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This presentation is meant to acquaint the reader with the basics of narrative prose and prose fiction. Hope the readers will benefit from it and enjoy it. Rozi Khan

This presentation is meant to acquaint the reader with the basics of narrative prose and prose fiction. Hope the readers will benefit from it and enjoy it. Rozi Khan

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  • 1. 66th FEFA Course (IFEC-03)At The University of Peshawar
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 2. In the name of Allah The Beneficent and Merciful.
    LET`S
    TEACH PROSE
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 3.
    • Objectives:
    • 4. Introduction
    • 5. Types
    • 6. Prose-fiction
    • 7. Elements of prose-fiction
    • 8. Teaching Strategies for Prose
    PROSE
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 9. PROSE
    • from Latin prosaoratio “straightforward discourse”
    • 10. written or spoken language in its ordinary form, without metrical structure
    • 11. written in full sentences, which then constitutes paragraphs
    • 12. commonly used, in newspapers, magazines, encyclopedias, broadcasting, film, history, philosophy and many other forms of communication
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 13. PROSE TYPES
    Non-Fiction
    • This can also be called “informational” material. It provides information that is factual. Nothing is make-believe in these types of materials. It has some practical utility. More specific examples of this genre would be . . .
    • 14. Biographies:A true account of a person's life written, composed, or produced by another.
    • 15. Autobiographies:The biography of a person written by that person.
    • 16. Histories:A chronological record of past events and developments, etc,
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 17. PROSE TYPES
    Fiction
    • It is partly or totally imaginatively contrived. However, authors can also choose to include factual information in a made-up story. It is often referred to as narrative prose-prose which tells a story. Its different types include;
    • 18. Historical Fiction: The story takes the reader back to a particular time period where they learn about the everyday life of a person or group of persons. The character may interact with actual historical characters, but usually, the main character is not based on a real person.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 19.
    • Realistic Fiction: The story usually presents a problem to be examined that could be from anybody’s life. They may cover such topics as family situations, peer relationships, and cultural differences etc.
    Science Fiction: This is a type of modern fantasy. It explores scientific fact and can pose ethical questions about current scientific trends and predictions. The author focuses on the adventure of exploring the unknown and the wonder of discovering new worlds and people.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
    PROSE TYPES (Fiction Continued)
  • 20. PROSE TYPES (Fiction Continued)
    • Mystery:There are different types of mystery stories, but usually a crime has been committed and the reader wants to try to figure out “whodunit”. There is usually a great deal of suspense and intrigue abounds.
    • 21. Metafiction:It self-consciously and systematically draws attention to its status as an artifact in order to pose questions about the relationship between fiction and reality.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 22. PROSE TYPES (Fiction Continued)
    • Romance: It represents a chivalric theme or relates improbable adventures of idealised characters in some remote or enchanted setting.
    • 23. Short-Story: It is marked by relative shortness and density, organised into a plot and with some kind of denouement at the end. It can be read in a single sitting.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 24.
    • Novel: It is an extended work of prose fiction which tells a story of considerable length.
    • 25. It shows characters and their actions in what is recognizably everyday life. In novel unlike short-story characters and plot are fairly developed.
    • 26. It has a number of sub-genres depending upon the content and the method of execution.
    PROSE TYPES (Fiction Continued)
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 27. Narrative
    ANALYSIS OF NARRATIVE PROSE
    • Theorists are in agreement that there are at least two levels in a narrative text: something happens (What is told?) and this something is related in a certain way (How is it told?).
    • 28. In structuralist terminology the WHATof the narrative is called story, the HOW is called discourse.
    Story (What is told?)
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 29. NARRATIVE (Story)
    • Story consists of events (things that happen) and so-called existents (characters and setting to whom and where things happen).
    • 30. Events can be either brought about actively, in which case they are called actions (one character kills another) or they just happen naturally ( someone dies of a heart attack).
