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  • 1. Chapter 1 IntroductionSince the invention of the internal combustion engine in the early 18th century it hasbecome an integral part of daily transportation and always provided an area of furtherdevelopment and innovation. The various transformations that this engine has brought inthe field of transportation range from small cars to huge truck’s, single seated bikes tohigh capacity buses, everyday used family cars to luxury and even super sports cars. Theneed for traveling faster as well as the requirement for carrying the right number ofpeople economically and emission friendly has led to a huge development in the variousaspects of automotive design and manufacture.As stated in the title the need for a better design and development of a three wheeler wasopted and implemented considering all the design and manufacturing parameters neededto fabricate an automobile.A three wheeler is a vehicle with three wheels, either "human or people-poweredvehicles" (HPV or PPV or velomobiles) or motorized vehicles in the form of amotorcycle, All terrain vehicle (ATV) or automobile. Other names for three-wheelersinclude Trikes, Tricars and Cycle cars. The term Tricycle is used somewhatinterchangeably, but the term three-wheeler is more often applied to motor vehicles.Many three-wheelers which exist in the form of motorcycle-based machines are oftencalled trikes and often have the front single wheel and mechanics similar to that of amotorcycle and the rear axle similar to that of a car. Often such vehicles are owner–constructed using a portion of a rear–engine, rear–drive Volkswagen "Beetle" incombination with a motorcycle front end. Other trikes include ATVs that are speciallyconstructed for off road use. Three-wheeled automobiles can have either one wheel at theback and two at the front, (for example: Morgan Motor Company) or one wheel at thefront and two at the back (such as the Reliant Robin). 1
  • 2. Three-wheeler cars, usually micro cars, are often built for economy reasons, or as was thecase in the UK, to take advantage of tax advantages, or as in the US to take advantage ofthe lower safety regulations, they are being classed as motorcycles. As a result of theirlight construction and often relaxed pollution requirements, leading to higher efficiency,three-wheeled cars are usually very economical to run.The initial chassis or frame design was carried out in CATIA with a carrying capacity fora single person and after acquiring the required materials the design was fabricated usingconventional manufacturing techniques. After the frame being constructed the placing ofthe various parts was done with inline assembly and fabrication. Once the entire structureand fabrication was completed paint and body work was carried out. Test runs haveclaimed significantly economical and efficient running results.1.1 History of the Three WheelerSimilarities of a car with functionalities of a motorcycle the 3-wheeler, Cycle-car or evenTri-car has had an important Impact in the development of the present day motor car.From the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in 1760 to the Concept cars of thefuture, these vehicles can hold their headlamps up with pride. They were present at thebirth of motoring and possibly may well be the answer to the future with the constantdepletion of the Earths energy resources. A 3-wheeler offered in most cases a hood forprotection from the weather, side by side comfortable seating, easier steering and awindscreen shielding everyone on board. To this the running costs were not much greaterthan that for a motorcycle combination and considerably less than the 4-wheelers.Themajor cost saving, derived from buying a 3-wheeler was its low taxationOne of the first mini-cars was the 3-wheeled Allard Clipper built by Sidney Allard.Although production was limited these 3-wheelers, powered by a 346cc Villiers engine,had a lightweight reinforced plastic body. lt was also fitted with the new Siba Dynastartunit, which replaced the flywheel magneto. The Dynastart combined electric startermotor, dynamo and cooling fan all into a single unit and became invaluable to the 3-wheeler mini-car industry. In 1949 Laurie Bond began the production of a Bond mini-car. 2
  • 3. This was introduced when petrol rationing was very much in force and any other form oftransport was both scarce and expensive.Over the years there have been numerous new designs that have been developed of thesethree wheelers by various companies. The immense potential of the vehiclecharacteristics has made the adoption of this model design highly popular and versatile.The transformation can be seen through the years with popular and prestigious companieslike BMW and Volkswagen adopting this design. Fig: 1.1.1 A BMW Isetta 300 Fig:1.1.2 Volkswagen GX-3The technological development of the three wheeler can be seen in its adaptation as asports vehicle not only in the recent years but also in the past. The earlier adaptation ofthis design was seen in the Morgan Aero in 1932 as a two seater sports car and the morerecent one as the Campagna T-Rex in the year 1996. Fig: 1.1.3 Morgan Aero 1932 Fig: 1.1.4 Campagna T-Rex 1996 3
  • 4. 1.2 General Production ProcedureIn 1908 Henry Ford began production of the Model T automobile. Based on his originalModel A design first manufactured in 1903, the Model T took five years to develop. Itscreation inaugurated what we know today as the mass production assembly line. Thisrevolutionary idea was based on the concept of simply assembling interchangeablecomponent parts. Prior to this time, coaches and buggies had been hand-built in smallnumbers by specialized craftspeople who rarely duplicated any particular unit. Fordsinnovative design reduced the number of parts needed as well as the number of skilledfitters who had always formed the bulk of the assembly operation, giving Ford atremendous advantage over his competition.Fords first venture into automobile assembly with the Model A involved setting upassembly stands on which the whole vehicle was built, usually by a single assembler whofit an entire section of the car together in one place. This person performed the sameactivity over and over at his stationary assembly stand. To provide for more efficiency,Ford had parts delivered as needed to each work station. In this way each assembly fittertook about 8.5 hours to complete his assembly task. By the time the Model T was beingdeveloped Ford had decided to use multiple assembly stands with assemblers movingfrom stand to stand, each performing a specific function. This process reduced theassembly time for each fitter from 8.5 hours to a mere 2.5 minutes by rendering eachworker completely familiar with a specific task.Ford soon recognized that walking from stand to stand wasted time and created jam-upsin the production process as faster workers overtook slower ones. In Detroit in 1913, hesolved this problem by introducing the first moving assembly line, a conveyor that movedthe vehicle past a stationary assembler. By eliminating the need for workers to movebetween stations, Ford cut the assembly task for each worker from 2.5 minutes to justunder 2 minutes; the moving assembly conveyor could now pace the stationary worker.The first conveyor line consisted of metal strips to which the vehicles wheels wereattached. The metal strips were attached to a belt that rolled the length of the factory andthen, beneath the floor, returned to the beginning area. This reduction in the amount of 4
  • 5. human effort required to assemble an automobile caught the attention of automobileassemblers throughout the world. Fords mass production drove the automobile industryfor nearly five decades and was eventually adopted by almost every other industrialManufacturer. Although technological advancements have enabled many improvementsto modern day automobile assembly operations, the basic concept of stationary workersinstalling parts on a vehicle as it passes their work stations has not changed drasticallyover the years.1.2.1 Raw MaterialsAlthough the bulk of an automobile is virgin steel, petroleum-based products (plasticsand vinyls) have come to represent an increasingly large percentage of automotivecomponents. The light-weight materials derived from petroleum have helped to lightensome models by as much as thirty percent. As the price of fossil fuels continues to rise,the preference for lighter, more fuel efficient vehicles will become more pronounced.1.2.2 DesignIntroducing a new model of automobile generally takes three to five years from inceptionto assembly. Ideas for new models are developed to respond to unmet pubic needs andpreferences. Trying to predict what the public will want to drive in five years is no smallfeat, yet automobile companies have successfully designed automobiles that fit publictastes. With the help of computer-aided design equipment, designers develop basicconcept drawings that help them visualize the proposed vehicles appearance. Based onthis simulation, they then construct clay models that can be studied by styling expertsfamiliar with what the public is likely to accept. Aerodynamic engineers also review themodels, studying air-flow parameters and doing feasibility studies on crash tests. Onlyafter all models have been reviewed and accepted are tool designers permitted to beginbuilding the tools that will manufacture the component parts of the new model. 5
