Final ppt currency-convertibility


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  • 1.............The ease with which a country's currency can be converted into gold or another currency. Convertibility is extremely important for international commerce. When a currency insinconvertible, it poses a risk and barrier to trade with foreigners who have no need for the domestic currency. 2.................Right  of the  holder  of a  currency  to  exchange  it for another currency at the  current   exchange rates . Currency convertibility is an essential  element  of  free trade 3.................... Convertibility is extremely important for international commerce. When a currency in inconvertible, it poses a risk and barrier to  trade  with foreigners who have no need for the domestic currency. Government restrictions can often result in a currency with a low convertibility. For example,a government with low reserves of hard  foreign currency  often restrictcurrency convertibilitybecause the government would not be in a position to intervenein  the foreign exchange  market (i. revalue, devalue) to supporttheir own currency if and when necessary.
  • Current account convertibility refers to freedom in respect of Payments and transfers for current international transactions. In other words, if Indians are allowed to buy only foreign goods and services but restrictions remain on the purchase of assets abroad, it is only current account convertibility. As of now, convertibility of the rupee into foreign currencies is almost wholly free for current account i.e. in case of transactions such as trade, travel and tourism, education abroad etc. The government introduced a system of Partial Rupee Convertibility (PCR) (Current Account Convertibility) on February 29,1992 as part of the Fiscal Budget for 1992-93. PCR is designed to provide a powerful boost to export as well as to achieve as efficient import substitution. It is designed to reduce the scope for bureaucratic controls, which contribute to delays and inefficiency. Government liberalized the flow of foreign exchange to include items like amount of foreign currency that can be procured for purpose like travel abroad, studying abroad, engaging the service of foreign consultants etc. What it means that people are allowed to have access to foreign currency for buying a whole range of consumables products and services
  • Payments due in connection with  Foreign trade, Other current business Services, and Short-term banking and credit facilities in the ordinary course of business; Payments due as  Interest on loans and Net income from investments, Remittances for living expenses of parents, spouse and children residing abroad, and Expenses in connection with  Foreign travel, Education and Medical care of parents, spouse and children
  • It is also know as floating exchange rate. It means the freedom to convert local financial assets into foreign financial assets and vice versa at market determined rates. It refers to the removal of restraints on international flows on a country's capital account, enabling full currency convertibility and opening of the financial system. A capital account refers to capital transfers and acquisition or disposal of non-produced, non-financial assets, and is one of the two standard components of a nation's balance of payments. The other being the current account, which refers to goods and services, income, and current transfers. Advantages:- 1. it is a major feature of developed economy. 2. It offers foreign investors a lot of comfort as they can re-convert local currency into foreign currency anytime they want to and take their money away. 3.It makes easier for domestic companies to tap foreign markets At the moment, India has current account convertibility. This means one can import and export goods or receive or make payments for services rendered. However, investments and borrowings are restricted. 4. Fear of economic crisis jus like East Asian economic crisis is suggested by economicst if india embrace capital account convertibility without adequate preparation. Steps:- The Reserve Bank of India has appointed a committee to set out the framework for fuller Capital Account Convertibility.
