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Womens Health 16

Womens Health 16






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    Womens Health 16 Womens Health 16 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter Sixteen Reducing Your Risk of Cancer
    • Defining Cancer
      • Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth of anaplastic cells that often invade surrounding tissue and metastasize to distant body sites
      • A woman’s prognosis depends upon a variety of factors e.g. location, nature of the tumor, and its stage
      • The key to survival is early detection
      • The higher incidence and mortality rates for cancer in women are:
          • Breast
          • Lungs
          • Colon
          • Rectum
      Tumors can be malignant or benign
    • Seven Warning Signs of Cancer C hange in bowel/bladder habits A sore that does not heal U nusual bleeding or discharge T hickening or a lump in the breast or elsewhere I ndigestion or difficulty swallowing O bvious change in a wart/mole N agging cough or hoarseness In 2006 it was estimated that 679,510 women would be diagnosed with cancer and 273,560 would die
    • Leading Sites of New Cancer Cases and Death in Women, 2006 Estimates Estimated New Cases Estimated Deaths All sites 273,560 (100%) All sites 679,510 (100%) Brain & other nervous system 5,560 (2%) Pancreas 6,580 (2%) Multiple myeloma 5,630 (2%) Urinary bladder 16,730 (2%) Uterine corpus 7,340 (3%) Ovary 20,180 (3%) Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 8,840 (3%) Thyroid 22,590 (3%) Leukemia 9,810 (4%) Melanoma of skin 27,930 (4%) Ovary 15,310 (6%) Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 28,190 (4%) Pancreas 16,210 (6%) Uterine corpus 41,200 (6%) Colon & Rectum 27,300 (10%) Colon & Rectum 75,810 (11%) Breast 40,970 (15%) Lung & Bronchus (81,770 (12%) Lung & Bronchus 72,130 (26%) Breast – 212,920 (31%)
    • Four Most Common Categories of Cancer
      • Carcinomas – 85% of all cancers tend to be classified here (organs, skin, nerves, membranes)
      • Sarcomas – bone, blood, connective tissue (2% of malignant cancers)
      • Lymphomas – immune tissues/system (i.e., Hodgkin’s Disease and non-Hodgkin’s)
      • Leukemia - blood and blood-forming tissues (bone marrow)
      See Table 16.2
    • Staging Cancer
      • There has been an identification system known as the TNS staging system
        • T = recognizes the extent of malignancy
        • N = progressed or not to the lymph node
        • M = presence or absence of metastasis
        • A numerical system tracks the extent of the growth potential of cancer (I, II, III, or IV)
    • Causes of Cancer
      • Cigarette Smoking
      • Diet
      • Growing older (age)
      • Viruses
      • Alcohol Consumption
      • Close Relatives with certain types of Cancer
      • Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
      • Diethylstillbestrol (DES)
      Lifestyle Factors Implicated in Cancer
    • Causes of Cancer (cont.)
      • Exposure to Sun
      • Ionizing Radiation
      • Chemical and other substances
      Environmental Factors Implicated in Cancer
    • Current Research Regarding Causes and Treatment
      • Molecular and Cellular Causes of Cancer
          • Altered DNA may be responsible for abnormal growth
      • Cell Cycle Research
          • Defects in the synthesis or assembly of DNA during replication may cause genetic instability
      • Gene Mutation Research
          • Some individuals may be susceptible to mutation of suppressor genes
      • Adjuvant Treatment
          • Substances to enhance the action of drugs to treat cancer i.e. chemicals
      • Immunotherapy Research
          • Boosting the immune system to prevent tumor growth or attack cancer cells
      • Stem Cell Transplantation Research
          • Removal of cells in bone marrow before radiation or chemotherapy and later restored
    • Lung Cancer
      • Two Types
        • Non-small cell (most common)
        • Small (oat) cell
      • Risk Factors
        • Smoking
        • Environmental pollutants
      • Early detection symptoms
        • Persistent cough, blood in the sputum, constant chest pain, recurring pneumonia, or bronchitis
      • Treatment
        • Surgery
        • Radiation
        • Chemotherapy
        • Laser therapy (PDT)
      Leading cause of cancer death in women
    • Breast Cancer
      • Identifiable protective factors
        • Breast feeding and having children
        • Exercise
      • Early Detection
        • Lumps
        • Thickening in the breast or underarm area
      • Additional warning signs:
        • Change in the size or shape of the breast
        • Discharge from the nipple
        • Change in the color or texture of the skin of the breast or around the areola
      Second leading cancer killer of all women
    • Risk Factors for Breast Cancer
        • Being a woman
        • Age
        • Early menstrual cycle for women
        • Women with no children or having children later in life
        • Hormone replacement therapy use
        • Dense breast tissue
      • Family History
      • Previous breast biopsy
      • Previous breast exposure to radiation
      • Alcohol
      • Obesity
      • High fat diet
      • Genetic alterations
    • Early Detection Through Regular Breast Self-Exams (BSE) The American Cancer Society still recommends breast self-examination for women age 20 and over every month
    • Breast Cancer (cont.)