  • 6. 1.2.3 The Manufacturing ProcessComponentsThe automobile assembly plant represents only the final phase in the process ofmanufacturing an automobile, for it is here that the components supplied by more than4,000 outside suppliers, including company-owned parts suppliers, are brought togetherfor assembly, usually by truck or railroad. Those parts that will be used in the chassis aredelivered to one area, while those that will comprise the body are unloaded at another.ChassisThe typical car or truck is constructed from the ground up (and out). The frame forms thebase on which the body rests and from which all subsequent assembly componentsfollow. The frame is placed on the assembly line and clamped to the conveyer to preventshifting as it moves down the line. From here the automobile frame moves to componentassembly areas where complete front and rear suspensions, gas tanks, rear axles and driveshafts, gear boxes, steering box components, wheel drums, and braking systems aresequentially installed. Fig 1.2.1 Workers install engines on Model Ts at a Ford Motor Company plant. 6
  • 7. The automobile, for decades the quintessential American industrial product, did not haveits origins in the United States. In 1860, Etienne Lenoir, a Belgian mechanic, introducedan internal combustion engine that proved useful as a source of stationary power. In1878, Nicholas Otto, a German manufacturer, developed his four-stroke "explosion"engine. By 1885, one of his engineers, Gottlieb Daimler, was building the first of fourexperimental vehicles powered by a modified Otto internal combustion engine. Also in1885, another German manufacturer, Carl Benz, introduced a three-wheeled, self-propelled vehicle. In 1887, the Benz became the first automobile offered for sale to thepublic. By 1895, automotive technology was dominated by the French, led by EmileLavassor. Lavassor developed the basic mechanical arrangement of the car, placing theengine in the front of the chassis, with the crankshaft perpendicular to the axles.In 1896, the Duryea Motor Wagon became the first production motor vehicle in theUnited States. In that same year, Henry Ford demonstrated his first experimental vehicle,the Quadricycle. By 1908, when the Ford Motor Company introduced the Model T, theUnited States had dozens of automobile manufacturers. The Model T quickly became thestandard by which other cars were measured; ten years later, half of all cars on the roadwere Model Ts. It had a simple four-cylinder, twenty-horsepower engine and a planetarytransmission giving two gears forward and one backward. It was sturdy, had high roadclearance to negotiate the rutted roads of the day, and was easy to operate and maintain. An off-line operation at this stage of production mates the vehicles engine with itstransmission. Workers use robotic arms to install these heavy components inside theengine compartment of the frame. After the engine and transmission are installed, a 7
  • 8. Fig 1.2.2 Automated Production Lines.On automobile assembly lines, much of the work is now done by robots rather thanhumans. In the first stages of automobile manufacture, robots weld the floor pan piecestogether and assist workers in placing components such as the suspension onto thechassis.Worker attaches the radiator, and another bolts it into place. Because of the nature ofthese heavy component parts, articulating robots perform all of the lift and carryoperations while assemblers using pneumatic wrenches bolt component pieces in place.Careful ergonomic studies of every assembly task have provided assembly workers withthe safest and most efficient tools available.BodyGenerally, the floor pan is the largest body component to which a multitude of panels andbraces will subsequently be either welded or bolted. As it moves down the assembly line,held in place by clamping fixtures, the shell of the vehicle is built. First, the left and rightquarter panels are robotically disengaged from pre-staged shipping containers and placedonto the floor pan, where they are stabilized with positioning fixtures and welded.The front and rear door pillars, roof, and body side panels are assembled in the samefashion. The shell of the automobile assembled in this section of the process lends itself 8
  • 9. to the use of robots because articulating arms can easily introduce various componentbraces and panels to the floor pan and perform a high number of weld operations in atime frame and with a degree of accuracy no human workers could ever approach. Robotscan pick and load 200-pound (90.8 kilograms) roof panels and place them precisely in theproper weld position with tolerance variations held to within .001 of an inch. Moreover,robots can also tolerate the Fig 1.2.3 Body Shop and Paint Shop.The body is built up on a separate assembly line from the chassis. Robots once againperform most of the welding on the various panels, but human workers are necessary tobolt the parts together. During welding, component pieces are held securely in a jig whilewelding operations are performed. Once the body shell is complete, it is attached to anoverhead conveyor for the painting process. The multi-step painting process entailsinspection, cleaning, undercoat (electro statically applied) dipping, drying, topcoatspraying, and baking. Smoke, weld flashes, and gases created during this phase ofproduction.As the body moves from the isolated weld area of the assembly line, subsequent bodycomponents including fully assembled doors, deck lids, hood panel, fenders, trunk lid,and bumper reinforcements are installed. Although robots help workers place thesecomponents onto the body shell, the workers provide the proper fit for most of the bolt-onfunctional parts using pneumatically assisted tools. 9
  • 10. PaintPrior to painting, the body must pass through a rigorous inspection process, the body inwhite operation. The shell of the vehicle passes through a brightly lit white room where itis fully wiped down by visual inspectors using cloths soaked in hi-light oil. Under thelights, this oil allows inspectors to see any defects in the sheet metal body panels. Dings,dents, and any other defects are repaired right on the line by skilled body repairmen.After the shell has been fully inspected and repaired, the assembly conveyor carries itthrough a cleaning station where it is immersed and cleaned of all residual oil, dirt, andcontaminants.As the shell exits the cleaning station it goes through a drying booth and then through anundercoat dip—an electro statically charged bath of undercoat paint (called the E-coat) that covers every nook and cranny of the body shell, both inside and out, withprimer. This coat acts as a substrate surface to which the top coat of colored paintadheres.After the E-coat bath, the shell is again dried in a booth as it proceeds on to the final paintoperation. In most automobile assembly plants today, vehicle bodies are spray-painted byrobots that have been programmed to apply the exact amounts of paint to just the rightareas for just the right length of time. Considerable research and programming has goneinto the dynamics of robotic painting in order to ensure the fine "wet" finishes we havecome to expect. Our robotic painters have come a long way since Fords first Model Ts,which were painted by hand with a brush.Once the shell has been fully covered 1 with a base coat of color paint and a clear topcoat, the conveyor transfers the bodies through baking ovens where the paint is cured attemperatures exceeding 275 degrees Fahrenheit (135 degrees Celsius). 10
  • 11. Fig 1.2.4 Mating of Body and FrameThe body and chassis assemblies are mated near the end of the production process.Robotic arms lift the body shell onto the chassis frame, where human workers then boltthe two together. After final components are installed, the vehicle is driven off theassembly line to a quality checkpoint.After the shell leaves the paint area it is ready for interior assembly.Interior assemblyThe painted shell proceeds through the interior assembly area where workers assemble allof the instrumentation and wiring systems, dash panels, interior lights, seats, door andtrim panels, headliners, radios, speakers, all glass except the automobilewindshield, steering column and wheel, body weather-strips, vinyl tops, brake and gaspedals, carpeting, and front and rear bumper fascias.Next, robots equipped with suction cups remove the windshield from a shippingcontainer, apply a bead of urethane sealer to the perimeter of the glass, and then place itinto the body windshield frame. Robots also pick seats and trim panels and transportthem to the vehicle for the ease and efficiency of the assembly operator. After passingthrough this section the shell is given a water test to ensure the proper fit of door panels,glass, and weather stripping. It is now ready to mate with the chassis. 11
