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338235 634031680521011250

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  • 1. GROWTHANDDEVELOPMENT
  • 2. MEANING OF GROWTHAn increase in the size of an organism or part of an organism, usuallyas a result of an increase in the number of cells. Growth of an organismmay stop at maturity, as in the case of humans and other mammals, orit may continue throughout life, as in many plants. In humans, certainbody parts, like hair and nails, continue to grow throughout life.
  • 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF GROWTH Physical Development Heredity Physical and Normal Process Limited Span Visual Process Starting from Pre-natal Stage Measurable Maturity Stage During last Stage
  • 4. GROWTHo Refers generally to the physical growth, i.e. Growth from the fertilized egg at the time of conception to the fully grown body of the adult.o It means increase in the size of the various parts of the body
  • 5. ACCORDING TO HURLOCKGROWTH is change in size, in proportion, disappearance of old features andacquisition of new ones. e.g.: Height, Weight, Disappearance of temporary teethand Acquisition of Permanent teeth
  • 6. ACCORDING TO CROW AND CROW(1962) Growth refers to structural and physiological changes
  • 7. DEVELOPMENT Definition: Skinner: Development is a continuous and gradual Process Crow And Crow:(1965) Development is concerned with growth as well as those changes in behavior which results from environmental situations. J.E. Anderson(1950): Development does not consist merely of adding inches to one’s height or improving one’s ability. Instead development is a complex process of integrating many structures and functions.
  • 8. ACCORDING TO LIEBERT, POULOS ANDMARMOR (1979)Development refers to a process of change in growth and capability over time, as function of both maturation and interaction with the environment. Thus, development includes Growth Capability Maturation Interaction with the environment
  • 9. DEVELOPMENTIt refers to the progressive changes that take place withtime in the behavior of the organism.
  • 10. ACCORDING TO HURLOCK(1959)Development means a progressive series of changes that occur in an orderlypredictable pattern as a result of maturation and experience.
  • 11.  Development is cumulative- Each change is the culmination of prior growth and experience. Development is a result of interaction of Maturation and Learning- Maturation refers to changes in a developmental organism due to the unfolding and ripening of abilities, characteristics, traits and potentialities present at birth. Learning denotes the changes in behavior due to training or experience.
  • 12.  Development is predictable- The rate of development of each child at an early stage helps in predicting the developments at a later stage. Development is spiral and non-linear- It is in the form of a cork-screw.
  • 13. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT GROWTH DEVELOPMENT Development implies overall change inThe term is used in purely physical sense. It shape, form or structure resulting ingenerally refers to increase in size, length. improved working or functioning.Changes in the quantitative aspects come into Changes in the quality or character ratherthe domain of Growth. than the quantitative aspects comes in this domain.
  • 14. GROWTH DEVELOPMENT It is a part of  It is a comprehensive and developmental process. wider term and refers to overall changes in the Development in its individual. quantitative aspect is  Development is a wider termed as growth. and comprehensive term Growth does not continue and refers to overall throughout life. It stops changes in the individual. when maturity has been It continues throughout life attained. and is progressive.  Development involves changes of an Growth involves body orderly, coherent type changes. tending towards the goal of maturity.
  • 15. GROWTH DEVELOPMENT The changes produced by  Development implies growth are the subject of improvement in functioning measurement. They may and behavior and hence be quantified. bring qualitative changes which are difficult to be measured directly. They are assessed through keen observation in behavioral situations.  Development is Growth is cellular . It takes organizational. It is organization of all the parts place due to the which growth and multiplication of cells. differentiation have produced.
  • 16. GROWTH DEVELOPMENTGrowth may or may not Development is also possiblebring development. without growth.E.g.: A child may grow fat E.g.: A child may not gainbut by becoming fat no height, weight or size but canfunctional improvement have functional improvementmay take place. in other aspects .
  • 17. PRINCIPLES OF GROWTH ANDDEVELOPMENTDevelopment is acontinuousprocess (from birthto death)
  • 18. DEVELOPMENTFOLLOWS ADIRECTION ANDUNIFORM PATTERN(ORDERLYMANNER)Cephalo-caudal-from head to tail
  • 19.  Proximo- distal- from nearer to far apart
  • 20. Locomotion- Sequence of development is followed.
  • 21. DEVELOPMENT PROCEEDS FROM GENERAL TO SPECIFICRESPONSES- REACTS TO THE STIMULI WITH THE WHOLEBODY AND GRADUALLY LEARNS TO GIVE SPECIFICRESPONSES.
  • 22. DEVELOPMENT IS A PRODUCT OF CONTRIBUTION OF HEREDITYAND ENVIRONMENT-IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO INDICATE EXACTLY IN WHAT PROPORTIONHEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT CONTRIBUTE TO THEDEVELOPMENT OF AN INDIVIDUAL.
  • 23. DEVELOPMENT IS BOTH QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE-WHILE GROWTH TAKES PLACE, THE FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATIONOF THE INDIVIDUAL ALSO IMPROVES.
  • 24. THERE ARE WIDE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN GROWTH PATTERN I.E.DEVELOPMENT IS UNIQUE-INDIVIDUALS DIFFER FROM EACH OTHER IN THEIR PATTERN AND RATE OFGROWTH.
  • 25. FACTOR AFFECTING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Heridity Environment:1.Pre-Birth 2.After Birth Education:
  • 26. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Need of paying attention to individual differences of the learners. Avoid comparing the child with others. Undue pressure should not be put on the students. Adapting learning programmes, procedures and practices according to the level of students.
  • 27.  Need of motivating the child to learn as development is a continuous process. Need for correlating different subjects and examples to daily life. Need for a pragmatic outlook so as to not place undue demands on the child. Practice maxims of teaching like proceed from known to unknown, concrete to abstract, simple to complex Use psychological methods of teaching.
  • 28.  The learning experiences should be arranged suitably according to the maturity of the child. The learning processes, experiences and environment should be arranged according to the level and needs of the students. A good environment should be provided to the students, as it plays an important role in the development of the child.