JINDREX Jim Gilbertson Alexandria Moeller Andrew McConville
The Global LandscapeENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Wisconsin Energy-We burn significantly more coal thanother states, over 50% more in 2008.However, as a result, the stateconsumes less petroleum, naturalgas, renewable, and nuclear energy.The state also imports electricitygenerated in other states or Canada andtransmitted via high voltagetransmission networks. Ingeneral, Wisconsin’s energy is derivedfrom the same sources as otherstates, so the energy issues inWisconsin are the same energy issuesfacing the rest of the nation.-Approximately 10 percent of allelectricity sales in Wisconsin must befrom renewable resources by 2015.
We have an Impact-The pH of the upper ocean has declined as the additional CO2 in theatmosphere slowly equilibrates with seawater.-Fertilizer use for agriculture in the central part of the USA has increasednitrogen runoff to the Mississippi River drainage, supporting algal blooms in theGulf of Mexico that decrease oxygen concentrations and create large deadzones.-It is clear that human activities now modify the large natural systems thatoperate at global scale.
Resources, Conversions, Sustainability-Current estimates indicate that the population ofthe planet will peak in the middle of this century atabout 9 billion people. Feeding, clothing, andhousing all of us will be a significant challenge, aswill supplying the fresh water, heat, lights, andtransportation we will need-Sustainable energy systems are those that providesufficient energy services and also minimize long-term impacts – a method of harvesting or using aresource so that the resource is not depleted orpermanently damaged
THINGS TO DO:Efficient conversions and end usesIf energy technologies hat exist now or can reasonablybe expected to be developed in the normal course ofbusiness are fully deployed, 25%–31% less primaryenergy would be used by the US economy in 2030, andthe cost of deploying the technologies would be morethan paid for by savings on energy costs.Globally, the most cost-effective options for reducingGHG emissions include improving insulation, increasingthe efficiencyof commercial vehicles, and replacingexistinglighting with high-efficiency lighting
THINGS TO DO:Conserving Energy-Advanced communications and control technology canplay a role in conservation by providing real-time pricingand emissions signals, optimizing heating and cooling inbuildings, and providing “intelligent” transportationsystems that increase transit efficiency.-Increasing the fraction of energy supply coming fromsustainable energy flows rather than stored resourcesstored energy resources are those for which thereplacement rate is lower than the rate of use. Anystored resource, therefore, has some limit on totaluse(even coal), though the availability of the resourcesmight not be the factor limiting total use.
THINGS TO DO:Conserving Energy-A transition away from relying so heavily on storedreservoirs of energy (e.g., fossil fuels) to usingsustainable energy flows such as solar and wind powerthat reduces GHG emissions will put us on a moresustainable energy pathway.-Abundant sustainable energy resources are available.However, there are many barriers in terms ofefficiencies, impacts, and costs that will have to beovercome. Doing so will require worldwide focus on thechallenge
Accounting for the costs of obtaining materials-Materials play a critical role in the systems that provide energy to industry and society. Moreimportantly, the energy costs of these materials can have serious effects on these integral systems.For example, although PV efficiency is increasing as research into system configurationscontinues, the energy cost of securing materials is increasing as well-For now, obtainingn materials of high purity relies mostly on nonrenewable sources of fuel, theenergy costs of which are also likely to increase
Life-cycle Assessment-Evaluates the environmental impacts of a product or processover its entire life cycle. Specifically, thefive steps considered are raw-material acquisition orextraction, material processing, productmanufacturing, use, and recovery and retirement. An optionaltransportation stage can also be added. In contrast, the lattertype of assessment considers the required materials andenergy resources (inputs) of a process to estimate theresulting-Environmental emissions (outputs).enable the comparison ofproducts that perform the same function (e.g., paper versusplastic versus canvas bags) and can evaluate designalternatives for the same product (e.g., plastic versusaluminum foil for yogurt-container lids).-Closed-loop recycling is when materials within products orcomponent parts are reprocessed prior to reentering thesame manufacturing process.-Open-loop recycling instances in which a material from onelife cycle is directed into the processing phase of anotherproduct life cycle. -- common for plastic materials, since theintegrity of the plastic declines each time it is reprocessedand, therefore, the plastic is down cycled
Petroleum and natural gas-Petroleum and natural gas have beenthe core of energy production indeveloped countries.-Oil and natural gas will continue tosupply a majority of our energy in thenear future.-Production will be from natural sourcesof petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Nuclear Power-Nuclear power has been a reliablesource of electricity in many countriesfor decades.-It will be an essential component of themix of energy sources required to meetenvironmental goals.-These include reducing greenhouse-gas emissions, reducing thedependence on fossil fuels, andenabling global access to energy.-Such efforts will provide opportunitiesto address broader challengesassociated with nuclearenergy, including public opinion and theinvestment risks associated with buildingnew nuclear power plants.