  • 12. MateThe chassis assembly conveyor and the body shell conveyor meet at this stage ofproduction. As the chassis passes the body conveyor the shell is robotically lifted from itsconveyor fixtures and placed onto the car frame. Assembly workers, some at ground leveland some in work pits beneath the conveyor, bolt the car body to the frame. Once themating takes place the automobile proceeds down the line to receive final trimcomponents, battery, tires, anti-freeze, and gasoline.The vehicle can now be started. From here it is driven to a checkpoint off the line, whereits engine is audited, its lights and horn checked, its tires balanced, and its chargingsystem examined. Any defects discovered at this stage require that the car be taken to acentral repair area, usually located near the end of the line. A crew of skilled trouble-shooters at this stage analyzes and repairs all problems. When the vehicle passes finalaudit it is given a price label and driven to a staging lot where it will await shipment to itsdestination.1.2.4 Quality ControlAll of the components that go into the automobile are produced at other sites. This meansthe thousands of component pieces that comprise the car must be manufactured, tested,packaged, and shipped to the assembly plants, often on the same day they will be used.This requires no small amount of planning. To accomplish it, most automobilemanufacturers require outside parts vendors to subject their component parts to rigoroustesting and inspection audits similar to those used by the assembly plants. In this way theassembly plants can anticipate that the products arriving at their receiving docksare Statistical Process Control (SPC) approved and free from defects.Once the component parts of the automobile begin to be assembled at the automotivefactory, production control specialists can follow the progress of each embryonicautomobile by means of its Vehicle Identification Number (VIN), assigned at the start ofthe production line. In many of the more advanced assembly plants a small radiofrequency transponder is attached to the chassis and floor pan. This sending unit carries 12
  • 13. the VIN information and monitors its progress along the assembly process. Knowingwhat operations the vehicle has been through, where it is going, and when it should arriveat the next assembly station gives production management personnel the ability toelectronically control the manufacturing sequence. Throughout the assembly processquality audit stations keep track of vital information concerning the integrity of variousfunctional components of the vehicle.This idea comes from a change in quality control ideology over the years. Formerly,quality control was seen as a final inspection process that sought to discover defects onlyafter the vehicle was built. In contrast, today quality is seen as a process built right intothe design of the vehicle as well as the assembly process. In this way assembly operatorscan stop the conveyor if workers find a defect. Corrections can then be made, or supplieschecked to determine whether an entire batch of components is bad. Vehicle recalls arecostly and manufacturers do everything possible to ensure the integrity of their productbefore it is shipped to the customer. After the vehicle is assembled a validation process isconducted at the end of the assembly line to verify quality audits from the variousinspection points throughout the assembly process. This final audit tests for properlyfitting panels; dynamics; squeaks and rattles; functioning electrical components; andengine, chassis, and wheel alignment. In many assembly plants vehicles are periodicallypulled from the audit line and given full functional tests. All efforts today are put forth toensure that quality and reliability are built into the assembled product.The growth of automobile use and the increasing resistance to road building have madeour highway systems both congested and obsolete. But new electronic vehicletechnologies that permit cars to navigate around the congestion and even drivethemselves may soon become possible. Turning over the operation of our automobiles tocomputers would mean they would gather information from the roadway aboutcongestion and find the fastest route to their instructed destination, thus making better useof limited highway space. The advent of the electric car will come because of a rareconvergence of circumstance and ability. Growing intolerance for pollution combined 13
  • 14. with extraordinary technological advancements will change the global transportationparadigm that will carry us into the twenty-first century.1.3 Costs and BenefitsCompared to other popular modes of passenger transportation, especially buses, theautomobile has a relatively high cost per person-kilometer traveled. Nevertheless demandfor automobiles remains high and inelastic in rich nations, suggesting that its advantages,such as on-demand and door-to-door travel, are highly prized, despite recent increasesin fuel costs, and not easily substituted by cheaper alternative modes of transport, withthe present level and type of auto specific infrastructure in the countries with high autousage.Public costs related to the automobile are several; effects related to emissions havereceived a lot of attention, however the impact of manufacturing and disposal is less well-understood.The costs of automobile usage, which may include the cost of: acquiring thevehicle, repairs, maintenance, fuel, depreciation, injury, driving time, parkingfees, tire replacement, taxes, and insurance, are weighed against the cost of thealternatives, and the value of the benefits – perceived and real – of vehicle usage. Thebenefits may include on-demand transportation, mobility, independence and convenience.Similarly the costs to society of encompassing automobile use, which may include thoseof: maintaining roads, land use, pollution, public health, health care, and of disposing ofthe vehicle at the end of its life, can be balanced against the value of the benefits tosociety that automobile use generates. The societal benefits may include: economybenefits, such as job and wealth creation, of automobile production and maintenance,transportation provision, society wellbeing derived from leisure and travel opportunities,and revenue generation from the tax opportunities. The ability for humans to moveflexibly from place to place has far reaching implications for the nature of societies. 14
  • 15. 1.4DisadvantagesTransportation is a major contributor to air pollution in most industrialized nations.According to the American Surface Transportation Policy Project nearly half of allAmericans are breathing unhealthy air. Their study showed air quality in dozens ofmetropolitan areas has worsened over the last decade. In the United States the averagepassenger car emits 11,450 pounds (5,190 kg) of carbon dioxide annually, along withsmaller amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen.Animals and plants are often negatively impacted by automobiles via habitatdestruction and pollution. Over the lifetime of the average automobile the "loss of habitatpotential" may be over 50,000 square meters (540,000 sq ft) based on primaryproduction correlations.Fuel taxes may act as an incentive for the production of more efficient, hence lesspolluting, car designs (e.g. hybrid vehicles) and the development of alternative fuels.High fuel taxes may provide a strong incentive for consumers to purchase lighter,smaller, more fuel-efficient cars, or to not drive. Passenger car standards have not raisedabove the 27.5 miles per US gallon (8.55 L/100 km; 33.0 mpg) standard set in 1985.Light truck standards have changed more frequently, and were set at 22.2 miles per USgallon (10.6 L/100 km; 26.7 mpg) in 2007. Alternative fuel vehicles are another optionthat is less polluting than conventional petroleum powered vehicles. 15
  • 16. Chapter 2 LiteratureFor the purpose or research and deriving required conclusions for building a vehicle, wehave referred a lot of study material both online and off. This study has not onlyincreased our knowledge over the subject but has also given us the key aspects requiredfor starting the build process. Here within is a part of the various documents that havehelped us in studying and building our project.2.1 Pilch.orgThe 3 wheeler project all started at Rugby College as part of a General Engineeringtraining course. We had to work in teams of 3 and come up with a project that includeddesign and manufacture of a product in 7 weeks. Our team consisted of an ElectricalEngineering graduate (Myself), an Electrical and Electronics graduate and a MechanicalEngineering with Manufacturing Systems graduate. This represented a broad range ofexperience and knowledge. One of the team members had an old motorcycle that hadsuffered crash damaged; however the engine was still in good condition. We decided todesign and develop a new working vehicle in 7 weeks, with the overall aim of eventuallypassing an MOT and getting it road legal.We looked at the motorcycle to help us consider various vehicle options since our planwas to use at least the existing engine. We identified a potential problem that themotorcycle engine is design to power a chain, whereas in general 4 wheeled vehicles usea drive shaft powering a differential. We decided that given time constraints and forsimplicity we would limit our ideas to three-wheeled vehicles, utilising the existing bikeengine and swing-arm for the back wheel. Therefore the design of the drive systemconsisted of copying the mounting points from the motorbike to the frame design. Thisnot only simplified the drive system but also kept the cost of the project down becauseexisting parts were being used instead of having to purchase new ones. Given thesecriteria we researched various three-wheeled vehicle options. The 16