      • Screening and Diagnosis
        • Mammography
        • Biopsies (excisional or incisional)
      • Treatment (two categories)
        • Local therapy (surgery or radiation)
          • Surgery is the most common treatment
            • Lumpectomy
            • Mastectomy
            • Modified radical mastectomy
        • Systemic (chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or biological therapy)
    • Uterine and Cervical Cancer
      • Uterine cancer begins in the endometrium (lining of the uterus)
      • Cervical cancer begins in the cervix and are considered squamous cell carcinomas
      • Approximately 9,700 women develop cervical cancer each year
      • Cervical cancer is 100% curable and endometrial cancer is 94% curable when detected early
      • Deaths related to ovarian and uterine cancer, which comprise only 13 percent of the cancers of women, are exceeded only by lung, breast, and colon cancers
    • Cervical Cancer
      • Risk factors
        • Early and continued sexual activity
        • HPV and/or Herpes infection
        • Smoking
      • Prevention/Early Detection
        • Sexual abstinence
        • Pap tests
        • Careful selection of sexual partners
      • Treatment
        • Surgery (minor or major)
        • Radiation
        • Chemotherapy
    • Uterine Cancer
      • Risk Factors
        • Early menarche, late menopause, lack of ovulation, never having given birth, ERT, use of tamoxifen, and also in diabetics, obese, and hypertensive women
      • Prevention/Early Detection
        • Minimize high levels of estrogen and regular physician care
      • Treatment
        • Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormone treatment
    • Ovarian Cancer
      • Ovarian cancer is a malignant tumor that begins in the ovaries
        • Prevention
          • Similar to what is recommended for breast cancer
          • Prophylactic oophorectomy
        • Early Detection
          • Referred as the “silent cancer”
          • Annual pelvic exams
          • Genetic screenings (CA-125 radioimmunoassay)
        • Treatment
          • Surgery
          • Chemotherapy
          • Drug therapy
          • Radiation
      • In 2006, ACS estimates that there will be 20,180 new cases of ovarian cancer and 15,310 women will die from this cancer
      Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women
    • Skin Cancer
      • Skin cancer is the most prevalent and most curable type of cancer found in women
      • Basal cell carcinomas are the most common type of malignancy in humans
      • They are usually raised, hard, reddish lesions with a pearly surface and rarely metastasize
      • These carcinomas are typically scaly and slightly elevated
      • They are a relatively slow-growing malignancy
    • Skin Cancer (cont.)
      • Malignant melanoma is the most dangerous but less common
        • Risk factors
          • Severe sunburn during childhood, chronic sun exposure during young adulthood
        • Prevention
          • Reduce exposure to sun’s rays, use sunscreens,
        • Early Detection
          • American Cancer Society guidelines (next slide)
        • Treatment
          • Radiation, Laser therapy, tissue destruction (heat or freezing)
      Skin Cancer is the most prevalent and curable type of cancer in women
    • American Cancer Society ABCD Method A symmetry B order irregularity C olor change D iameter greater than 6mm
    • Colon and Rectum Cancer
      • In 2006, an estimated 75,810 new cases of colon and rectal cancer will be diagnosed in women and 27,300 women are estimated to die from the disease
        • Risk factors
          • Personal and family history, polyps, or ulcerative colitis
        • Preventive Screening
          • Digital rectal exam yearly after age 40 for women, FOBT, and sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy exam every 3-5 years after age 50
        • Early Detection
          • Rectal exams, stool test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy
        • Treatment
          • Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy
    • Steps to Take When Diagnosed with Cancer
      • Once a woman knows the type of cancer, she can call the National Cancer Institute at 1-800-4-CANCER
      • Get a second opinion before deciding on a particular treatment protocol
      • Make sure you feel certain about your options
      • Social support is a critical factor in recovery from cancer. There are many avenues of social support to pursue during all stages of treatment
    • Complementary Treatment in Cancer Management
      • Magnetic and Electronic Devices
          • Radionic devices
          • Galvanic devices
          • Low-level output electrical devices
          • Magnetic devices
          • Color and light treatment devices
      • Food remedies
          • Vegetarian diets
          • Herbal and vitamin therapy
      • Spiritual and Meditation Practices
          • Relaxation
          • Acupuncture and Acupressure
    • Chapter Sixteen Reducing Your Risk of Cancer