English Phonology The Sound System of American English
Key Terms <ul><li>Phoneme  - a unit of sound significant in a specific language (E.g., /s/ is a phoneme in English while t...
More Terms <ul><li>Allophone  - a variant of a phoneme; often not noticed by native speakers (e.g, s p in,  p in) </li></u...
The Vocal Tract
The Vocal Folds (or Cords)
The Consonants of English
The Vowels of English
Phonetic Transcription Horseshoes  [hors‡uz] Matches  [mæc‡z] Bookend  [b¨k´nd] Is  [ˆz] Pain medicine  [pen m´dsˆn] Thorn...
Allomorphs Based on Phonology <ul><li>The plural morpheme –  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[s] after a voiceless consonant </li></...
Allomorphs Based on Phonology <ul><li>The negative prefix /in-/n </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[m] before a labial (e.g., impossib...
Vowel Deletion Delete the last vowel of a morpheme if the following morpheme begins with a vowel Works with some roots and...
E/O Deletion Delete the  e  or  o  of a morpheme ending in  er  or  or  of a morpheme if the following morpheme begins wit...
S Deletion Delete an  s  after the prefix  ex- Delete the  n  of   the prefix  an-  before a consonant: Examples: a + thei...
Vowel Alternations <ul><li>/a/ changes to /e/ in other than first syllable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.,g,  ann -ual/bi- enn -...
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Phonetics (2)

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Phonetics (2)

  1. 1. English Phonology The Sound System of American English
  2. 2. Key Terms <ul><li>Phoneme - a unit of sound significant in a specific language (E.g., /s/ is a phoneme in English while the German ch sound /x/ is not) </li></ul><ul><li>Grapheme - The symbols (letters) used in a writing system such as our alphabet </li></ul><ul><li>Digraph - A single sound represented by two letters (e.g., th, sh, ea ) </li></ul><ul><li>Phonetic Alphabet - a collection of symbols used for writing words phonetically </li></ul>
  3. 3. More Terms <ul><li>Allophone - a variant of a phoneme; often not noticed by native speakers (e.g, s p in, p in) </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal Pair - Two words that are pronounced the same except for one sound (e.g., Sue , zoo ) </li></ul><ul><li>Voiced Sound - A sound produced with the vocal folds (cords) vibrating (e.g. voiced /z/ as opposed to voiceless /s/) </li></ul><ul><li>Diphthong - “a double vowel sound” - two vowels appearing together as the nucleus of a syllable </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Vocal Tract
  5. 5. The Vocal Folds (or Cords)
  6. 6. The Consonants of English
  7. 7. The Vowels of English
  8. 8. Phonetic Transcription Horseshoes [hors‡uz] Matches [mæc‡z] Bookend [b¨k´nd] Is [ˆz] Pain medicine [pen m´dsˆn] Thorns [†ornz] Breathe [bri∂]
  9. 9. Allomorphs Based on Phonology <ul><li>The plural morpheme – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[s] after a voiceless consonant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[z] after a voiced consonant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[z] after a sibilant (s, z, sh [s‡], [z‡], ch [ c‡ ], or j [ j ]) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The past tense morpheme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[d] after a voiced sound, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[t] after a voiceless sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[ d ] after a [t] or [d] </li></ul></ul>‡
  10. 10. Allomorphs Based on Phonology <ul><li>The negative prefix /in-/n </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[m] before a labial (e.g., impossible, immovable, imbalance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[ ˜ ] before a velar (e.g., incorrect, ingratitude) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[r] before /r/ (e.g., irreversible) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[l] before /l/ (e.g., illogical) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other examples of assimilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct, compel, colleague, corrode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synergy, symmetry, syllogism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admit, abbreviate, account, annul, appeal, arrive, assign, attend, alleviate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submit, succeed, sufficient, suggest, support, surreptitious </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Vowel Deletion Delete the last vowel of a morpheme if the following morpheme begins with a vowel Works with some roots and suffixes: Not if prefix is only one syllable: re + act; bi + ennial
  12. 12. E/O Deletion Delete the e or o of a morpheme ending in er or or of a morpheme if the following morpheme begins with a vowel
  13. 13. S Deletion Delete an s after the prefix ex- Delete the n of the prefix an- before a consonant: Examples: a + theist, a + pathy, a + symmetry, a + trophy But not: an + emic, an + archy, an + orexic, an + hydrous N Deletion
  14. 14. Vowel Alternations <ul><li>/a/ changes to /e/ in other than first syllable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.,g, ann -ual/bi- enn -ial; apt /in- ept ; damn -ation/con- demn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>/e/ changes to /i/ in other than first syllable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., reg-ular; incor-rig-ible; spec -ulate/con- spic -uous </li></ul></ul>

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