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  • 1. A Project Proposal onStudy on Perception and Acceptance of GM-Corn(Maize)By Growers and Customers through Conducting Survey inMajor Corn Growing Areas of Maharashtra To be done at Green Gold Seeds Ltd, AurangabadIndustry Guide, Faculty Advisor,Dr. Santosh Taware Dr. Sanjiv KumarVicePresident (R&D) IABMI Submitted by Dheeraj Narayanrao Karle Reg No- 04-1173-2009 International Agri-Business Management Institute Anand Agricultural University Anand 1
  • 2. Company Profile:Green Gold Seeds Ltd. established in the year 2001, is considered andrecognized as the fastest growing seed company in India. In this shorttime span, the company has gained reputation of quality seed supplier andtherefore enjoys the loyalty of large number of user farmers. In order tocontinue this symbiotic relationship Green Gold Seeds Ltd., furtherorganizing its seed chain to serve Indian Farmers with Quality seedproducts. This has encouraged us to establish a Research andDevelopment Division separately. The very purpose of R & D is to:Understanding the farmer and market requirements in designing hybridseed products. Develop, test and release suitable hybrid products tostrengthen product portfolio. Win the confidence of marketing network.Support production and Quality control units by supplying best quality ofbreeder’s seeds.R & D activities being conducted on more than 30 crops including Bt-Cotton, Cereals, Vegetables Oil Seeds, Fiber Leguminous and Fruits.This has enabled us to decorate basket of products portfolio with morethan 50 research products.Areas of marketing in India are below: Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh,Karnataka, and Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Tamilnadu & Orissa.Research farms of GGSL: Siddhant, Isha, Pakhora, Varun, Tanushree,Kavita, Swaraj, Saurabh farms.Introduction:The development of a continuous and steady stream of innovations is theblood of an organization. Organization remains viable in the marketplace 2
  • 3. by introducing value adding products, services or processes in theircurrent ones. This helps to retain current customers and attract futureones, and hence by considering this Green Gold Seeds Ltd. is going tocome up with ‘GM Corn’. GM Corn is yet new concept in India, but thisproject will give potentiality and will help to detect major challenges inthis industry.Introduction to Indian Seed Industry:Seed is the basic and most critical input for sustainable agriculture. Theresponse of all other inputs depends on quality of seeds to a large extent.It is estimated that the direct contribution of quality seed alone to the totalproduction is about 15–20% depending upon the crop and it can befurther raised up to 45% with efficient management of other inputs. 70%of India’s seeds’ sales come from farmer breed seeds, 26% from thosebreed in publicly financed institutions, and only 4% from researchedhybrids.(2009)Overview of Maize (Corn):Maize (Corn), is of American origin, and after wheat and rice, it is themost important cereal grain in the world. It provides nutrition to bothhumans (33.3%) and animals (66.6 %). It Serves as basic raw material forthe production of starch, oil and protein, alcoholic beverages, foodsweeteners and more recently fuel. Maize is mainly grown in India. Itoccupies an area of about 6 million hectares which accounts for about 23percent of the total area in India. Maize grain contains about 10 %protein, 4 % oil, 70 % carbohydrate. Maize grain has significantquantities of vitamin ‘A’, nicotinic acid and vitamin E. 3
  • 4. Indian Scenario:India is an agriculture country. Indias maize production fluctuatesbetween 10-14 million tons, with 80-90% of the production being in thekharif season. Major states that contribute in Maize productions areKarnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra Punjab, Uttar Pradeshand Madhya Pradesh. Around 6.5 million tons (roughly 50 % of totalconsumption) goes for feed use, primarily for poultry & animal feed.Another 1 million tons of corn is used by the starch industry. Regardingproductivity of maize, Punjab ranks first (3291 kg/ha) followed byKarnataka (3200 kg/ha). In India, maize is grown in all the seasons i.e.,Kharif, Rabi