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Chapter Thirteen Making Wise Decisions about Tobacco, Caffeine, and Drugs
Women and Tobacco Use <ul><li>There are 46 million smokers in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>22 million of them are female; at...
Why Women Smoke <ul><li>Media influence is pervasive, compelling, and influential </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of women usin...
Smoking and Body Weight <ul><li>Nicotine decreases the strength of hunger contractions of the stomach, increases blood sug...
The Source of Physiologically Active Compounds <ul><li>Over 4,800 chemical compounds are found in tobacco smoke </li></ul>...
Sources of Physiologically Active Compounds, cont’d <ul><li>Over 270 poisonous gases are present in tobacco smoke </li></u...
Respiratory Concerns <ul><li>Bronchiectasis  is a condition that develops within the bronchial tree and results in irrever...
Cardiovascular Diseases <ul><li>Women who smoke have a greater chance of developing heart disease and stroke than non-smok...
Smoking and Cancer <ul><li>There is a strong relationship between smoking and the development of cancer sites at: </li></u...
Other Physical Consequences <ul><li>There are other health conditions related to tobacco smoking that affect women </li></...
Addiction <ul><li>Tobacco users develop a physiological and psychological dependence on nicotine </li></ul><ul><li>Studies...
Environmental Smoke <ul><li>Referred to as  passive  or  involuntary  smoke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainstream (smoke inhale...
Smoking and Pregnancy <ul><ul><li>Reduction of fetal blood flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability of fetus to metabolize ...
Smoking Cessation <ul><li>Behavioral Changes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counseling and support groups </li></ul></ul></ul><...
How to Stop Smoking! <ul><li>Make a decision to quit </li></ul><ul><li>Set a quit date </li></ul><ul><li>Make a plan </li>...
Effective Smoking Cessation Programs <ul><li>Offer group or individual counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Have intense program c...
Benefits of Smoking Cessation <ul><li>Food begins to taste and smell better </li></ul><ul><li>The smoker smells better </l...
What is Caffeine? <ul><li>Chemical compounds known as  methylxanthines  (CNS stimulant) </li></ul><ul><li>Caffeine, taken ...
Effects of Caffeine <ul><li>Caffeine produces a wide variety of stimulating effects upon the body </li></ul><ul><li>Many f...
Effects of Caffeine on Health <ul><li>Osteoporosis and Caffeine </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship of substituting caf...
Drug Use and Pregnancy <ul><li>Consequences to the fetus due to a woman’s abuse of illegal drugs during pregnancy is a gra...
Cocaine and Crack <ul><li>Cocaine  comes from a plant, Erythroxylon coca which produces an exhilarating effect </li></ul><...
Marijuana <ul><li>The Cannibis plant’s active ingredient,  tetrahydrocannabinol  (THC) is responsible for a variety of psy...
Heroin and Methadone <ul><li>Heroin  is a very addictive, semisynthetic narcotic produced from chemically changed morphine...
Amphetamines and Methamphetamines <ul><li>Stimulants, produced synthetically, increases the activity of the CNS </li></ul>...
Women, Drugs, and HIV Infection <ul><li>The number of women who contract HIV is increasing at a rate almost 4 times faster...
Women, Drugs, and Homelessness <ul><li>Use of drugs, including alcohol, is a major risk for women and children as it relat...
Chapter Thirteen Making Wise Decisions about Tobacco, Caffeine, and Drugs
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Womens Health 13

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Transcript of "Womens Health 13"

  1. 1. Chapter Thirteen Making Wise Decisions about Tobacco, Caffeine, and Drugs
  2. 2. Women and Tobacco Use <ul><li>There are 46 million smokers in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>22 million of them are female; at least 1.5 million are adolescent girls </li></ul><ul><li>One half of all long-term smokers will die based upon this habit </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1980, more than 3 million U.S. women have died prematurely based on smoking tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity, education, and socio-economics are factors in the probability that a woman will die prematurely from the use of tobacco </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why Women Smoke <ul><li>Media influence is pervasive, compelling, and influential </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of women using smoking tobacco was introduced in 1919 by the media, however, was considered illegal years prior </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of smoking gave women the portrayal of having freedom and choice, a show of strength and purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Other factors included parental modeling, peer pressure, maintaining weight, and their environment </li></ul>
  4. 4. Smoking and Body Weight <ul><li>Nicotine decreases the strength of hunger contractions of the stomach, increases blood sugar levels, and deadens taste buds </li></ul><ul><li>When a smoker tries to quit, food becomes more appealing due to the increased sense of taste and smell </li></ul><ul><li>Studies show that smokers are weigh less than non-smokers </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Source of Physiologically Active Compounds <ul><li>Over 4,800 chemical compounds are found in tobacco smoke </li></ul><ul><li>Particulate phase (small particle compounds) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicotine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physiologically and psychologically addictive stimulant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acts upon the dopamine neurotransmitter in the brain to cause excitement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes serious effects upon the cardiovascular system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tar (phenol, cresol, benzopyrene, DDT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulates in the alveoli (sacs in the lung tissue) and inhibits lung function </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disables the function of cilia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precursor to oncogenes </li></ul></ul></ul>Sixty of these chemicals are considered carcinogens