  • 17. website provided an interesting A-Z history of three wheeledvehicles. We also researched the legal requirements for self built three-wheeled vehicles,to help us make it road worthy.After the initial research, various sketches were produced to help decide on a style ofvehicle. It was decided early on that the vehicle would be a single seater to reduce weightand design complexity. The aim was to keep the weight below 410kg which puts it in thesame category as a trike. This is covered by the B1 class on a standard driver’s license.This class of vehicle was exempt until June 2003 from the SVA (Single VehicleApproval) test that other kit cars require to pass before becoming road legal. As long asthe car was registered with the DVLA before this delaine then it only has to pass astandard MOT test to be road legal. This not only reduces the cost of the test but is lessstrict than the SVA test. The car was registered with the DVLA and allocated with achassis number in May 2003.To start planning the specific details of the vehicle, several methods were used. FirstlyMS AutoCAD was used to create a block sketch of the various components of thevehicle. Using a CAD package allowed design changes to be made easily. To check thedesign, a full size 2D plan of the vehicle was made on the floor using masking tape (seebelow). This allowed various components to be laid out and for the driver to get arealistic feel of the size of the vehicle.The size of the single seater vehicle was determined by the following factors: The firstand most obvious factor is the driver size. The dimensions of the three team memberswere measured. A comfortable driving position was also recorded.Rear wheel and swing arm attachment are already determined from the existing frame.Engine position. Since the chain from the engine needs to be taught when going overbumps, the chain needs to be kept horizontal, limiting the engine position to in front ofthe rear wheel. For safety reasons it was decided to keep the drivers feet just behind thefront axle, to allow for a small crumple zone. 17
  • 18. It was decided to use a rack and pinion and wheel hubs from a donor vehicle. Thesewould determine the width of the front of the vehicle. A ground clearance of 15cm waschosen, similar to that of a normal road car, suitable to clear speed bumps. The size of thedrivers determined the minimum height of the vehicle, given that role bars were desired.It was desired that the drivers arms would be contained inside the body of the vehicle;therefore this sets a minimum width. It was decided early on to use the rear wheel, swingarm, suspension and existing drive mechanism from the motorbike to provide thesuspension setup for the rear of the vehicle. It was decided to use a double wishbonesuspension system for the front of the vehicle. Due to the nature of such a bespoke cardesign, the front suspension needed to be designed and built from scratch. This proved tobe a complicated part of the project and was critical to make sure that the vehicle handledcorrectly under load. Some help and guidance from a certain Pro drive Suspension Guruproved invaluable. Several key components played a major part in suspensioncalculations and design. See the CMDT3 Suspension Guide for more details oncalculations and measurements. A rack and pinion was acquired from a scrap yard from aFord Sierra. The width of this set the width for the wishbones. For safety reasons we feltit was important to have some of the car frame in front of the drivers feet position toabsorb some of the energy in the event of a crash. The plan of the car was designed inAutoCAD before any manufacture began.It was desired to make the wishbones out of seamless steel tubing approximately 20mmin diameter. However, the local steel supplier did not have any seamless tubing in stock,therefore seamed steel tubing was used, but a larger diameter (27mm) and thicker gaugewas used to increase the strength. The wishbones were joined to the frames usingbrackets that were made by bending steel strips. The sides of the vehicle are not paralleland therefore the angle of the brackets needed to be manufactured such that the axis ofthe right and left wishbones were parallel. To ensure a smooth motion of the wishbones,brass bushes were made, such that the brackets clamp to the bushes leaving thewishbones free to rotate.The ball joints for the top and bottom wishbones were sourced from local scrap yards.Ball joints from a Ford Sierra were used for the bottom wishbones, these have now been 18
  • 19. replaced with stronger, replacable Ford Cortina ones. Larger track rod end ball jointswere used from a Ford Transit for the top wishbones.The size of the bottom wishbones obviously affects the size of the top wishbones. Oncethe ball joints were acquired we then had to decide how to mount the ball joints to thehubs. The wheel hubs were from a Ford Sierra, and therefore are designed to holdMcPherson strut suspension units. An extension unit was made to fit in the mounting forthe McPherson struts and hold the ball joints at the other end. The length of the extensionwould determine the angle of the top wishbone. The vehicle needed to be designed suchthat when the car is fully laden with the driver, the suspension system is in the desiredposition. The ideal position of the wishbones in the fully laden position is such that thebottom wishbones are level and the top wishbones angle down inline with the mountingpoint of the ball joint and hub on the bottom wishbone on the opposite side of the car.This was achieved by careful design of the suspension system.The engine for the 3 wheeler is from a 500cc Kawasaki GPZ500 motorbike. The picturebelow shows the engine mounted in the 3 wheeler frame at the same angle as it was in themotorbike frame. The information below explains how this was achieved.Engine & Swing Arm MountingThe location of the mounting points for the engine, swing arm and rear suspension weretaken directly from the frame of the motor bike. This was achieved by creating a jig dueto the complex nature of the bike frame. Jigging the mounting points for the engine andswing armThe jig was nothing more than two pieces of chipboard with a large block of pine inbetween. The jig was drilled to create a location or origin hole that all the mountingpoints would be found from. The jig was then bolted into the frame of the motor bike.This enabled the other mounting points to be located on the jig. The jig was thenremoved, drilled and refitted to test the accuracy. As predicted all the holes lined up andthe jig was then measured to gain the dimensions for the engine mounting points andswing arm. 19
  • 20. Creating the rear mounting frame after studying the bike frame a design was decided onthat consisted of two vertical plates mounted on and separated by box section. The plateswere drilled using the dimensions from the jig and then joined together with the boxsection. Once the frame had been produced that had the two rear engine mounts and theswing arm pivot hole drilled the front engine mount was designed. It was clear that toextract the engine from the frame with relative ease would mean that the rear enginemount frame would need to be removable. This was accomplished, produced and workswell. Adding the rear suspension mounting pointsTo find the positions of the rear suspension mounting points, a jig was created thatconsisted of bars with holes in that were bolted together. The main bar was drilled withholes that exactly matched the rear engine mounts. The jig was then attached to theexisting bike frame by the rear engine mounting points and the top suspension mount.The bolts in the jig were then tightened so that the location of the top suspension mountcould be located from the locations of the rear engine mounts. The jig was removed fromthe bike frame and bolted into the rear mounting frame. A bracket was created andwelded in place whilst connected to the jig. This ensured that the accuracy was high. Thebottom suspension mounts position was calculated in the same way but it was decidedthat to gain some more rear ground clearance the mounting point would be changed.A problem that later occurred was that one of the engine mounting bolts was in the pathof the chain. This was corrected by creating another bracket that was welded into theframe. This ensured a clear path for the chain. Adding the frame to the main bodyOnce the entire rear mounting frame had been created it was welded onto the main frameof the car. Other struts were added to give strength that was needed to cope with theforces that would be generated by the drive system.Various options were considered for the paneling for the vehicle. The first option was tonot use any paneling and leave the frame exposed. This idea was rejected due to theissues of wind on the driver and for aesthetic reasons. Obvious choices for paneling weresheet aluminum or steel. Steel could be welded on, or either could be riveted or stuck on. 20
  • 21. Before the decision had to be made, we were made aware that the college could acquirelarge quantities of toughened foam, the type that is normally used for manufacturingsigns. We decided to use this, firstly because it was free, and secondly it is lightweightand waterproof. It was decided to have several flat panels as opposed to bendingindividual panels. Panel frames were welded together for the bonnet and rear for thepanels to be mounted to. This way the panels could be removed easily. The picturesbelow show the bonnet and rear panel mounting frames.The panels were not produced within the 6 week schedule. The joins will be sealed with apaneling sealant and then smoothed down to leave a good finish. Cellulose paint has beenpurchased, as this can be used in a compressed air spray gun. It has the added benefitover enamel paint that it dries within 30 minutes and therefore if a mistake is made, it canbe rubbed down and reapplied very quickly.2.2 Clevislauzon.qc.caSimple visual analysis of 3-Wheeler stability: Fig: 2.2.1 Reactions at the Center of GravityCenter of gravity position: Consider first a 4-Wheeler as seen from the rear, like here tothe right. If the vehicle is in a curve towards the left, for example, we can imagine thata centrifugal force (magenta color) is exerted on the center of gravity (black and yellowcircle) of the vehicle-occupants system, while the vehicle’s weight exerts adownward gravitational force (cyan color). 21
