Womens Health 16

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  • 1. Chapter Sixteen Reducing Your Risk of Cancer
  • 2. Defining Cancer
    • Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth of anaplastic cells that often invade surrounding tissue and metastasize to distant body sites
    • A woman’s prognosis depends upon a variety of factors e.g. location, nature of the tumor, and its stage
    • The key to survival is early detection
    • The higher incidence and mortality rates for cancer in women are:
        • Breast
        • Lungs
        • Colon
        • Rectum
    Tumors can be malignant or benign
  • 3. Seven Warning Signs of Cancer C hange in bowel/bladder habits A sore that does not heal U nusual bleeding or discharge T hickening or a lump in the breast or elsewhere I ndigestion or difficulty swallowing O bvious change in a wart/mole N agging cough or hoarseness In 2006 it was estimated that 679,510 women would be diagnosed with cancer and 273,560 would die
  • 4. Leading Sites of New Cancer Cases and Death in Women, 2006 Estimates Estimated New Cases Estimated Deaths All sites 273,560 (100%) All sites 679,510 (100%) Brain & other nervous system 5,560 (2%) Pancreas 6,580 (2%) Multiple myeloma 5,630 (2%) Urinary bladder 16,730 (2%) Uterine corpus 7,340 (3%) Ovary 20,180 (3%) Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 8,840 (3%) Thyroid 22,590 (3%) Leukemia 9,810 (4%) Melanoma of skin 27,930 (4%) Ovary 15,310 (6%) Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 28,190 (4%) Pancreas 16,210 (6%) Uterine corpus 41,200 (6%) Colon & Rectum 27,300 (10%) Colon & Rectum 75,810 (11%) Breast 40,970 (15%) Lung & Bronchus (81,770 (12%) Lung & Bronchus 72,130 (26%) Breast – 212,920 (31%)
  • 5. Four Most Common Categories of Cancer
    • Carcinomas – 85% of all cancers tend to be classified here (organs, skin, nerves, membranes)
    • Sarcomas – bone, blood, connective tissue (2% of malignant cancers)
    • Lymphomas – immune tissues/system (i.e., Hodgkin’s Disease and non-Hodgkin’s)
    • Leukemia - blood and blood-forming tissues (bone marrow)
    See Table 16.2
  • 6. Staging Cancer
    • There has been an identification system known as the TNS staging system
      • T = recognizes the extent of malignancy
      • N = progressed or not to the lymph node
      • M = presence or absence of metastasis
      • A numerical system tracks the extent of the growth potential of cancer (I, II, III, or IV)
  • 7. Causes of Cancer
    • Cigarette Smoking
    • Diet
    • Growing older (age)
    • Viruses
    • Alcohol Consumption
    • Close Relatives with certain types of Cancer
    • Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
    • Diethylstillbestrol (DES)
    Lifestyle Factors Implicated in Cancer
  • 8. Causes of Cancer (cont.)
    • Exposure to Sun
    • Ionizing Radiation
    • Chemical and other substances
    Environmental Factors Implicated in Cancer
  • 9. Current Research Regarding Causes and Treatment
    • Molecular and Cellular Causes of Cancer
        • Altered DNA may be responsible for abnormal growth
    • Cell Cycle Research
        • Defects in the synthesis or assembly of DNA during replication may cause genetic instability
    • Gene Mutation Research
        • Some individuals may be susceptible to mutation of suppressor genes
    • Adjuvant Treatment
        • Substances to enhance the action of drugs to treat cancer i.e. chemicals
    • Immunotherapy Research
        • Boosting the immune system to prevent tumor growth or attack cancer cells
    • Stem Cell Transplantation Research
        • Removal of cells in bone marrow before radiation or chemotherapy and later restored
  • 10. Lung Cancer
    • Two Types
      • Non-small cell (most common)
      • Small (oat) cell
    • Risk Factors
      • Smoking
      • Environmental pollutants
    • Early detection symptoms
      • Persistent cough, blood in the sputum, constant chest pain, recurring pneumonia, or bronchitis
    • Treatment
      • Surgery
      • Radiation
      • Chemotherapy
      • Laser therapy (PDT)
    Leading cause of cancer death in women
  • 11. Breast Cancer
    • Identifiable protective factors
      • Breast feeding and having children
      • Exercise
    • Early Detection
      • Lumps
      • Thickening in the breast or underarm area
    • Additional warning signs:
      • Change in the size or shape of the breast
      • Discharge from the nipple
      • Change in the color or texture of the skin of the breast or around the areola
    Second leading cancer killer of all women
  • 12. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer
      • Being a woman
      • Age
      • Early menstrual cycle for women
      • Women with no children or having children later in life
      • Hormone replacement therapy use
      • Dense breast tissue
    • Family History
    • Previous breast biopsy
    • Previous breast exposure to radiation
    • Alcohol
    • Obesity
    • High fat diet
    • Genetic alterations
  • 13. Early Detection Through Regular Breast Self-Exams (BSE) The American Cancer Society still recommends breast self-examination for women age 20 and over every month
  • 14. Breast Cancer (cont.)