  6. 6. Sources of Physiologically Active Compounds, cont’d <ul><li>Over 270 poisonous gases are present in tobacco smoke </li></ul><ul><li>Gaseous phase (gas compounds) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carbon monoxide (CO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robs the body of oxygen by combining to form carboxyhemoglobin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, isopyrene, acetone, etc. </li></ul></ul>Many of these chemicals are considered carcinogens
  7. 7. Respiratory Concerns <ul><li>Bronchiectasis is a condition that develops within the bronchial tree and results in irreversible dilatation and destruction of the bronchial walls </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic Bronchitis (inflammation/infection of air passageways) is characterized by long-term and persistent coughing </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary Emphysema (destruction of the alveoli) is a lung disease that reduces air exchange </li></ul>(Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorders)
  8. 8. Cardiovascular Diseases <ul><li>Women who smoke have a greater chance of developing heart disease and stroke than non-smokers </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking is the leading risk factor for the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Myocardial infarction risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden cardiac death risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of Angina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase of Platelet Adhesiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tobacco is a vasoconstrictor, which becomes potentially dangerous to the blood supply to the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking is also linked to change in blood chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>The use of oral contraceptives and smoking cigarettes increases the risk for a woman to have a heart attack vs. only smoking </li></ul>
  9. 9. Smoking and Cancer <ul><li>There is a strong relationship between smoking and the development of cancer sites at: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larynx </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stomach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uterus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Smoking accounts for 80% of all lung cancer deaths in women </li></ul><ul><li>Lung cancer deaths are the leading cause of cancer deaths for women annually </li></ul>
  10. 10. Other Physical Consequences <ul><li>There are other health conditions related to tobacco smoking that affect women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cataract formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult onset Leukemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of bone density/bone loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ smoker’s face” (deep facial wrinkles) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As the result of using tobacco, 40% will die prematurely of diseases that would not have developed, if smoking did not occur </li></ul>
  11. 11. Addiction <ul><li>Tobacco users develop a physiological and psychological dependence on nicotine </li></ul><ul><li>Studies show that between a third to half of all smokers become addicted </li></ul><ul><li>Over 90% of women who smoke develop a dependence on nicotine </li></ul><ul><li>A woman’s body cells adapt to a certain level of nicotine, compelling this user to maintain that level of nicotine </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal symptoms are unfavorable, creating a difficult bond to break </li></ul>
  12. 12. Environmental Smoke <ul><li>Referred to as passive or involuntary smoke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainstream (smoke inhaled by smoker) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side-stream (smoke from the burning product) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects on Adults include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Triple chance of non-smoking women married to smokers to have a heart attack </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases lung cancer by 34% on non-smokers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases 20% of death due to lung cancer on non-smokers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases risk of cervical cancer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases the chances of having a premature baby </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depletion of certain vitamins </li></ul></ul></ul>Side-stream smoke accounts for 85% of smoke in a room
  13. 13. Smoking and Pregnancy <ul><ul><li>Reduction of fetal blood flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability of fetus to metabolize vitamins is reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ectopic pregnancies and miscarriages risks are greater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Premature labor and low birth weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning disabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased chance of hemorrhaging during delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased chance of having a stillborn during delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospital stays are longer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mothers heal slower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must spend more time caring for newborns due to difficulties of feeding, digestion, sleeping, and restlessness </li></ul></ul>Women who smoke while pregnant harm their babies in numerous ways
  14. 14. Smoking Cessation <ul><li>Behavioral Changes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counseling and support groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nicotine Replacement Products (patch, gum, lozenge, nasal spray) </li></ul><ul><li>Medications (anti-depressants) </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalation Systems </li></ul>
  15. 15. How to Stop Smoking! <ul><li>Make a decision to quit </li></ul><ul><li>Set a quit date </li></ul><ul><li>Make a plan </li></ul><ul><li>Change smoking-related habits </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Stay tobacco-free </li></ul>Remember all the very important reasons not to smoke
  16. 16. Effective Smoking Cessation Programs <ul><li>Offer group or individual counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Have intense program counseling and goals </li></ul><ul><li>Have sessions that are at least 20-30 minutes in length </li></ul><ul><li>Have at least 4-7 sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Last for at least 2 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Have a leader who is trained in smoking cessation </li></ul>Guide to quitting smoking; http://www.cancer.org