and summer. Of these three seasons, nearly 85% of theproduction is from Kharif season, 8-10% during Rabi season andremaining 4-5% during Summer season.Maharashtra Scenario:The total area under maize crop in Maharashtra, during 2007-08 was5711 hundred hectares while production of 15452 hundred tonnes withproductivity of 2706 kg/ha. The position of Maharashtra in maizeproduction is comparatively poor. Maize is grown in all the district ofMaharashtra with varying extent. However, the major maize growingdistricts are Jalgaon, Aurangabad, Nasik, Solapur, Ahmednagar, Jalna,Dhule , Nandurbar, Kolhapur and Sangli.GM (Transgenic Maize) Corn:Transgenic maize (corn) has been deliberately genetically modified (GM)to have agronomically desirable traits. Traits that have been engineeredinto corn includes resistance to herbicides and resistance to insect pests, 4
  • 5. the latter being achieved by incorporation of a gene that codes for theBacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin.In 2009, transgenic maize was grown commercially in 11 countries,including the United States (where 85% of the maize crop was geneticallymodified), Brazil (36% GM), Argentina (83% GM), South Africa (57%GM), Canada (84% GM), Philippines (19% GM) and Spain (20% GM).Bt corn is a variant of maize, genetically altered to express the bacterialBt toxin, which is poisonous to insect pests. In case of corn, major pestsare cob borer, stem borer, etc. Expressing the toxin is achieved byinserting a gene from the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis into thecorn genome. This gene codes for a toxin that causes the formation ofpores in the Lepidoptera larval digestive tract. These pores allownaturally occurring enteric bacteria, such as E. coli and Enterobacter, toenter the hemocoel, where they multiply and cause sepsis. (Broderick andothers., PNAS 2006) This is contrary to the common misconception thatBt toxin kills the larvae by starvation.Rationale of the Study:In India the concept of GM-Corn is new, Green Gold Seeds Ltd hasstarted research and conducting the field trials in companys researchfarms. Therefore the survey of growers as well as customers in thisproject gives valuable information for developing marketing strategy forGM corn, to know about the perception and acceptance level of GM cornas compared to existing hybrid maize varieties of corn(maize), and toattract growers as well as simultaneously customers and gives insights toknow their expectations. 5
  • 6. Objectives:1) To evaluate cost of cultivation in Corn.2) To find out the perception and acceptance of GM Corn.3) To find out growers awareness towards weedicides utilization forCorn.4) To find out growers awareness towards pesticides utilization for Corn.5) To estimate trend of weedicides & pesticides utilization.6) To study losses occurred due to various pests in Corn.7)To derive WTP (willingness to pay) for GM Corn.Scope of the Study: The survey will help the company to examine theattitude of growers as well as dealers, distributors etc. towards existinghybrid varieties of corn seeds and to check their response towards GMCorn.Research Methodology:• Data Source: Primary and Secondary Data• Research Approach: Survey Method• Research Instrument: Questionnaire• Types of Questions: Structured (open ended and close ended)• Sampling Unit: Farmers and Dealers. 6
  • 7. • Sampling Size: Farmers-300 Dealers-30• Sampling Method: Convenience Sampling• Contact Method: Personal Interview of Respondents• Area of Research: Three Districts of Maharashtra namely Aurangabad,Jalgaon, and Solapur.Limitations:1) More size of the respondents and less time is available.2) Data provided by the respondents may not be authentic.3) Secondary data collected from different sources may be out-datedReferences:Pandey M. and Tiwari D.(2010), “The Agribusiness Book, seedindustry”. Page no. 550-579.Feschotte C and Pritham E. (2009). "A cornucopia of Helitrons shapes themaize genome". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Pageno. 22-24Doebley J. F. (2004). "The genetics of maize evolution". Annual Reviewof Genetics. Page no. 38: 37–59.Kale D.M. and Patel N.P.(2008), Role of private seed companies forquality seed production, Indian seed industry.Page no 17.http://www.greengoldseeds.co.in, accessed on 22/01/2011http://agricoop.nic.in/Agristatistics.html, accessed on 23/01/2011 7