  • 22. Thus, the centrifugal force (magenta) tends to roll the vehicle over towards the right,around an imaginary point (deep blue) under the right tires, while the gravitational force(cyan) holds the vehicle back to avoid rollover.It’s as though the centrifugal force and the gravitational force combined together intoa resulting force (black) exerted on the center of gravity to turn it around this imaginarypoint (deepblue).We can thus easily understand that if the center of gravity height (red) is greater thanthe half-track (in green) (the half distance between the two wheels seen from the rear),the resulting force (black) will be aligned over the imaginary point (deep blue) and willthus roll the vehicle over in a curve.The ratio of the center of gravity height (red) to this half-track (green) thus plays a crucialrole in determining the stability against rollover of a 4-Wheeler. Ideally, this center ofgravity height (red) should be low like for a sports car, in order to insure a safety marginagainst rollover. In the case of ‘sport-utility’ 4X4s, this height is relatively larger than forregular family cars. This explains why these vehicles have a higher rollover propensity. Fig: 2.2.2 Comparing 3 and 4 WheelersIn the case of 3-Wheelers, another factor comes into play. As can be seen for a4-Wheeler on the illustration at the right, the 4-Wheeler rolls over around a line 22
  • 23. (blue) corresponding to the imaginary point (deep blue) of the previous illustration.But in the case of a 3-Wheeler, the vehicle rather rolls over around a line (blue) goingfrom the unique wheel to one of the two symmetrical wheels. We can immediately seethat the green line between the center of gravity and the rollover line is thus shorter thanin the case of the 4-Wheeler, even though the center of gravity height, the length and thetrack of the 3-Wheeler are the same as those of the 4-Wheeler.The center of gravity height (red) is thus proportionately greater, which reduces the safetymargin against rollover in curves.Moreover, a 3-Wheeler in a curve can also be subject to a braking or accelerating forcethat will combine with the lateral centrifugal force, which may further increase chancesof rolling over of this 3-Wheeler. For example in the case of the single-front-wheel 3-Wheeler, here above to the right, braking in a curve towards the left will increase chancesof rolling over this 3-Wheeler.So in the case of a 3-Wheeler- The center of gravity height should be low in relation to the half-track, like for a 4-Wheeler.- But the center of gravitys position also has importance: The farther it is from the twosymmetric wheels towards the single wheel, the shorter is the distance from the center ofgravity to the rollover line, which reduces the safety margin against rollover of the 3-Wheeler compared to the 4-Wheeler.Accelerating or braking in a straight lineWhen going straight, a 3-Wheeler may be accelerating or braking. Thus Fig: 2.2.3 during Acceleration 23
  • 24. It may tip backward while accelerating, as in the case of a two rear wheels 3-Wheelerwhere the center of gravity is located too far back or while braking in the case of a twofront wheels 3-Wheeler illustrated at the right, it may roll around the blue point under thefront wheels and tip forward. Fig: 2.2.4 during BreakingSummarizing, the 3-Wheelers center of gravity must be low and close to the twosymmetrical wheels, that are alone to avoid a rollover in curves.But this center of gravity must not be too close to these two symmetric wheels, to avoidtipping backward or forward. Basically, the center of gravity must be located under apyramid, as shown to the right in the case of a two-front-wheel 3-Wheeler, to avoidrolling over sideways or tipping forward.The height of the center of mass, shown in Figure 1, of a motor tricycle or a three-wheeled vehicle shall not exceed one and a half times the horizontal distance from thecenter of mass to the nearest roll axis Fig: 2.2.5 Max. Height 24
  • 25. So according to this regulation, the center of gravity height (in red) may thus be one and ahalf times the green line between the center of gravity and the rollover line, as illustratedat the right. The resulting force (black) may thus be aligned over the imaginary point(deep blue) and roll the vehicle over in a curve.Obviously, this regulation is very large if not too large; since it lets certain insufficientlystable vehicles circulate on public roads.As a counter part, this new regulation has the merit of bringing order to the world of twoand three wheel motorcycle definitions and regulation. Also, while avoiding going toofar, there are less chances of killing the touring motorcycle aftermarket, where goodwillmanufacturers can continue replacing single rear wheels by two rear wheels, onmotorcycles used by goodwill people that use them carefully and do not ride fast."The total weight of a motor tricycle or three-wheeled vehicle on all its front wheels, asmeasured at the tire-ground interfaces, shall be not less than 25 per cent and not greaterthan 70 per cent of the loaded weight of that vehicle." Fig: 2.2.6 For Single Front WheelThe image at the right illustrates the case of a single-front-wheel 3-Wheeler having itsvehicle-occupants center of gravity located at less than 25% of the wheelbase length fromthe rear wheels. This leaves less than 25% of the weight on the front wheel. 25
  • 26. Fig: 2.2.7 For Single Rear WheelThe image below illustrates the case of a two-front-wheels 3-Wheeler having its vehicle-occupants center of gravity located at more than 70% of the wheelbase length from therear wheel. This leaves more than 70% of the weight on the front wheel.There is no mechanical reason to treat differently these two types of 3-Wheelers: Thefirst could merit 30% of the weight on its unique front wheel. Or the second could merit75% of the weight on its two front wheels.In each of these two cases illustrated above, the vehicle-occupants center of gravity islocated below the pyramid, so that the single-front-wheel will not flip backwards whenaccelerating and the two-front-wheel will not tip forward when braking.Summarizing, there is no reason to treat differently the risk of overturning laterally(rolling) and the risk of flipping backwards or tipping forward.In both cases:It seams more appropriate to consider overturning, flipping or tipping points or axes.Andto insure an adequate ratio between the vehicle-occupants center of gravity height and thehorizontal distance between the center of gravity and these points or axes, instead of aweight percentage on the front wheels. 26
  • 27. Chapter 3 Technology and Methodology Used3.1 Technology usedIn the following chapter a brief introduction of the various technologies that were used todevelop and help built the project are mentioned briefly.3.1.1 CADCAD expended as Computer Aided Designing, is the replacement of the conventionalway of drawing 2D images in the process of designing. It makes use of variousalgorithms and equations of higher order that define the locus of various points. Forthe purpose of the build we have designed the component in CATIA (Computer AidedThree-dimensional Interactive Application).It is a multi- platform CAD/CAM/CAE commercial software suite developed by theFrench company Dassault Systemes and marketed worldwide by IBM. Written in the C++ programming language, CATIA is the cornerstone of the Dassault Systemes productlifecycle management software suite.Commonly referred to as a 3D Product Lifecycle Management software suite, CATIAsupports multiple stages of product development (CAx), from conceptualization, design(CAD), manufacturing (CAM), and engineering (CAE). CATIA can be customizedvia application programming interfaces (API). V4 can be adapted in the FORTRANand C programming languages under an API called CAA (Component ApplicationArchitecture). V5 can be adapted via the Visual Basic and C++ programming languages,an API called CAA2 or CAA V5 that is a component object model (COM)-like interface.Although later versions of CATIA V4 implemented NURBS, V4 principally usedpiecewise polynomial surfaces. CATIA V4 uses a non-manifold solid engine. 27
  • 28. Catia V5 features a parametric solid/surface-based package which uses NURBS as thecore surface representation and has several workbenches that provide KBE support. V5can work with other applications, including Enovia, Smarteam, andvarious CAE Analysis applications.3.1.2 Cutting ProcessThe conventional method of cutting involves the process of rubbing a high friction hardmetal over the surface of the metal to be cut. This includes the use of saws, grindingwheels and milling cutters. The basic process involved is to remove the metal in the formof chips. For the fabrication purpose we have greatly implemented the abrasive cut offsaw to size the material.An abrasive saw, also known as a cut-off saw or metal chop saw, is a power tool which istypically used to cut hard materials, such as metals. The cutting action is performed by anabrasive disc, similar to a thin grinding wheel. The saw generally has a built-in vise orother clamping arrangement, and has the cutting wheel and motor mounted on a pivotingarm attached to a fixed base plate.Cutoff wheels are composed primarily of fibers, held together with a group of smallparticles pressed and bonded together to form a solid, circular disk. Materials used aregenerally silicon carbide and diamond bits with a vitrified bonding agent.They typically use composite friction disk blades to abrasively cut through the steel. Thedisks are consumable items as they wear throughout the cut. The abrasive disks for thesesaws are typically 14 in (360 mm) in diameter and 7⁄64 in (2.8 mm) thick. Larger saws use410 mm (16 in) diameter blades. Disks are available for steel and stainless steel.3.1.3 WeldingOne of the most common types of arc welding is shielded metal arc welding (SMAW),which is also known as manual metal arc welding (MMA) or stick welding. An electriccurrent is used to strike an arc between the base material and a consumable electrode rod 28