Wisconsin Energy-Wisconsin currently derives its energyfrom petroleum, natural gas, coal,nuclear fission, and renewables such aswood, wind, and solar power.-Wisconsin’s energy needs areconstantly evolving and the energysources that meet those needs areevolving as well.-Until recently, Wisconsin was reliantalmost entirely on traditional energysources to meet its needs.-However, new developments intechnology and increasing concernsover traditional sources have led thestate to review alternatives and considerits options for the future.
BREAKDOWN OFWISCONSIN ENERGY SOURCES
Solar Energy-Utilization of solar energy is a viable,environmentally conscious solution to thegrowing global demand for energy.-One benefit for photovoltaic (PV) solarenergy systems in Wisconsin is that theannual peak of the solar resource (and aPV system’s output) occurs on sunnysummer days.-This corresponds exactly with utilities’highest energy demand periods – and theirhighest energy charges.-During Wisconsin’s winter, especially inNovember and December, there is less sun,an average of only 2.5 hours of sun per dayavailable to power PV systems. However,on clear days with snow cover, there is upto a 60% output increase from lightreflected off snow. (And the efficiency ofcrystalline PV cells is improved in the cold)
Wind Energy-During the last 30 years, wind energytechnology has emerged as the leadingrenewable alternative to electrical powerproduction from fossil fuels.-Advanced technology andmanufacturing innovations have helpedthe cost of wind energy drop, thuspositioning wind energy to be directlycompetitive with fossil-fuel powergeneration.-Wind power is derived mainly fromlarge turbines that are pushed by aircurrents to generate electricity.
Wood Energy-In addition to reliance on fossilfuels, Wisconsin has also used arenewable energy source since territorialdays − wood-Perhaps the oldest energy source, notjust in Wisconsin, but on theplanet, wood still enjoys widespread usetoday.-In fact, wood is currently the mainsource of renewable energy consumedin Wisconsin, although it is losingground to more modern alternativessuch as solar and wind power, and isdwarfed by the use of traditional fossilfuels.
Wisconsin Energy-In 2011, 8.4 percent of Wisconsins netelectricity generation came fromrenewable energy resources, splitamong conventional hydroelectricpower, biomass, and wind.-However, coal has dominated electricitygeneration in Wisconsin; in 2011 itprovided 63 percent of the States netelectricity generation.
Resource Availability-Global distribution of fuel sources isdistributed unevenly-Fuel locations are being depleted fasterthan new sources are being discovered.-Resource availability impactscorporations in the market andgovernments through conflicts ofcontrol.-Lack of resources drives innovation toconserve.-Conservation not only reducesconsumption but leads to a cleanerenvironment.-Increased efficiencies in recoursemanagement leads to cost reduction ofgoods and services.
Lighting-Artificial lighting contributes to 19% ofglobal energy use.-Incandescent bulbs only convey 5% ofelectricity to light, 95% is heat.-Compact fluorescent bulbs only convert20% electricity to light.-LED lighting hopes to be 55% efficientin converting electricity to light over thenext few years.
Insulation-Residential and commercial buildingsuse 66% of electricity produced.-Proper insulation can reduce a homesheating consumption by 90%.-Insulation can be applied to the obviouswalls and roofing, but also windows andappliances such as the oven,refrigerator, washing machine and hotwater heater.-Insulation is a two way street, keepingheat in during the winter and out duringthe summer.
TOP INDUSTRIAL ENERGY CONSUMERS (TRILLION BTU) Petroleum and Coal (6,799) Chemicals (6,465) Metals (2,508) Paper (2,363) Nonmetallic mineral products (1,059) Food (1,123) Transportation (429) Wood Products (377) Plastic Products (351) Electronic Products (201)