  17. 17. Benefits of Smoking Cessation <ul><li>Food begins to taste and smell better </li></ul><ul><li>The smoker smells better </li></ul><ul><li>The cough disappears </li></ul><ul><li>Your energy begins to return </li></ul><ul><li>Sick days are reduced </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer complaints about overall general health </li></ul><ul><li>Miss fewer days of work and play, in lieu of sickness </li></ul>See Table 13.1-Short and Long Term Benefits of Smoking Cessation
  18. 18. What is Caffeine? <ul><li>Chemical compounds known as methylxanthines (CNS stimulant) </li></ul><ul><li>Caffeine, taken into the body in a water-soluble form, is absorbed in to the bloodstream via the small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Peak effects are felt within 2 hours following ingestion </li></ul><ul><li>It may be passed into the placenta and to the fetus of any pregnant woman </li></ul>
  19. 19. Effects of Caffeine <ul><li>Caffeine produces a wide variety of stimulating effects upon the body </li></ul><ul><li>Many food products contain caffeine these days </li></ul><ul><li>It has been demonstrated to do the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase alertness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease reaction time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce drowsiness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can enhance athletic performance by assisting with fat metabolism and possibly delaying exhaustion following exertion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Effects of Caffeine on Health <ul><li>Osteoporosis and Caffeine </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship of substituting caffeine beverages instead of calcium-containing products, causing possible bone loss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy and Caffeine </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnant women increase the risk of miscarriage if they drink over 2 cups of coffee/day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased birth weight could be associated with intake </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Breast Health and Caffeine </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No relationship has been found to substantiate the relationship between caffeine use and fibrocystic breast disease </li></ul></ul></ul>Caffeinism is the result of excessive use of caffeine products, leading into poor health consequences
  21. 21. Drug Use and Pregnancy <ul><li>Consequences to the fetus due to a woman’s abuse of illegal drugs during pregnancy is a grave concern </li></ul><ul><li>Research reveals that most drugs pass easily from the mother’s blood through the placenta </li></ul><ul><li>Overall, drug use results in lower levels of oxygen and nutrients reaching the growing cells of the fetus </li></ul><ul><li>If screening tests reveal a positive drug result, immediate medical and anti-drug treatment need to begin </li></ul>
  22. 22. Cocaine and Crack <ul><li>Cocaine comes from a plant, Erythroxylon coca which produces an exhilarating effect </li></ul><ul><li>Crack is a rock-like substance, resulting from mixing cocaine with baking soda or ammonia. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological and physical dependency develop with short and long-term use </li></ul><ul><li>Research has found the following the following consequences of this drug during pregnancy: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intrauterine growth retardation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Premature labor and spontaneous abortion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other complications such as premature separation of the placenta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Severe consequences upon the fetus and newborn can be profound </li></ul>
  23. 23. Marijuana <ul><li>The Cannibis plant’s active ingredient, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is responsible for a variety of psychoactive effects </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic long-term use can effect the following body systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central Nervous System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>THC easily can cross the placenta of the mother to the fetus, however, research is still lacking in this area </li></ul>
  24. 24. Heroin and Methadone <ul><li>Heroin is a very addictive, semisynthetic narcotic produced from chemically changed morphine </li></ul><ul><li>Produces a dream-like state and creates a strong physical and psychological dependency </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause women to resort to life-threatening activities in order to fulfill their addiction </li></ul><ul><li>Methadone is a synthetic narcotic, intended to be a legal replacement for heroin or morphine </li></ul><ul><li>High risk births are associated with the use this drug as well as newborns. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Amphetamines and Methamphetamines <ul><li>Stimulants, produced synthetically, increases the activity of the CNS </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse of these drugs can produce strong psychological dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Women who abuse these drugs reduce their quality of life and the lives of their children and family </li></ul><ul><li>Damage upon major organs of the fetus is profound during pregnancy </li></ul>
  26. 26. Women, Drugs, and HIV Infection <ul><li>The number of women who contract HIV is increasing at a rate almost 4 times faster than men </li></ul><ul><li>HIV can be passed on to their unborn children </li></ul><ul><li>The association between women drug users and contracting HIV or other STI’s is a serious concern </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness, prevention, and support services are needed to help diminish the connection between women, drugs, and HIV </li></ul>
  27. 27. Women, Drugs, and Homelessness <ul><li>Use of drugs, including alcohol, is a major risk for women and children as it relates to homelessness </li></ul><ul><li>Being involved with drugs will interfere with a woman’s ability to locate employment, purchase essential resources, and medical services for her and the family </li></ul><ul><li>Even though less women are homeless compared to men, women usually have the responsibility for children, placing them as risk </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment programs are needed for homeless women that would address the issues of childcare, healthcare, and drug addiction </li></ul>
  28. 28. Chapter Thirteen Making Wise Decisions about Tobacco, Caffeine, and Drugs
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