  • Reasons favoring Financial Openness and CAC Diversification: Unrestricted investment in foreign assets would result in the domestic households diversifying their income sources into foreign economies and industries. This would enhance the returns while reducing risk as a direct consequence of the diversification. The resultant overall economy will be more robust and stable. NRI Remittances: The NRI Diaspora will benefit tremendously if and when Capital Account Convertibility becomes a reality. The reason is on account of current restrictions imposed on movement of their funds. As the remittances made by NRI’s are subject to numerous restrictions, which will be eased considerably once Capital Account Convertibility is incorporated. It also opens the gate for international savings to be invested in India. It is good for India if foreigners invest in Indian assets — this makes more capital available for India’s development. That is, it reduces the cost of capital. When steel imports are made easier, steel becomes cheaper in India. Similarly, when inflows of capital into India are made easier, capital becomes cheaper in India. The main benefits of financial globalization may not be through the direct channel of providing more financing. Rather, the main benefits may be in terms of catalyzing financial market and institutional development, stimulating gains in efficiency through competition and access to new technologies, and disciplining macroeconomic policies. [3] Controls on the capital account are rather easy to evade through unscrupulous means. Huge amounts of capital are moving across the border anyway. It is better for India if these transactions happen in white money. Convertibility would reduce the size of the black economy, and improve law and order, tax compliance and corporate governance. Most importantly convertibility induces competition against Indian finance. Currently, finance is a monopoly in mobilizing the savings of Indian households for the investment plans of Indian firms. No matter how inefficient Indian finance is, households and firms do not have an alternative, thanks to capital controls. Exactly as we saw with trade liberalization, which consequently led to lower prices and superior quality of goods produced in India, capital account liberalization will improve the quality and drop the price of financial intermediation in India. [4]
  • Reasons favoring Restrictions During the good years of the economy, it might experience huge inflows of foreign capital, but during the bad times there will be an enormous outflow of capital under “herd behavior” (refers to a phenomenon where investors acts as “herds”, i.e. if one moves out, others follow immediately). For example, the South East Asian countries received US$ 94 billion in 1996 and another US$ 70 billion in the first half of 1997. However, under the threat of the crisis, US$ 102 billion flowed out from the region in the second half of 1997, thereby accentuating the crisis. This has serious impact on the economy as a whole, and can even lead to an economic crisis as in South-East Asia. There arises the possibility of misallocation of capital inflows. Such capital inflows may fund low-quality domestic investments, like investments in the stock markets or real estates, and desist from investing in building up industries and factories, which leads to more capacity creation and utilization, and increased level of employment. This also reduces the potential of the country to increase exports and thus creates external imbalances. An open capital account can lead to “the export of domestic savings” (the rich can convert their savings into dollars or pounds in foreign banks or even assets in foreign countries), which for capital scarce developing countries would curb domestic investment. Moreover, under the threat of a crisis, the domestic savings too might leave the country along with the foreign ‘investments’, thereby rendering the government helpless to counter the threat. Entry of foreign banks can create an unequal playing field, whereby foreign banks “cherry-pick” the most creditworthy borrowers and depositors. This aggravates the problem of the farmers and the small-scale industrialists, who are not considered to be credit-worthy by these banks. In order to remain competitive, the domestic banks too refuse to lend to these sectors, or demand to raise interest rates to more “competitive” levels from the ‘subsidized’ rates usually followed. International finance capital today is “highly volatile”, i.e. it shifts from country to country in search of higher speculative returns. In this process, it has led to economic crisis in numerous developing countries. Such finance capital is referred to as “hot money” in today’s context. Full capital account convertibility exposes an economy to extreme volatility on account of “hot money” flows.
  • Final ppt currency-convertibility

    1. 1. Currency Convertibility
    2. 2. CURRENCY CONVERTIBILITY <ul><li>What it is ? </li></ul><ul><li>Convertibility essentially means the ability of residents and non-residents to exchange domestic currency for foreign currency, without limit, whatever be the purpose of the transactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Types Of Currency Convertibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Fully convertible currency. </li></ul><ul><li>Partially convertible currency. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-convertible currency . </li></ul>