    • 31. Existents are the characters that make things happen or have things happen to them and setting, meaning the place or space where things happen.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 32. NARRATIVE (Story)
    • Most stories involve a sequence of events rather than just one event. Manfred Jahn thus gives the following definition of story:
    • 33. A sequence of events and actions involving characters. ‘Events’ generally include natural and non-natural happenings like floods or car accidents; ‘actions’ more specifically refers to willful acts by characters (M. Jahn 2002)
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 34. NARRATIVE (Story)
    Space /Setting
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 35. NARRATIVE (Discourse)
    • It comprises various elements of transmission
    • 36. Elements of discourse determine our perception of the story (what “actually” happened).
    • 37. In the analysis of discourse we try to determine how certain effects are achieved.
    • 38. The focus of analysis are questions such as:
    • 39. What is the narrative situation?
    • 40. Whose point of view is presented?
    • 41. Which narrative modes are employed?
    • 42. How are the thoughts of characters transmitted?
    • 43. How is the chronology of events dealt with?
    • 44. How is style used?
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 45. NARRATIVE (Discourse)
    • The analysis of the elements of discourse reveals how the reader is “manipulated” into forming certain views about the story.
    • 46. Analysis of the elements of discourse include an analysis of plot, narrative voice, focalisation, theme, representation of consciousness, time, and the type of language used in a work of literature.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 47. NARRATIVE (Discourse)
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 48. PLOT
    • Plot is the literary element that describes the structure of a story.
    • 49. It is the story arc which holds all the events of a story in an orderly way.
    • 50. plot is the casual and logical structure which connects events~E.M. Forster`s Aspects of the novel 1927~
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 51.
    • The basic triangle-shaped plot structure was described by Aristotle in 350 BCE. Aristotle used the beginning, middle, and end structure for a story that moved along a linear path.
    • 52. Aristotle's plot (mythos) follows a chain of cause and effect as it works toward the solution of a conflict or crisis.
    Aristotle’s Unified Plot
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 53. Aristotle’s Unified Plot
    Middle
    Beginning End
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 54. Gustav Freytag’s Plot Structure
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 55. Plot Structure
    • Narratives can have different plot structures depending upon the nature and number of conflicts.
    • 56. Single Plot vs. Multiple Plot narratives
    • 57. Closed structure (tightly plotted) vs. Loosely plotted (episodic) or open-ended plot narratives
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 58. SPACE/SETTING
    • Space in discourse is the spatial dimensions of the medium: length of the book, size of the pages, empty spaces etc. this aspect is very rarely considered in traditional literary analysis.
    • 59. Space or setting on the level of story is an important component in the creation and communication of meaning.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 60. SPACE/SETTING
    • Fictional space and real space:
    • 61. In narrative space has to be presented verbally. It thus exists only in the reader`s imagination.
    • 62. Readers create their notions of fictional space from their own experience in the real world.
    • 63. Description of spatial dimensions serve to increase the narrative`s authenticity, and provides a link to the reader`s reality.
    • 64. Readers tend to imagine the characters moving through ‘real’ space, as they do themselves.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 65. SPACE/SETTING
    • Space and meaning:
    • 66. Space or setting gives additional meaning to a narrative by providing either correspondences or contrasts to the plot or the characters. These aspects in particular should be noted:
    • 67. Atmosphere
    • 68. Space and character
    • 69. Space and plot
    • 70. Symbolic space
    • 71. Theories of sociology suggest that character is determined by social background, by milieu.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 72. CHARACTERISATION
    • Characters:
    • 73. The people in the narrative are called characters
    • 74. Constructed by an author to fulfill a certain function in a certain context.
    • 75. Unlike real people they do not exist independently of their narrative context.
    • 76. We form a mental construct of characters from the information given in the text as well as from our own experience and imagination.
    • 77. Character analysis in a narrative focus on Techniques of Characterisation and Character Functions.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 78. TECHNIQUES OF CHARACTERISATION
    • In the techniques of characterization the following six aspects are to be considered:
    • 79. How is the character described
    • 80. By whom is the character described
    • 81. How is the characterisation distributed throughout the text
    • 82. How reliable is the source of information
    • 83. What do we know about a characters inner life
    • 84. In which arrangements of contrasts and correspondences is the character depicted
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 85. CHARACTER FUNCTIONS
    • Characters in the narrative are responsible for taking the plot forward as the events occur to them or through them. The function of a character depend on the role and relationship of that character in relation to other characters.
