate the A380 formula and just create an upscaled model of the A380 and call it a day, we know we cannot do this because of the cube-squared law. This law states that the volume of an object does not increase at the same rate as the surface area of the object. In real-world application, this means the city would require wings so massive that it would dwarf the fuselage of the plane. We can use this to our advantage. Since World War Two, people have been experimenting with the concept of flying wings: aircraft that looks as if they are one massive gigantic wing with no apparent fuselage. These kind of aircraft offers several advantages: They offer massive lift, massive volume and improved structural integrity. These advantages would be crucial for the success of the Cloud 9. A modern flying-wing design would be the B-2 Spirit, an American bomber that looks sort of like an UFO. This flying-wing has a crew of 2, a wingspan of 52 metres and can fly at 15,000 metres at Mach 0.85. It could hold up to 80 500 lb bombs, up to 20 tonnes. The B-2 Spirit: Man-made UFO Thus, in order for Cloud 9 to fly, it would have to be a flying-wing, or at least, close to one. The altitude would also have to be high, preferably above the cumulus clouds that are located at 1,000 metres altitude. This would allow the city to stay clear from destructive weather. The other reason is because of its speed. Because of its immense weight, Cloud 9 would need to maintain an extremely high speed in order to generate enough lift to keep it in the air. However, achieving high speeds like 900km/h at low altitudes is impossible and would destroy the structural integrity of the city due to the much denser air, subjecting the city to heavy buffeting. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 20
  21. 21. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Thus, the ideal altitude and speed for a city would be something like modern airliners use: 10,000 metres above sea level at the speed of Mach 0.85. 6.2 Living Of course, simply flying high above the clouds is not enough. People would still need to live and breathe if they were to go about their daily business without hindrance. Once again, we look to the example of modern airliners. Modern airliners have cabins that are pressurized to maintain atmospheric pressure despite being so high up in the sky. Cloud 9 would also feature this technology, pressurizing the entire city to a pressure of 76mm of mercury or 101 kPa to maintain a comfortable air pressure to allow people to live normally without gas-masks or any ridiculous breathing apparatus that would be cumbersome to use. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 21
  22. 22. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 7. Cloud 9 SETTING: 8 MAY 2110, 1:28AM. MAYOR A.TAN'S OFFICE. A lone bead of sweat dripped down the mayor's stoic face as his eyes analyzed the massive blueprint that was displayed on his iPad 205's holographic interface. His hands twirled and gestured, pulled and pushed, tweaked and prodded as he interacted with the holographic model, analyzing every nook and cranny of this culmination of a hundred scientists' hard work. Surrounding him were the various ministers of the Subang Jaya, the environmentalists hired from NGOs, and the chief police inspector of the city. They twitched as they waited, silently for the mayor's decision. The mayor placed his iPad 205 on the desk, and looked out of his office window. It's been raining for over 5 months now, the mayor thought. While the sound of thunder could barely get pass his noise insulated office, the constant low rumbling and vibrations could not go unnoticed. And though it is just past midnight, the skies were as bright as the pre-Disaster morning, so said the lightmeter. The skies boomed and exploded as constant lightning appeared, almost at a rhythm. Flash, flash, flash. Break for a second. Flash, flash and flash. While the proud towers of Subang Jaya bravely stood against the stormy gale, and the economy of the city just as good as ever, the mayor knew Subang Jaya's time is up. He knew what caused it exactly. Melting ice caps resulted in massive rise in sea levels and freak weather. He knew the science precisely. He studied it extensively. But he wasn't prepared for this. When he took office 30 years ago, he wasn't expecting to be leading an entire city of 300,000 in a crisis. But here he is. His eyes went to his iPad, then to his colleagues. A sudden silence swept over the crowd. Would the mayor accept it? Is this our future? Would we survive? The mayor nodded and said: “Initiate construction immediately.” And it is so, 4 years later, the last kilometer long section of this new city lifted off from the stormy waters off Port Dickson and, 9 hours later and flying 10,000 metres above the clouds that this last section attached itself to the Core of this new city. Below them, the now deserted city of Subang Jaya lay abandoned and forgotten, its former inhabitants now living safely in the sanctuary of the sky : Cloud 9. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 22
  23. 23. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 23
  24. 24. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 7.1 Cloud 9 Solutions Cloud 9 will incorporate solutions inspired by the cities that are investigated in the case studies. From the city of Mohenjo-daro, Cloud 9 will have a grid-like layout directly inspired from the city, proper sanitation systems, small but effective defensive systems and a broad diplomatic portfolio. From the city of Pyongyang, Cloud 9 will directly integrate utilitarian and organized city planning, with prefabricated buildings, population planning, wide public parks and extensive public transportation networks. Lastly, from the city of Ringworld, Cloud 9 will incorporate pressurization, climate control, autonomous governance and powerful telecommunication networks. 7.2 Why is it flying? Flying high above the clouds at an altitude of 10,000 metres offers several distinct advantages. For one, it allows the population to escape the now inhabitable earth below, and thus survive and thrive. Another advantage is that it allows the city to escape storms and rain that is happening down below, maintaining the integrity of the city. Finally, flying cities would promote unity among the people, and would unite the hearts and minds of the citizens to achieving a common goal: to survive and thrive. 7.3 Cloud 9 features Cloud 9 features the very latest in technology and city planning. Incorporating features such as population control, strategic layout and innovative governance, Cloud 9 will become like a utopia among the clouds. Let us start with the design of Cloud 9. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 24
