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    Womens Health 12 Womens Health 12 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter Twelve Using Alcohol Responsibly
    • Women and Alcohol
      • Alcohol has been consumed by humans for thousands of years
      • Societal attitudes regarding women’s use of alcohol has been inconsistent and ambivalent
      • In early American, women played a significant role in the control of alcohol during the temperance movement
      • After attempting to enforce Prohibition, alcohol is considered a legal substance with certain restrictions and is regulated by state governments
    • Alcohol: The Beverage
      • Ethyl/ethanol is a clear, tasteless, toxic liquid when consumed, creates an intoxicating effect
      • Nutritionally, a source of “empty calories” and alcohol content of beverages differs among spirits and other drinks
      • The term, ‘proof’ refers to a number twice the alcohol concentration
      • Alcohol is a depressant upon the CNS
    • How Alcohol is Created
      • Fermentation
        • C 6 H 12 O 6 yeast 2C 2 H 5 OH+2CO 2
      • Distillation (high temperature condensation) of fermented products
    • Factors Affecting Absorption of Alcohol
      • Strength of beverage (% of alcohol)
      • Number of drinks consumed
      • Rate of consumption
      • Presence of food in the stomach
      • Body weight/size
      • Blood chemistry
      • Emotional factors
      • Other beverages mixed
    • Why Liquor is Quicker for Women
      • An enzyme, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) found in the liver and stomach is lower in women compared to men
      • As a result, 30% more alcohol enters the female bloodstream, creating a higher intoxication effect
      • Over time, the liver fails to produce ADH, allowing women to absorb almost all alcohol consumed without breaking this down
      • Other factors such as body fat percentage, body water, and the stage of the premenstrual cycle will have a profound effect upon the CNS
    • Women and Alcohol: A Unique Relationship
      • In the past, women have used alcohol medicinally for many purposes
      • Women who consume alcoholic beverages should be concerned about the following:
          • Increased amounts of body fat/year
          • Increased risk of breast cancer and osteoporosis
          • Increased risk of cirrhosis compared to men
          • Reduction of lifespan and brain impairment
          • Societal values placed on women who drink alcohol regularly
    • Criteria for Drinking Classifications (Table 12.2)
      • Abstainers – does not drink at all or once a year
      • Light drinkers - drinks once a month in medium amounts
      • Moderate drinkers – drinks once a week in small amounts
      • Heavy drinkers- drinks large amounts at least once a week per drinking occasion
    • College-Aged Women and Alcohol
      • To relieve stress and anxiety
      • To feel more sociable
      • To decrease inhibitions
      • For the “high” that results
      • To be part of the group
      • To lessen sexual inhibitions
      • To escape
      • To relieve worrying
      • To become less self-conscious
      • To reduce depression
      Reasons given why college-aged women drink Binge drinking is consuming four or more drinks in a row for women
    • Drinking Alcohol Responsibly
      • Drink no more than one drink per hour
      • Allow time to elapse between drinks
      • Intersperse alcoholic beverages with non-alcoholic drinks
      • Sip drinks
      • Eat before drinking alcohol
      • Know your limits
      • Be comfortable choosing not to drink
      • Never encourage another woman to drink
      • Know when to say “no” and say it!
    • College-Aged Women and Alcohol
      • Hormonal Effects
      • Dieting Relationship
      • Disease Development
      • Ethnicity Relationship
      • Sexual dysfunction
      • Behavioral Effects, e.g., impaired ability to function socially
      • Economic Effects
      • Social Effects
      • Effects on Relationships
      Negative consequences associated with over-consumption
    • Effect of Alcohol on the Body See Table 12.5
    • Benefits to Drinking Alcohol
      • Decreased risk of heart attack
      • Increases levels of HDL
      • Decreased risk of coronary artery disease
      • Decreased anxiety
      • Relaxation
      • Increased ease during social situations
      • Increased life expectancy
    • Alcohol and Pregnancy
      • Alcohol can impair personal health cause birth defects to their unborn fetus due to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
      • Alcohol crosses placenta
      • Fetal liver is under-developed and can result in the following:
          • Prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency
          • CNS dysfunction
          • Deformed facial circumstances
          • Major organ malformation e.g. heart defects
      • Even women who drink “moderately” may have infants with Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE), less severe birth defects, however, dangerous to the fetus
    • Addiction and Dependency
      • Addiction is a compulsive, uncontrollable dependence on a substance
      • Components of addiction include:
          • Tolerance
          • Physical Dependence
          • Psychological Dependence
      • Once physically dependent, if the body is deprived of alcohol, an addict will experience withdrawal symptoms
      See FYI: Stages of Withdrawal from Alcohol
    • Alcoholism
      • Alcoholism – primary chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors affecting the individual
      • The number of female alcoholics in the U.S. is estimated to be between 4-7 million and can shorten life expectancy by 10-15 years
      • The cause is unknown, but the following are revealed in the background of female alcoholics:
          • Parent(s) are alcoholics
          • Child Abuse relationship
          • Excessive drinking as teens
          • Social factors contribution
    • How to Help
      • Learn the facts about alcohol and alcoholism
      • Develop a factual attitude vs. an emotional attitude
      • Don’t use home remedies e.g. lecturing
      • Find assistance for yourself and the alcoholic through support groups
      • Talk with people who understand the illness, not just friends and family
      • Allow the alcoholic to be responsible for behavior and consequences
      • Expect relapses and difficult days after recovery begins
      • The person has to learn to say “no, thanks” when offered alcohol
    • Family Issues with Alcoholic Family Members
      • Codependency issues of family members
          • Women with co-dependent traits should obtain help through individual or group counseling
      • Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACAs)
          • Children of Alcoholics (COAs)
      • Effects of Growing up in an Alcoholic Family
          • Coping skill development are developed by family members
          • Understand the 4 C’s of a dysfunctional family
            • You didn’t cause it
            • You can’t control it
            • You can’t cure it
            • You can help yourself
    • Treatment for Alcoholism
      • Treatment centers
      • Chemical Treatment (drug therapy)
      • Aftercare (follow up treatment)
      • Counseling
      • Lifestyle Behavior Changes
      Intervention (confrontation) may lead to the following:
    • Prevention
      • Primary prevention programs are aimed at women who have not begun to use alcohol, focusing and reducing the rate of possible new alcohol users
      • Activities are developed to reduce factors that may contribute to the early use of alcohol
      • Young women often believe that alcohol use does not produce any negative consequences, therefore, thinking this is an acceptable behavior
      • Enhancing positive family influences and integrating “life skills training”, will allow young women to engage in more productive behaviors
      • Prevention can yield the greatest benefit if initiated at any early age (pre-school) and continued into adulthood
    • Chapter Twelve Using Alcohol Responsibly