Womens Health 6

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Womens Health 6

  1. 1. Chapter Six Preventing Abuse against Women
  2. 2. Reality of Violence Against Women <ul><li>The concept and treatment of women as the lesser sex is documented throughout history </li></ul><ul><li>Historical records reveal that husbands tended to batter their wives less in the 19 th century than in the late 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse of women encompasses a wide spectrum of behaviors, from sexually derogatory remarks to battering </li></ul><ul><li>Tragically, every two minutes one rape or sexual assault occurs and every hour, 50 women are victimized by an intimate </li></ul><ul><li>More than half of these women are raped by a family member, friend, or acquaintance </li></ul>
  3. 3. Reality of Violence Against Women, cont. <ul><li>The prevalence of violence against women varies little among all cultures, marital status, or socioeconomic groups </li></ul><ul><li>The perpetrator is usually someone the victim knows ( acquaintance violence ) </li></ul><ul><li>An adult female today is more likely to be raped, beaten, and killed in her own home ( domestic abuse ) at the hands of her male partner vs. any place or by anyone else </li></ul><ul><li>Children from abusive families are more likely to grow up to be abusive parents </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Extent of the Problem <ul><li>One out of four women will be the victim of a violent crime sometime during their lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Violent crimes against women are consistent across racial and ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Intimate partner violence is primarily a crime against women </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 million women and more than 800,000 men are raped or physically assaulted by an intimate partner </li></ul><ul><li>Male violence against women inflicts much more damage than female violence inflicts against men </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why Do Women Stay? <ul><li>Love for the abuser is the primary reason given </li></ul><ul><li>The partner may be the father of the children </li></ul><ul><li>The partner may be the sole bread winner of the family, which creates financial dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Some women have no resources or emotional support, outside the relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Many barriers exist, discouraging women from leaving the abusive relationship </li></ul>
  6. 6. Childhood Abuse <ul><li>Childhood abuse consists of maltreatment of a child before the age of 18 through physical or mental injury, sexual abuse, or exploitation, and/or negligent treatment by an individual(s) who are responsible for the child’s welfare </li></ul><ul><li>Categorized into 4 types: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood physical abuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood abuse by neglect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood emotional abuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood sexual abuse </li></ul></ul></ul>Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is a common result from sexual and physical abuse
  7. 7. Abuse and Adult Women <ul><li>Females who are abused during childhood often expect to be abused or feel they deserve abuse during their adult relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse inflicted on adult women often takes forms similar to child abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Abuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological Abuse </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Physical Abuse <ul><li>Physical abuse or battery is the most overt type of domestic violence adult women encounter </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetrators may target specific areas of the body, where bruises or abrasions are difficult to detect </li></ul><ul><li>Involves 3 stages, also known as ‘the cycle’ that are repeated over a period of time: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased tension building </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acute battering incident </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A calm, loving, less tense period of time </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Psychological Abuse <ul><li>Financial disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Young children at home </li></ul><ul><li>Fear for herself and her children </li></ul><ul><li>Threatening harm </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate control of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation </li></ul>Includes some or all the following conditions
  10. 10. Sexual Assault <ul><li>Describes numerous forms of sexual improprieties and sexual violence toward another individual </li></ul><ul><li>Rape is sexual intercourse forced on women and is considered an act of violence, aggression, power, and control vs. an act of sexual desire </li></ul><ul><li>Types of rape classifications: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stranger Rape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acquaintance Rape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Date Rape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marital Rape </li></ul></ul></ul>The use of alcohol and/or drugs can set up a woman to become a victim of rape
  11. 11. Other Forms of Violence Against Women <ul><li>Murder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In this country, 21 percent of murder victims were killed by their spouse or intimate partner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Same Sex Domestic Violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence against gay individuals and gay partners have increased in recent years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2003, lesbians, gays, bisexuals, or transgender people (GBT) experienced 6,523 incidents of domestic violence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexual Harassment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abusive form of treatment that takes place most often in the workplace or educational setting </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Common Elements in all Types of Abuse <ul><li>Minimization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The public thinks that violence and abuse are rare in our society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directionality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence occurs largely in one direction: men victimize women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trivialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence against women is often viewed in a joking manner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blaming the Victim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women are held responsible for the outcomes of violent or abusive episodes </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Characteristics of Battered Women <ul><li>Personal Beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abused females hold onto beliefs that the man is the head of the household </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal Feelings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult female victims develop low self-esteem and feelings of worthlessness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Codependency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many women are dependent on the abuser and feel responsible for the abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perception of Partner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She feels she is the only one who can help him overcome the problem(s), therefore, feels compassion and pity </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Consequences of Abuse <ul><li>Physical Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical abuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotional and Psychological Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative psychological distress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Spiritual Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core values are lost as well as the meaning of life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Society suffers due to the increased workload of health services provided for the incidences of abuse </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. How to Leave an Abusive Relationship <ul><li>Once a woman has made the decision to leave the relationship, her most critical concern is developing a safety plan </li></ul><ul><li>A Safety Plan includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A means of leaving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List of people to call </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Packed suitcase containing important papers and essentials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Locating a safe place to stay e.g. women’s shelters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Method of becoming self-sufficient financially e.g. federal or state agencies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. How to Help <ul><li>Become an informed proponent for the prevention of violence and abuse against women </li></ul><ul><li>Locate all resources available in your area pertaining to abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Support an abused woman by listening with a sympathetic ear and by believing her </li></ul><ul><li>Share all potential community resource information with her </li></ul><ul><li>Provide whatever help you can: childcare, financial assistance, transportation, and help with medical needs. Be especially sure to give the emotional support she needs to help her recognize her strengths and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage her to develop a safety plan and include a list of people to call in an emergency </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage her to seek professional support in addition to your support </li></ul>
  17. 17. Moving Forward <ul><li>Building Resiliency </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the ability to recover, to overcome adversity, and bounce back </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-Caring </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taking care of one’s own physical, emotional, and spiritual needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Meeting Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Going beyond the survival needs to promote progression and growth </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Preventing Abuse at the Personal Level <ul><li>Teaching women to be intolerant of any forms of abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Educating children about healthy relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Improving self-worth of women </li></ul><ul><li>Creating awareness of the negative consequences of abusive relationships </li></ul>
  19. 19. Preventing Abuse at the Community Level <ul><li>Coordination of agencies and programs that can serve to reach families in the community </li></ul><ul><li>Parenting classes, relationship building, and stress management courses </li></ul><ul><li>Programs for men, taking responsibility for their actions and nurturing support of their partner </li></ul><ul><li>Extended day programs for children/youth </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing community awareness by speaking out on individual or victim’s rights </li></ul>
  20. 20. Preventing Abuse at the State and Federal Level <ul><li>Laws to protect the rights of women against violence and abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting of injuries perceived to be a result from violence or abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Violence Against Women Act (1994) will strengthen law enforcement strategies and promote safeguards </li></ul><ul><li>The Trauma Act (2003) expands research on the psychological aftereffects of violence against women </li></ul>
  21. 21. Chapter Six Preventing Abuse against Women
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