    • 86. Major (also main) Characters: dominate the narrative by their frequent appearance and participating in most events of the story. If main character is only one, then he/she is referred to as protagonist (+ve main character) while, the influential opponent is the antagonist (-ve main character). Major characters are often multi-dimensional, dynamic and round characters.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 87. CHARACTER FUNCTIONS
    • Minor Characters: have limited or stereotypical role in the narrative. They may serve as witnesses, foil-characters, or confidants. They do not develop and are often reduced to types, representatives of single stereotyped character category: the wicked step-mother, faithful servant, miserly old man, etc. Minor characters are mono-dimensional and static in nature.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 88. Narrators and Narrative Situation
    • Narrator: The one who tells a story, the speaker or the ‘voice’ of an oral or written work. Two aspects of narrator are considered: narrative voice (who speaks?) and focalisation (who sees?). These two aspects together are also called narrative situation.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 89. Narrative SituationNarrative Voice
    • The voice that tells the story. The question ‘who speaks’ is asked of the narrative as a whole.
    • 90. Narrator can report on other characters` conversation without changing the narrative situation, as it is still the narrator who speaks.
    • 91. Homodiegetic narrator: narrator who is also a character in the story. Protagonist as narrator is called autodiegetic narrator.
    • 92. Heterodiegetic narrator: narrator who is not a character in the story but in a way hovers above it and knows everything about the story.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 93. Narrative SituationCommunication Model
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 94. Narrative SituationFocalisation
    • Focalisation means the perspective from which the story is told irrespective of the narrative voice. Sometimes a narrator adopts the limited point view of a character and tells the story from that character`s perspective. Focalisation may shift many times during the course of the narrative.
    • 95. External focaliser is external to the story and is called narrator-focaliser.
    • 96. Internal focaliser is a character in the story with limited perception of the story and is called character-focaliser.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 97. Narrative Modes
    • The kind of utterances through which a narrative is conveyed.
    • 98. Plato distinguishes between two main types: mimesis (the direct representation of speech and action) and diegesis (the verbal representation of events)
    • 99. Narrative modes adopted during the course of a narrative may include: speech, report, description, and comment.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 100. REPRESENTATION OF CONSCIOUSNESS
    • Thoughts of characters are presented, just like speech, using direct or indirect discourse.
    • 101. Threemajor methods of thought depiction have been identified, depending on the level of noticeable narrator interference. (Cohn`s distinction 1978)
    • 102. Interior monologue
    • 103. Psycho narration
    • 104. Narrated monologue or free indirect discourse
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 105. REPRESENTATION OF CONSCIOUSNESS
    • Interior monologue is the direct presentation of thought as in direct speech. This narrative technique tries to reproduce non-orderly and associative patterns of thought. This process of thought presentation is called stream of consciousness.
    • 106. Psycho narration reports the thoughts of the character via a heterodiegetic narrator. Character is referred to in the third person and the narrator remains in the foreground.
    • 107. Narrated monologue is a mixture between psycho narration and interior monologue. Dual voice is heard
  • TIME (Narrative Tense)
    • Two aspects of time are considered in the analysis of narrative prose:
    • 108. the use of tense in the narrative
    • 109. the arrangement and presentation of time sequences
    • 110. Narrative Tense: most narratives are told in the past tense, referred to as the narrative past. The tense of the narrative is determined by the tense of the full verbs. Some narratives are written in the narrative present also.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 111. Narrative Tense (Continued )
    • The use of the narrative present gives the reader an impression of immediacy, while the use of narrative past has a more distancing effect.
    • 112. If there is a tense switch from narrative past to narrative present for making statements of general application, then, this use of present tense is called gnomic present.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 113. Time Analysis
    • Time in narrative is analyzed on story and discourse level
    • 114. Story-time is the sequence of events and the length of time that passes in the story.
    • 115. Discourse-time covers the length of time that is taken up by the telling (or reading) of the story.