    • Screening and Diagnosis
      • Mammography
      • Biopsies (excisional or incisional)
    • Treatment (two categories)
      • Local therapy (surgery or radiation)
        • Surgery is the most common treatment
          • Lumpectomy
          • Mastectomy
          • Modified radical mastectomy
      • Systemic (chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or biological therapy)
  • 15. Uterine and Cervical Cancer
    • Uterine cancer begins in the endometrium (lining of the uterus)
    • Cervical cancer begins in the cervix and are considered squamous cell carcinomas
    • Approximately 9,700 women develop cervical cancer each year
    • Cervical cancer is 100% curable and endometrial cancer is 94% curable when detected early
    • Deaths related to ovarian and uterine cancer, which comprise only 13 percent of the cancers of women, are exceeded only by lung, breast, and colon cancers
  • 16. Cervical Cancer
    • Risk factors
      • Early and continued sexual activity
      • HPV and/or Herpes infection
      • Smoking
    • Prevention/Early Detection
      • Sexual abstinence
      • Pap tests
      • Careful selection of sexual partners
    • Treatment
      • Surgery (minor or major)
      • Radiation
      • Chemotherapy
  • 17. Uterine Cancer
    • Risk Factors
      • Early menarche, late menopause, lack of ovulation, never having given birth, ERT, use of tamoxifen, and also in diabetics, obese, and hypertensive women
    • Prevention/Early Detection
      • Minimize high levels of estrogen and regular physician care
    • Treatment
      • Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormone treatment
  • 18. Ovarian Cancer
    • Ovarian cancer is a malignant tumor that begins in the ovaries
      • Prevention
        • Similar to what is recommended for breast cancer
        • Prophylactic oophorectomy
      • Early Detection
        • Referred as the “silent cancer”
        • Annual pelvic exams
        • Genetic screenings (CA-125 radioimmunoassay)
      • Treatment
        • Surgery
        • Chemotherapy
        • Drug therapy
        • Radiation
    • In 2006, ACS estimates that there will be 20,180 new cases of ovarian cancer and 15,310 women will die from this cancer
    Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women
  • 19. Skin Cancer
    • Skin cancer is the most prevalent and most curable type of cancer found in women
    • Basal cell carcinomas are the most common type of malignancy in humans
    • They are usually raised, hard, reddish lesions with a pearly surface and rarely metastasize
    • These carcinomas are typically scaly and slightly elevated
    • They are a relatively slow-growing malignancy
  • 20. Skin Cancer (cont.)
    • Malignant melanoma is the most dangerous but less common
      • Risk factors
        • Severe sunburn during childhood, chronic sun exposure during young adulthood
      • Prevention
        • Reduce exposure to sun’s rays, use sunscreens,
      • Early Detection
        • American Cancer Society guidelines (next slide)
      • Treatment
        • Radiation, Laser therapy, tissue destruction (heat or freezing)
    Skin Cancer is the most prevalent and curable type of cancer in women
  • 21. American Cancer Society ABCD Method A symmetry B order irregularity C olor change D iameter greater than 6mm
  • 22. Colon and Rectum Cancer
    • In 2006, an estimated 75,810 new cases of colon and rectal cancer will be diagnosed in women and 27,300 women are estimated to die from the disease
      • Risk factors
        • Personal and family history, polyps, or ulcerative colitis
      • Preventive Screening
        • Digital rectal exam yearly after age 40 for women, FOBT, and sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy exam every 3-5 years after age 50
      • Early Detection
        • Rectal exams, stool test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy
      • Treatment
        • Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy
  • 23. Steps to Take When Diagnosed with Cancer
    • Once a woman knows the type of cancer, she can call the National Cancer Institute at 1-800-4-CANCER
    • Get a second opinion before deciding on a particular treatment protocol
    • Make sure you feel certain about your options
    • Social support is a critical factor in recovery from cancer. There are many avenues of social support to pursue during all stages of treatment
  • 24. Complementary Treatment in Cancer Management
    • Magnetic and Electronic Devices
        • Radionic devices
        • Galvanic devices
        • Low-level output electrical devices
        • Magnetic devices
        • Color and light treatment devices
    • Food remedies
        • Vegetarian diets
        • Herbal and vitamin therapy
    • Spiritual and Meditation Practices
        • Relaxation
        • Acupuncture and Acupressure
  • 25. Chapter Sixteen Reducing Your Risk of Cancer