  • 29. or stick. The electrode rod is made of a material that is compatible with the base materialbeing welded and is covered with a flux that protects the weld area from oxidation andcontamination by producing CO2 gas during the welding process. The electrode coreitself acts as filler material, making separate filler unnecessary. The process is veryversatile, requiring little operator training and inexpensive equipment. However, weldtimes are rather slow, since the consumable electrodes must be frequently replaced andbecause slag, the residue from the flux, must be chipped away after welding.Furthermore, the process is generally limited to welding ferrous materials, thoughspecialty electrodes have made possible the welding of castiron, nickel, aluminum, copper and other metals. The versatility of the method makes itpopular in a number of applications including repair work and construction.3.1.4 PaintingPainting is the process of covering the surface with a thin layer of permissible media,which would dry up to form an opaque layer. This process is employed generally for thepurpose of improving the visual aid as well as to function as a protective coating againstcorrosive elements.We have employed the method of Spray Painting.This process occurs when paint isapplied to an object through the use of an air-pressurized spray gun. The air gun has anozzle, paint basin, and air compressor. When the trigger is pressed the paint mixes withthe compressed air stream and is released in a fine spray. Fig: 3.1.1 Types of Nozzles and Sprays. 29
  • 30. Due to a wide range of nozzle shapes and sizes, the consistency of the paint can bevaried. The shape of the work piece and the desired paint consistency and pattern areimportant factors when choosing a nozzle. The three most common nozzles are the fullcone, hollow cone, and flat stream. There are two types of air-gun spraying processes. Ina manual operation method the air-gun sprayer is held by a skilled operator, about 6 to 10inches (15–25 cm) from the object, and moved back and forth over the surface, eachstroke overlapping the previous to ensure a continuous coat. In an automatic process thegun head is attached to a mounting block and delivers the stream of paint from thatposition. The object being painted is usually placed on rollers or a turntable to ensureoverall equal coverage of all sides.3.2 Methodology followedA brief description of the methodology followed for building the project is mentioned inthe following steps. It can be considered as a regular engineering approach employed forthe production of a component.3.2.1 Designing in CADFor the purpose of designing, hand drawings of the model along with all the mechanismswere roughly sketched to get the appropriate idea of where which part would fit in. Thishas not only given the various mechanisms required but has also the visual aid for thefinal component to be produced. This was further corrected and redrawn according to thecalculated scale based on assumptions and facts of various dimensions. Once this handdrawing took its final shape it was then transferred into an engineering drawing with thehelp of CATIA. This 2-D drawing produced in the sketcher was padded and extruded toform the framed structure. During this process the figure was redesigned several times toimpart all the features of aerodynamics as well as to accommodate all the key features ofthe frame 30
  • 31. The design produced in catia was not only the replica of the hand drawings but also gavethe figure the appropriate shapes so as to ease the process of production. Thus the designproduced in catia standardized the various parts and helped in producing a final draft ofthe structure.3.2.2 Metal CuttingAs most of the metal involved in building the frame was derived from large pipes ofsquare and rectangle cross section, the various machining process involved were to cutthe metal and size it into the required lengths. Then the pieces were grinded and surfacefinished so as to be mated with the compliment component.For the purpose of cutting the metal two basic techniques of Gas cutting and Abrasive cutoff saw. The latter was not preferred due to the hazards involved in handling theinflammable fluid and the improper cut and surface generated in this process. Hence wehave greatly used the cut off saw for most of the working operations.All the required markings were taken and as per the draft and the appropriate edges weretapered so as to fit in the structure. The cut portions were inspected and the burrs andbruises formed during the cutting process were removed by grinding them on the tablegrinder.3.2.3 Arc WeldingThe major portion of the frame was welded together so as to make it rigid and reduce thevibrations produced in the various individual members. As the metal used wasdominantly mild steel, the process of arc welding was employed. This gave a robust andpermanent fixture of all the linkages in the frame. The welding operations had to becarefully planned as any member fixed in the wrong position would affect the timeconstraint as well as affect the strength of the material when it is removed and againwelded. 31
  • 32. The welding process was followed by a through inspection. The portions were thenroughly grinded to remove the slack and irregular nuggets formed. Care was taken toprevent the formations of large weld pools resulting in holes and gaps in the surface.3.2.4 Painting ProcedureAs the structure had several complex profiles, the conventional method of applying paintwith the help of a brush was dismissed. To overcome this problem, we used a spray gunto spray an even amount of paint over the surface. This not only eased the job but alsoprovided a smooth surface without any visible patters produced by brushes. This processgreatly reduced the amount of paint consumed for the structure.The same procedure was adopted to first apply two coatings of the primer over the basicframe to protect the frame from corrosion and to act as a base for the final color. After theprimer had dried completely the final coating was applied to the structure. 32
  • 33. Chapter 4 3-Wheeler Vehicle PartsGiven the time constraints of the project it was felt necessary to acquire some of the mainvehicle components from a donor vehicle. The nature of a three-wheeled vehicle meantthat parts would be required from both a motorcycle and a car. The Bajaj Pulsar 180ccthat inspired the project would provide a large number of the parts.The existing components of the donor vehicle were • Rear wheel • Swing arm • Rear Suspension Unit • 180 CC Engine • Vehicles Electrics • Rear Lights & MudguardSeveral other vehicle components like the steering rack, dampers, wheels, wheel mountsand brakes assembly had to be scavenged of from a donor vehicle. The other componentslike A- arms for suspension had to be manufactured accordingly. The vehicle componentsand systems are discussed individually.4.1 ChassisThe chassis or the frame of the vehicle was to be entirely built from scratch. A framecapable of carrying the load of a single person at the same time rigid enough to withstandall the impact and loading stress was to be built. The weight of the entire structure was tobe heavy enough to hold ground at the same time light enough to run with causing extraload on the engine. Rigidity for the structure meant usage of steel and mild steel pipes ofpreferably square cross section and heavy gauge was to be considered. The constructionmethod adopted was to weld the joints rigidly and mount the various parts on top of theframe. 33
  • 34. The initial design was also done using CAD software to get an accurate dimensionedstructure. The frame needed to hold good and withstand sudden heavy impacts. For safetyreasons we felt it was important to have some of the car frame in front of the drivers feetposition to absorb some of the energy in the event of a crash.The lower portion of the chassis was covered by a 16gauge mild steel sheet metal to actas the flooring as well as providing a protective casing for all the mechanical componentsplaced above it from mud and dirt4.2 Suspension systemIt was decided earlier on the build that the drive mechanism, the rear swing arm and therear suspension would be used of the motorbike. The design of the front suspensionentirely from scratch proved to be the most challenging complicated and critical part ofthe vehicle. The vehicle needed to handle correctly under loading and cornering withoutany glitches. A double wishbone suspension was decided and was to be fabricatedaccording to the design requirements. The vehicle needed to be designed such that whenthe car is fully laden the suspension system is in the desired position. The ideal positionof the wishbones in the fully laden position is such that the bottom wishbones are leveland the top wishbones angle down inline with the mounting point of the ball joint andhub on the bottom wishbone on the opposite side of the car. Therefore the mounting pointof the top wishbones on the frame also had to be decided. To reduce the forces in thesuspension system, it is desirable for the distance between the top and bottom wishbonesat their external points to be as large as possible. However, the greater this height is, thehigher the top wishbones need to be mounted on the frame. For aesthetic reasons it wasdecided we didn’t want the wishbone mounting points sticking out of the bonnet,therefore they were placed as high up on the frame as possible without protruding abovethe line of the bonnet. This then generated a line from the opposite lower wishbonesthrough the mounting points and thus defining both the length of the upper wishbonesand the extension struts.The final aspect of the wishbone suspension design was which spring and damper units touse, and where to position them. The stiffness of the spring coils had to be calculated,desirable to bear the load of the vehicle and give a comfortable ride. This desired stiffness 34