    • 116. The use of time in narrative centers around three aspects: order, duration, and frequency
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 117. Time Analysis
    • Duration: it is time consumed during the course of a story or its discourse, which is seldom the same. story time often exceeds discourse time.
    • 118. There are five possible relations between story and discourse time: scene, summary, stretch, ellipsis, and pause.
    • 119. Stenches and pauses slow thing down, while, scene and ellipsis give the impression of things happening quickly.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 120. Time Analysis
    • Order: is the arrangement of the story events on the basis of time.
    • 121. A story is said to be in chronological order if its events are occurring in ABCD…order and in anachronological order if the events are arranged in any other way.
    • 122. In the absence of chronological order, certain techniques (like, prolepsis and analepsis) are employed to reveal the whole story.
    • 123. A story may begin in above, medias res, or ultimas res depending on the arrangement of events.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 124. Time Analysis
    • Frequency: relates to the references which are made at the discourse level to any given event on the story level. There are three possibilities:
    • 125. Singulative: an event takes place once and is referred to once.
    • 126. Repetitive: an event takes place once but is referred to repeatedly.
    • 127. Iterative: an event takes place several times but is referred to only once.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 128.
    • The author Leif Danielson states, "As an overall teaching strategy: You should create the conditions that will elicit the behavior that you want from your class or an individual student."
    • 129. Teaching prose focuses on increasing student's comprehension of the material and establishing a personal connection to it.
    • 130. The key is to use a variety of strategies to keep students interested and involved.
    TEACHING STRATEGIES
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 131. TEACHING STRATEGIES
    • Read:
    • 132. Encourage students to read the material several times as repeated observation reveals what they may have missed the first time.
    • 133. First, teach them to observe what is on the page -- the facts and answers to "who, what, when, where, and how."
    • 134. Then encourage them to notice patterns, connections, repetitions or contradictions.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 135.
    • Tell them to question everything and explain that a situation or item wouldn't be in the text if there wasn't a reason for it.
    • 136. Lastly, teach students to discover the theme of the text -- what the author intended for the reader to understand.
    • 137. They will need to know what the fiction elements are (point of view, character, setting, plot, structure and theme) and why writers use them.
    TEACHING STRATEGIES (Continued ‘Read’)
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 138. TEACHING STRATEGIES
    • Write:
    • 139. One of the best ways for students to increase comprehension is to write about the story they've read.
    • 140. Require students to keep a journal during the course and have them brainstorm, list or free-write a paragraph immediately after completing the reading. Depending on the level of the class, create a form with questions to answer as homework.
    • 141. Writing assignments enhance creative and critical thinking. Ask students to write a continuation of a short story and imagine what would happen next.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 142.
    • Have them rewrite the ending of a short story, choosing a point in the action and changing the direction of the plot. You can also require that they change the gender, age, race or sexual orientation of a character from a story and rewrite the story or a selected scene.
    • 143. Assign the students a character and have them write a letter to him or her or have the students write a letter to the author and tell him /her what they think of the story.
    TEACHING STRATEGIES (Continued ‘Write’)
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 144. TEACHING STRATEGIES
    • Discuss:
    • 145. Creating a discussion involves students more effectively.
    • 146. Hearing another point of view challenges them to comprehend the material deeper.
    • 147. During class, ask questions. Effective teaching involves asking appropriate questions at appropriate times and helping students ask their own questions.
    • 148. Small group discussion gives shy students an opportunity to relate one-on-one.
    • 149. Group four or five students together and give them a question to discuss.
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 150.
    • Integrate Technology:
    • 151. Integrate technology into your teaching strategies.
    • 152. After reading and discussing a work, watch the movie version in class and if a movie hasn't been made of that book, watch a similar one to compare or contrast.
    • 153. View author broadcasts reading their own work or commenting on it.
    • 154. Students develop comprehension and increase learning while researching characters, stories and plots in the digital media.
    TEACHING STRATEGIES
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
  • 155. THE END
    BY
    ROZI KHAN
    The Department of English
    Govt. P.G Jahanzeb College Swat
    Rozi Khan The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.