  • 8. http://agricoop.nic.in/kharif.html, accessed on 23/01/2011http://www.icrisat.org/vasat/learning_resources, Accessed on 24/01/2011http://www.indiaseed.com, accessed on 24/01/2011http://www.TransgenicMaize.wiki.org, accessed on 25/01/2011http://www.Karvycomtrade.com/karvy special report_20060727_01.pdf,accessed on 25/01/2011QUETIONNAIRE FOR FARMERS1) General Information:Name of the farmer:Address:2) Farm size(acres):3) Area under maize crop:4) In which season do you cultivate corn?KharifRabiSummer5) Corn yield (tones/acre): 8
  • 9. 6) Is there Effect of promotional activity on your purchase behaviour?AdvertisementDiscountField demoPosters / bannersExhibitions7) From which source you get information regarding seeds?News paperFriendsRelativesTVKVK’sFellow farmers8)Factors considered while purchasing corn seeds?YieldPriceDurabilityWater requirementFodder useQualityDisease resistant 9
  • 10. 9) Purpose of corn cultivation:FoodFeedFodderSelling Seeds10) Seed preference (seed value type):Low Medium High- Loose/cheap value11) Cost of cultivation for corn (Rs/acre):Cost Seeds Land preparation- ploughing, sowing, etc. Labour & intercultural operations . Insecticides Weedicides Fertilizers Any other12) Weedicide drivers:Labour unavailability Yield enhancement13) which weedicides do you use for corn ? 10
  • 11. 14) which pesticides do you use for corn ?15) which are major pests found in your crop?16) Yield loss due to major pests?17) Pest control measures per acre:17.1) Chemical costing.Chemicals No of sprays Cost per sprayused17.2) labour charges specially for spray.No of days No. of labours Cost per labour/day18) Weed control measures:18.1) Chemicals costing:Chemicals used No. of sprays Cost per spray 11
  • 12. 18.2) labour charges specially for spray. No No.of Cost per of labours labour/day days19) Preference for type of corn: WR/HR PR/IR DT20) Preference for GM-Corn Vs F1 Hybrid:21) Preference for type GM-Corn:(rating on priority 1-4) Pest Draught Weedicide High resistance tolerant resistant yielding22) willingness / general price preference for GM-Corn:25% more thanF1 12
  • 13. 50% more thanF1100% more thanF1150% more thanF1QUETIONNAIRE FOR DEALERS/DISTRIBUTORS1) General Information:-Name of the dealer:______________________________________Name of the firm:________________________________________Address: _______________________________________________2) How much is total sales of corn seeds?--------------------------------------------------------------------------------3) Which are the major crops cultivated in this area?______________________________________________________4) Which are the major market players in seed market?______________________________________________________5) Which brands of seeds are utilized by farmers for corn Cultivation? 13
  • 14. ______________________________________________________6) According to you which sales promotion activities are more effective?Posters/SamplesVideo showsJeep campaignFarmers meetingsField demonstrationPress advertisement7) Market type with proportion in %?Low-value Medium-type High-value8) Which are major market drivers?_______________________________________________9) Which weedicides are purchased by farmers?________________________________________________10) what is the trend of sales of weeicides?_________________________________________________11) Farmers utilizing weedicides only for corn? 14
  • 15. _________________________________________________12) Which pesticides are purchased by farmers?________________________________________________13) what is the trend of sales of pesticides?________________________________________________14) Farmers utilizing pesticides only for corn?________________________________________________15) Preference for type of corn: WR/HR PR/IR DT16) Preference for GM-Corn Vs F1 Hybrid:______________________________________17) Preference for type GM-Corn:(rating on priority 1-4) Pest Draught Weedicide High resistance tolerant resistant yielding 15
  • 16. 18) willingness / general price preference for GM-Corn:25% more than F150% more than F1100% more than F1150% more than F1 16