Womens Health 1

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  • 1. Chapter One Introducing Women’s Health
  • 2. Why Focus on Women’s Health?
    • Women are different than men
    • Many general health texts relay information from studies based on male standards
    • Besides the physiological concepts, areas such as mental, emotional, and spiritual dimensions of women need to be addressed
    • Women Health issues are also important!!
  • 3. Emphasis on Health Promotion
    • Health is something to be nurtured in order to prevent illness and disease
    • 3 common types of health actions are:
        • Proactive care: reduction of risks by lifestyle
        • Health care maintenance: continuation process
        • Reactive care: treatment of illness
    * The greatest emphasis in health promotion is placed on proactive care
  • 4. Women’s Health in a Global Society
    • Women around the world share many common health concerns
    • Women from many countries still experience difficulties with several health issues not experienced in the United States
    • Two important concepts to consider regarding women’s health:
        • Sexism (biased against gender)
        • Misogyny (hatred towards women)
  • 5. Women’s Health Movement in the United States
    • The formal concept of ‘ midwives’ started in Ancient Greece/Rome
    • During the 16 th Century, professional schools of midwifery were established in Europe
    • Dr. James Sims(1813-1883) was instrumental for accepting gynecology as a medical specialty
    • Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910) was the first woman to receive a medical degree in the United States, founded the New York Infirmary for Women and Children in 1857 and a Women’s College for doctors
  • 6. Women’s Health Movement in the United States (cont.)
    • The first training school for nurses was established in 1873
    • Louise McManus (1896-1993) was the first nurse to earn a Ph.D. in the U.S. and developed a “Patients Bill of Rights”
    • The hospice movement was brought to the U.S. by Florence Wald
    • Margaret (Higgins) Sanger (1883-1966) was the American leader in the birth control movement
  • 7. Women’s Health Movement in the United States (cont.)
    • Mary Breckinridge (1881-1965) was the first American to establish midwifery as a profession
    • The late1960’s brought a civil rights movement, sparking issues on women’s health issues (Boston Women’s Health Collective). Books were authored to inform about women’s health, which empowered women to make informed choices about their own bodies ( Our Bodies, Ourselves )
    • The first women’s health conference occurred in March (1971) in New York, which challenged traditional treatment of women by the medical profession
    • The National Women’s Health Network was founded in 1975
  • 8. The Women’s Social Movement
    • The U.S. women’s rights movement was born during the drive for the abolition of slavery (19 th Century)
    • The first women’s rights convention was organized in Seneca Falls, New York (July, 1848)
    • Elizabeth Stanton (1815-1902) and Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) were considered the very first feminists in the U.S. and helped initiate changes in laws for women
    • Liberal feminism is a philosophy that sees the oppression of women as a denial of equal rights, representation, and access to opportunities
  • 9. The Women’s Social Movement (cont.)
    • Betty Friedan was instrumental for the second feminist movement during the 1960-70’s
    • She helped found the National Organization for Women (NOW) and supported the Equal Rights Amendment for women
    • Since then, legislation designed to protect the rights of women and minorities in the United States have been passed
  • 10. Women’s Health Issues that Still Require Major Attention
    • Enhancing self-esteem
    • Promoting a healthy and realistic body image
    • Countering the implied obligation to fulfill a sacrificial caretaker role
    • Curbing violence against women
    • Battling against gender-role socialization along with job and wage discrimination
    • Establishing standards of emotional, physical, and spiritual well-being that are specific to women and not compared to men
  • 11. Ethnic, Class, and Gender Bias in Health Research
    • Women make up 51% of the U.S. Population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000)
    • Historically, a majority of health studies have been performed with white, middle-class, young to middle-aged males
    • The National Institutes of Health (NIH) was placed under investigation (1990) for failing to include female subjects in health studies, dictating diagnostic and prescriptive guidelines for men and women
    • Gender and Ethnic Bias is common and present in health research
    • Socio-economics still provides a deterrent for quality health care for the poor as well as geographic differences
  • 12. Women’s Health Research
    • Historically, research for women only focused on diseases affecting fertility and reproduction
    • Other disease research has focused disproportionately on men
    • Women have been excluded from many health studies, regarding women health issues due to:
        • Concerns about pregnancy during the trials
        • Changing hormone levels could skew test results
    • The NIH established the Office of Research on Women’s Health (ORWH) to identify gaps in women’s health research (1990)
    • The ORWH launched the Women’s Health Initiative (1991), long term study that focuses on heart disease, osteoporosis, breast, and colorectal cancer strategies, especially in post-menopausal women
  • 13. Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives
    • Three primary goals to improve the public’s health and pay special attention to women were:
      • 1) Increase the span of healthy life for Americans
      • 2) Reduce health disparities among Americans
      • 3) Achieve access to preventive services for all Americans
    U.S Dept. of Health and Human Services, 1990
  • 14. Healthy People 2010
    • The latest revisions , Healthy People 2010 has two primary goals:
        • Increase the quality and years of healthy life
        • Eliminate health disparities
    • Healthy People 2010 “challenges individuals, communities, and professionals to take specific steps to ensure that good health, as well as long life, are enjoyed by all ”
    http:// www.health.gov/healthypeople/document/html
  • 15. Chapter One Introduction to Women’s Health