  • 35. can be used with the spring stiffness to calculate what is known as the motion ratio of asuspension system. Second hand dampers of motorcycle and scooters were the bestoptions and after the innumerable number of searches the right one was found which bestsuited the calculations. Having attained the required stiffness of suspension springs, theystill needed to be mounted in a suitable location, such that the motion ratio was achieved.There are limitless options for the two ends of the spring to be mounted. Therefore it wasdecided to fix the position of one end, and then calculate a suitable mounting point for theopposite end.4.3 Steering mechanismThe rack and pinion was acquired prior to the initiation of the build since it was needed toconfirm the design of the frame. The rack and pinion used was that of the MaruthiOminis’. The steering wheel was to be placed exactly in the right position of a free andcomfortable motion; it was taken of the same donor car. A new mounting plate waswelded to hold the column in the right position. The column was fixed in such a positionthat optimum steering wheel position and angle was determined. A frame was weldedonto the main chassis to support the steering column.4.4 EngineThe engine is the main power source where the chemical energy of the fuel is convertedinto thermal energy and pressure energy used for pushing the cylinders and generatingtorque. The following topics discuss the functionality of the engine used for our build.4.4.1 Engine mounting and assemblyThe engine used was that of Bajaj Pulsar with an 180cc capacity. The entire engineassembly including the transmission, drive mechanism, rear suspension and swing arm ofthe bike were used. The engine has a five gear transmission with a chain drivemechanism. As the engine suited all our requirements without flaws, there were nofurther alterations made to it. 35
  • 36. 4.4.2Transmission modification and assemblyThe gear shift actuation mechanism was to be customized and altered according to therequirement. The motorbike gear shift was actuated by foot, but whereas in this case itneeded to be actuated by hand. The gear shift was modified suitably enough to fitlinkages from the shifter with the help of brackets to the right position comfortable forthe driver. A shifter mounted on a pivot fixed to frame had been built. The shiftmechanism was similar to that of the bike. The linkage converted the motion of theshifter from around the horizontal axis to around the vertical axis translating it into aforward and backward motion of gear shift.The clutch actuation was given to the foot from the hand as in the bike. Suitable pedalsassembly was taken of a donor car and modified to the requirement. Modified cableswere made for the purpose of transmitting the controls from the pedals to the mechanismsas per the dimensions of the vehicle.The throttle actuation was also controlled with a foot pedal. The accelerator pedal wasthat of the Maruthi Omni and placement was similar to that seen in a car. The cable wassimilar to that used for the clutch and right throttle timing was to be adjusted. The idlingalso was configured according to the tension in the cable and by setting the timing in thecarburetor; a quick and accurate throttle response was set.4.4.3 BrakingFor the purpose of breaking we have considered the use of the drum break alreadyexisting in the rare wheel of the bike as it would sufficiently provide us with the requiredcontrol. We have eliminated the hydraulic breaking for the front wheels as it wouldcomplicate the integration of both the breaking systems onto the same pedal thusrequiring another pedal to actuate it. Another reason behind this decision was to avoid thelocking of the front wheels during sudden breaking and thus reducing the steer control 36
  • 37. 4.4.4 Fuel SystemThe fuel system consists of a 4ltr capacity fuel tank which is mounted on the frame at asuitable height. The location and height of the fuel tank was crucial as the fuel supplywas based on gravity. Thus we had to minimize the number of bends in the flow lines andfind a sufficient place where it can be harnessed without any disturbances. The fuelsupply from the hose was transferred to the carburetor of the engine where it is mixedwith air to form the required mixtures at various throttling conditions. This then traveledto the engine where it undergoes combustion for producing energy.4.4.5 ElectronicsFor the purpose of controlling various mechanisms with the help of switches, electricalenergy was used. The power for this system was generated from a 12V battery. The basiccomponents that depended on the electrical energy were:LightsThe lights are very crucial components which not only allow the driver to see during poordriving conditions of darkness and fog but also perform the work of a signaling device towarn drivers coming from the opposite end. They were directly connected to generatepower only when the vehicle was running so as to reduce the consumption of battery aswell as reducing the loss of power when they are not required under stop conditionsHornsThe horns as the lights constitute a mechanism not directly providing mechanical use forthe vehicle but as a form of signaling and safety device, that need to be actuated onlywhen required. This was connected to the battery and would function when ever theignition key was in ON position. 37
  • 38. IgnitionThe ignition of the vehicle was controlled by a small switch which actuated a 12Velectric motor. The motor provided the initial torque required for cranking the engine soas to start it. The switch was a spring loaded push switch.Cooling FanAs the air cooled engine used was not given the proper ventilation due to its placementconstraints, a cooling fan was provided in front the engine to generate the flow of air overthe fins. This ensured proper cooling of the engine during running conditions. Theradiator fan was given a direct supply of power so that it could be run even when theengine was turned off to accommodate faster coolingAll the controls for the electrical systems were paneled onto a dash board close to thesteering wheel so that they can be easily accessed by the driver when ever called for. 38
  • 39. Chapter 5 Problem Statement and SolvingBased on the interest and through research in the field of automobile engineering, wehave taken up the challenge of building a vehicle with the minimum possible mechanicalconstraints required for a body to be stable (Three Supports), without the difficulties ofcontrol and stability faced by the general three wheelers. We have designed the model inparametric CAD software CATIA, and have fabricated the frame in real time with therequired adaptations in design as per the mechanisms used.5.1 Design:For every engineered component be it big or small a proper Design must be firstdeveloped. Developing a design follows a certain rules that are to be followed and theserules help in standardizing the design so that it can be understood by ever one who has torefer the design for further enhancement of the product in the future stages.Basically there are two types of designs that are classified based on the way they arecreated they are, Creative Design and Adaptive Design. In the following topics we shalldiscuss these two types of designing and how we have used them in developing ourmodel.5.1.1 Creative designA design is called a creative design if the designer completely designs a new productwithout the reference of previous designs of similar products or when no similar productexists in the market and a new design is to be developed as per the requirements. 39
  • 40. For such a design, the designer must carefully study a variety of parameters which are thebasic inputs for the design. The parameters include a list of requirements of the endproduct. The performance of the product in real life, the environment the end product willwork in and such various other requirements. Along with this basic information, thedesigner must also consider the materials required for the production of the end productand the manufacturing procedure adopted for producing the component. While specifyingthese considerations the designer must make sure that the materials used and themanufacturing procedure involved are cost efficient as well as of the best quality.Hence creative design is a very laborious and tedious process, and may always befollowed by adaptive designing over the long run of the production of the product basedon its running conditions and changes required for better performance.5.1.2 Adaptive DesignA design is said to be an Adaptive design when the basic structure and shape of theproduct are copied from an already existing model. This type of designing is basicallyused for redesigning components which need structural changes for either betterperformance or to reduce cost and improve quality of a product.Adaptive designs are also used to create components which have similar structures but ofdifferent shapes used for different purposes. As it is highly difficult to produce a newdesign concept for every new product produced the designer can study other similarproducts already existing in the market and with the help of the basic key features fromthe existing product, he can create a new product with similar functionality or evenimproved usage.With the development in technology there has been a vast requirement for redesigning ofthe existing models, for getting more compact and sleeker products. Thus Adaptivedesigning is a field of real high importance in the design industry for the development ofthe industry. 40