  25. 25. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Cloud 9 is a massive city built in the shape of a flying wing with a lower cantilevered plane at the rear. Cloud 9 is aerodynamic and structurally safe from the elements. Built from carbon nanotubes, graphene and titanium, Cloud 9 flies at 10,000 metres above sea level at a speed of 900 km/h or Mach 0.85. The design of the Cloud 9 is based on previous flying-wing concepts like the B-2 Spirit. It allows for extremely high lift for an extremely large mass and volume. Powering the city is a large nuclear power plant as well as a secondary plant that burns waste to produce energy. The entire city is pushed by 20 jet engines. The city is splt into 4 main districts. The East Wing, West Wing, Centre, and the Agricultural Zone. All these districts house specific sections that are dedicated to the performance and survivability of the city. In addition, all these sections are self-governing, and require little input or direct authority from the central government. Zoning of the city In the West Wing, the main sections include: Food Supply Section This section is dedicated towards processing, packaging and delivering food throughout the West Wing. A massive freight line connecting the agricultural area to the Food Supply Section allows fast and convenient supply of food from the agricultural area to be processed. Water Supply Section Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 25
  26. 26. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation This section is dedicated towards maintaining a constant, clean and filtered water throughout the city. The section focuses on collecting water, filtering and recycling waste water as well as the delivery of water via pipes to the entire city. Defence Section This section and its inhabitants constitutes the defence of the city. Here, all defence sites including AAM ASM launchers, SW and PH radar installations are controlled in this section. Sanitation Section This section is responsible for the cleanliness of the city as well as providing and alternate source of energy. The wastes of the entire city are carried to the sanitation section, where it is treated, processed and the material either recycled or burned for energy. In the Centre district the main sections include: Government Section Located here are the government buildings, where laws are made and authority is exercised. A landmark here is a massive People's Palace, a gigantic building housing the Parliament as well as the offices of the politicians. Commercial Section Located here are where commercial activities take place. Massive shopping centres allow the population to spend money and relax themselves. Diplomatic Section In this section are the various embassies and diplomatic institutions from other nations and cities. Police/Law Section The headquarters of the city police and located here. The police deal with the maintaining of law and order in the city, as well as safeguard the citizens from internal threats. In the East Wing, Food Supply Section This section is dedicated towards processing, packaging and delivering food throughout the East Wing. A massive freight line connecting the agricultural area to the Food Supply Section allows fast and convenient supply of food from the agricultural area to be processed. Nuclear Plant Section This section houses the nuclear power plant that functions as the primarily source of power of the city. Nuclear power is chosen because it is one of the cleanest and efficient sources of energy known to man. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 26
  27. 27. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Education Section This section deals with the education of the city's citizens. Educational institutes like primary and secondary schools, vocational schools and a university are placed here. Students are housed in dormitories where they will stay for the entirety of their education until they graduate. Telecomms Section The Telecommunications Section deals with the telecommunications infrastructure of the city. Located here are the server rooms that store all the information of the city-wide Intranet. It is also responsible for the integrity of the communications network, internet cables and wireless broadband communication. In the Agricultural District, The city's food is grown here. 7.3.1 A closer look at a Section If you notice, there is no “residential”, “cultural” or “religious” section. This is because each section has those areas already integrated. Let' have a closer look at a section. For illustration, let us look at a typical section: the Telecommunications Section. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 27
  28. 28. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation As you can see, the Telecommunications Section is split into 2 main areas, one full of hexagonal structures and other filled with rectangular structures. Each area is further divided into 7 divisions. The concept of this is simple. The hexagonal structures houses the living, cultural and religious areas of section, while the rectangular structures house the workplace of those who work at the Telecommunications Section. This allows the citizens to be able to access their workplace extremely easily, and allow integrated living. This concept is burrowed from Pyongyang. But let us delve in even deeper, and let us see how the residential, cultural and religious areas look like. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 28
  29. 29. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 7.3.2 An even closer look at a Section This is how the Residential, Cultural and Religious (RCR) areas look like. Each RCR area has 3 main buildings: Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 29