    3. 3. Rupee Convertibility
    4. 4. CURRENT ACCOUNT <ul><li>Transactions relating to: </li></ul><ul><li>- Exchange of goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>- Money transfers </li></ul><ul><li>- Transactions that are classified in the Current Accounts. </li></ul><ul><li>In Short, Current account includes all transactions, which give rise to or use of our National Income. </li></ul>
    5. 5. CURRENT ACCOUNT TRANSACTIONS <ul><li>All imports and exports of merchandise. </li></ul><ul><li>Invisible Exports and Imports (sale/purchase of services) </li></ul><ul><li>Inward private remittances (to & fro) </li></ul><ul><li>Pension payments (to & fro) </li></ul><ul><li>Government Grants (both ways) </li></ul>
    6. 6. CURRENT ACCOUNT CONVERTIBILITY <ul><li>Indian scenario - fully convertible. </li></ul><ul><li>Full freedom to both residents and non-residents. </li></ul><ul><li>RBI has placed a cap in creation of a capital asset </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom in respect of payments and transfers for current international transactions. </li></ul>
    7. 7. CAPITAL ACCOUNT <ul><li>Inflows and Outflows of capital. </li></ul><ul><li>Borrowing from or Lending to aboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Sales and Purchase of securities aboard. </li></ul>
    8. 8. CAPITAL ACCOUNT TRANSACTIONS <ul><li>Capital Direct Foreign Investments. </li></ul><ul><li>Investment in securities. </li></ul><ul><li>Other Investments. </li></ul><ul><li>Government Loans. </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term investments. </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>Investment . </li></ul><ul><li>Stocks, </li></ul><ul><li>Bonds, </li></ul><ul><li>Bank </li></ul><ul><li>Loans, </li></ul><ul><li>Derivatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct </li></ul><ul><li>Investment. </li></ul><ul><li>Real estate </li></ul><ul><li>Production facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Equity investment. </li></ul><ul><li>Other investment. </li></ul><ul><li>Holdings in loans </li></ul><ul><li>Bank accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Currencies </li></ul>Capital Account Transaction’s Classification
    10. 10. CAPITAL ACCOUNT CONVERTIBILITY <ul><li>Floating Exchange Rate. </li></ul><ul><li>What is means? – Freedom of Conversion </li></ul><ul><li>CAC allows anyone to freely move from local currency into foreign currency and back. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes of ownership in foreign/domestic financial assets and liabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages ! </li></ul>
    11. 11. CURRENTLY RESTRICTIONS : CAPITAL ACCOUNT <ul><li>Limits to companies borrowing abroad. </li></ul><ul><li>Restriction on foreigner investing in India. </li></ul><ul><li>Restriction on amount that FII can hold. </li></ul><ul><li>Purchasing a company is allowed but limit exit on the amount that can be send. </li></ul><ul><li>Global Diversification of household portfolio is practically non-existent. </li></ul>
    12. 12. LIMITS TO PARTIAL CAC <ul><li>Limits specified by the RBI:- </li></ul><ul><li>Private visit </li></ul><ul><li>Business travel </li></ul><ul><li>Gift or donation </li></ul><ul><li>Employment /For studies abroad </li></ul><ul><li>Investment : Foreign stock markets </li></ul><ul><li>Borrowings </li></ul>
    13. 13. REASONS FAVORING FINANCIAL OPENNESS & CAC <ul><li>Diversification </li></ul><ul><li>NRI Remittances </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Investment in </li></ul><ul><li>Catalyst for financial market, institutional development, competition, new technologies & discipline macro-economic policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in the size of Black money. </li></ul><ul><li>Induces competition against Indian finance. </li></ul>
    14. 14. REASONS FAVORING RESTRICTIONS <ul><li>Good times- More inflow; Bad times- More outflow. </li></ul><ul><li>Misallocation of Capital inflows. </li></ul><ul><li>Export of domestic Savings. </li></ul><ul><li>Entry of Foreign banks can create Unequal playing field. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly volatile international finance (hot money)- Higher speculation. </li></ul>
    15. 15. TARAPORE COMMITTEE <ul><li>Pre-Conditions  Gross fiscal deficit to GDP ratio to come down from a 4.5 %n 1997-98 to 3.5% in 1999-00.  A consolidated sinking fund has to be set up to meet government's debt repayment needs; financed by RBI. Inflation rate to be at 3-5 per cent for the 3-year period 1997-2000 . Gross NPAs of the public sector banking system needs to be brought down. </li></ul><ul><li>Average effective CRR needs to be brought down from the current 9.3% to 3% . </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>RBI should have a Monitoring Exchange Rate Band of plus minus 5% around a neutral . </li></ul><ul><li>Real Effective Exchange Rate RBI should be transparent about the changes in REER . External sector policies should be designed to increase current receipts to GDP ratio . Four indicators should be used for evaluating adequacy of foreign exchange reserves to safeguard against any contingency. </li></ul>Contd...
    17. 17. Any Questions...?