  30. 30. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 1. Living Quarters This is the place where the people stay in. Large apartment blocks allow high-density living. 2. Religious and Cultural Centre This is the place where the religious areas are placed in. Churches, mosques, temples and shrines are all placed in one multifunction building. 3. Entertainment and Trade Centre This place houses entertainment areas for relaxation including but not limited to: bowling alleys, swimming pools, gymnasiums and others. It also houses a departmental store, allowing the citizens easy access to groceries. This RCR allows the citizens easy access to basic living amenities. It provides integrated living areas with convenience. 7.3.3 Infrastructure Cloud 9 is also well equipped with state of the art infrastructure, allowing fast and easy travel between sections and districts, and always-on wireless connectivity and high-speed broadband Intranet. The majority of these infrastructure exist beneath the buildings, in large pipes. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 30
  31. 31. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation That diagram shows one side of the entire city, the West Wing. Here, we can see that the underground infrastructure network is extensive and comprehensive. Metro/Freight Massive double-story tubes carry freight and humans to and fro sections and districts. The metro trains are capable of carrying up to 200 passengers per car, while the heavy freight trains can carry up to 600 tonnes of material, delivering goods and items to and fro districts and sections. Intranet Cable The intranet cable connects the entire city with high speed intranet access, allowing citizens to quickly communicate with one another. This network is connected to the servers in the Telecommunications Section. Food Supply This gigantic tube transports raw food grown in the agricultural sector to the food processing sections in each district, where it is sent to be processed, packaged and delivered to all the RCR areas in their respective district. Waste The wastes of the city are channeled along these pipes to the Sanitation section, where it is either recycled or burned to create energy. Airports In addition, Cloud 9 also has two airports, allowing inter-city connectivity. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 31
  32. 32. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 7.4 Other Features Cloud 9 offers several unique features that would greatly benefit the citizens of the city. One of which is a gigantic 30 km^2 roof. This 30 km^2 roof allows the citizens of Cloud 9 an unprecedented feeling of space. Even though the entire city is encapsulated and pressurized, this roof will allow the citizens to look up as if the sky is just right there. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 32
  33. 33. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Cloud 9 also has several interesting landmarks, one of which is in the Centre District. A massive 4 km wide circular avenue and the People's Palace, the central government building. Travel down Central Avenue and below large colourful banners and shop at massive shopping complexes. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 33
  34. 34. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation Finally, Cloud 9 features a massive agricultural district, with plantations as far as the eye can see. 7.5 Cloud 9 Cloud 9 is a flying city that cruises at 10,000 metres above sea level at a velocity of around 900 km/h and home to 150,000. The area of the city is around 30 kilometers squared. It features 4 distinct districts, each with each own sections that are semi-autonomous and self governing. These sections are also dedicated to a certain function (e.g. power, defence, sanitation) and have integrated living spaces, allowing the population to quickly reach their workplaces efficiently and conveniently. Cloud 9 also features extensive infrastructure, in particular public transport. This allows Cloud 9 citizens to be able to quickly access sections and even districts, further enhancing the connectivity of the city. Cloud 9 also has several interesting and unique features such as a 30 km^2 overhead roof that allows the citizens a massive sense of space as well as wide avenues and public areas and a gigantic agricultural district to meet the demands of a city of 150,000. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 34
  35. 35. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 8.Conclusion Throughout this exercise in thought, creativity and urban planning, I have developed a sense of respect to those urban planners who labour day and night trying to find the right way of city planning. I also am amazed by how far we have come from simple cities such as Uruk to the massive sprawling megacities like Pyongyang. Although my creation, Cloud 9, is far from an ideal city, in fact, even I myself wouldn't want to live in Cloud 9, it has helped me to appreciate the work that has gone into making a city successful. As the saying goes, “Rome wasn't built in a day”, so are cities of today. It is downright impossible to plan an entire city from scratch and anticipate progress. However, that doesn't mean we should not try. I am proud of Cloud 9, and all the research, work and 3D modeling that has gone into visualizing my idea. Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 35
  36. 36. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation 9. References. 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyongyang 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_korea 3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=24R8JObNNQ4 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohenjo_daro 5. http://www.mohenjodaro.net/ 6. http://blogs.thenews.com.pk/blogs/2013/08/the-sorry-fate-of-mohenjo-daro/ 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ringworld 8. http://larryniven.wikia.com/wiki/Ringworld 9. http://www.sketchup.com/ 10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B-2_Spirit 11. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A380 12. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flying_wing 13. http://images.google.com/ Amos Tan Chi Yi | 0318330 | Mr. Fariz | FNBE Feb 2014 | Taylor’s University 36

×