  • 41. 5.1.3 Designing the TrikeAs discussed above the design of the trike can be considered as an Adaptive design. Forthe design procedure the basic input parameters that we have considered are: • Number of passengers • Basic dimensions of the rider • Type of steering used • Wheel base • Height of the vehicle • Overall length of the vehicleThough we have initially planned on building a two seated vehicle, but due to theconstraints of length, cost of the build and the shortage of time we have decided for asingle seated trike. For this we have considered the basic shape of the various vehiclesalready present in the market, such as the Myers Motors NmG (formerly the CorbinSparrow), Reliant Regal, Volkswagen GX3, Campagna T-Rex, etc., The shape wasfinally decided for a sharper aerodynamic look as well as a design which would keep thevehicle closer to the ground without round corners which tend to support the roll of thevehicle, a feature which we didn’t to incorporate. Once we have decided on how wewanted the vehicle to look we have gone to the next step of the design planning, thedimensions of the build. 41
  • 42. Fig:5.1 Visualizing Dimensions of RidersFor the dimensions we have basically considered the various sizes and shapes of all theteam members so as to get an idea of the best cabin space that would not make thevehicle look too bulky nor be too congested for any of the drivers. Once we had theaverage personality fixed in place, we have then considered the width of the wheel baseand the total overall length of the vehicle. For this we have purchased the completeengine and transmission assembly of a 180 c.c. engine with a chain driven rare wheel. Forthe purpose of wheel base, we have purchased the steering system of an old MaruthiOmini, and have modified the dimensions of the structure according to it.After all the external mechanisms such as the wish bone, the wheel assembly and thesteering assembly have been temporarily put in place we have constrained the entirelength of the vehicle to 8⅓ feet’s and the height of the vehicle above the ground as 20cm.then the maximum height of the frame was taken as 2 1/2 feet. With these basicconstraints we have redesigned the structure of the frame in CATIA a parametric CADsoftware. Once the length of the wheel base was decided, with all the weightconsiderations the center of gravity was calculated using the simple calculator describedbelow. 42
  • 43. Description Data Entry Length of Wheel Base Weight on Front Axle Weight on Rear Axle Wheelbase Center of Gravity Calculated behind front axle Reset Fig: 5.2 Calculator for Center of GravityFrom the above table with assumed loading conditions we have calculated that the centerof gravity will be located around 5.3ft, which was around the position close to the seat ofthe driver thus keeping the body stable during cornering. As we wanted to prevent the rollof the vehicle which is a common danger in 3 wheelers, we have reduced the height ofclearance of the vehicle from the ground, to about 20cm. Fig: 5.3 Design of Base Frame in CATIAThe base of the frame was generated in the sketcher work bench to the calculateddimensions. After the base of the frame was generated, the side structures were built with 43
  • 44. the linkages to support and distribute all the vertical loading. The rear vertical link whichplayed a very important role in properly distributing the load as well as well as definingthe shape of the vehicle, it was angled at around 15º so that it can support the weight ofthe passenger as well as the weight of the engine placed exactly behind it. Fig: 5.4 Assembly of FrameA rectangular crossed beam structure was attached to the rear portion of the base to housethe engine; this was supported by a vertical and angular supports form the side and top tosecure the engine in its place and to prevent it from shocks and vibrations. Once thesewere designed all the parts were assembled one after another in the assembly work benchto make the complete structure. The following pictures show the base of the structure andthe complete assembled component.Once the complete structure was designed the dimensions were drafted in the draftingmodule. These drawings were given the required appropriate dimensions and wereprinted for the further development of the model.Thus we have incorporated and designed the complete frame of the vehicle based on theexternal shapes of the existing vehicles and the other design considerations as mentionedabove. After a final design was produced we have started the fabrication process of theframe. 44
  • 45. 5.2 FabricationThe fabrication of the frame started with checking out for a right place to produce andassemble all the components required for the build. For this we have consulted a Weldshop as well as a Garage where the appropriate work was carried out in a step wisemanner. After the work place was set, the procedure for the build processes was started.For this all the components required were listed and all the mechanisms which were to bepurchased were considered. This gave us two lists, a list which specified all thecomponents that were to be purchased and a list of all the components that were to bebuilt.Parts to find • Rear wheel • Swing arm • Rear Suspension Unit • 180 CC Engine • Cooling Fan • Vehicles Electrics • Rear Lights & Mudguard • Rack and pinion • Front wheel hubs and assembly from a rear wheel drive car • Front suspension coil and dampers • Front Wheels • Steering Wheel, Column • Lower Ball Joints for Suspension • Cables for rear brake, clutch and accelerator • Fuel Tank • Driving SeatParts to make 45
  • 46. • Space frame including engine and suspension mounts • Paneling for frame • A-arms • Pedals and mounting brackets • Miscellaneous mounting brackets and fixingsWith this data we have listed out all the raw material to be purchased for the making ofthe components. The following bill of materials was developed and the requiredpurchases have been made. S. No. Part Name Qty Specification 1 Square pipes 3 2*2 in, 20ft, M.S. Pipes 2 Rectangular pipes 2 2*1 in, 20ft, M.S. pipes 3 Sheet metal 3 4*5ft, 16gauge, M.S. Sheets 4 Metal Strips 2 20ft, 1 in*3 mm, M.S. Strips Fig: 5.5 Bill of MaterialsOnce the various components were purchased, they were individually assembled andplaced on the floor of the work shop to help in correcting the dimensions produced in theactual drawings, so as to meet the requirements of the pre built mechanisms. Fig: 5.6 Cutting and Resizing of Components 46
  • 47. With the edited dimensions all the parts to be built and fabricated so as to make a framewere decided. Then the cutting and sizing operation was executed to get the requiredshapes and sizes of the linkages. These were further tapered and grinded where everrequired so as to ease the process of fabrication. Once all the linkages required forbuilding the base were produced, they were assembled with the wish bone assembly andthe front wheels.After the base was secured, the engine was mounted on the specially designed frame atthe rear portion of the vehicle. The engine along with the rear suspension and the chaindrive assemblies were welded into position with special brackets to secure the wholesetup without any flaws. As the frame had to take both the load of the passenger and theweight of the engine, special attention was given for the frame at this portion to make itmore robust and to ease the distribution of the weight to the connecting linkagesproportionately.With the main base and the driving mechanism in place, the remaining portions of theframe were produced. Then the assembly of the frame was coincided with the assemblyof the various mechanisms, so as to give a proper functional structure. This included thehousing for the A-arms, the Steering mechanism, Rack and Pinion assembly. This gavethe basic shape of the vehicle and was further improved by the addition of supportingmembers where ever required.Once the complete frame was built the structure was taken to the garage, where all themechanisms were given the required linkages and wiring for appropriate hand and legcontrols. 47
  • 48. Fig: 5.7 Base Coating with PrimerThe complete assembled vehicle was then transported to the Paint shop where all thecomponents were grinded and surface finished for the process of coating with paints.Motor run hand grinders with emery papers of different grades were used to remove allthe weld nuggets formed and all the uneven surfaces on the structure. The structure wasthen covered with body paste a composite substance which helps to smooth all the roughsurfaces and giving the body a smooth even finish. This was again grinded to allow it toform a real thin layer over the surface of the metal. Once the structure took on a smoothsurface, it was covered with a primary coating which acts as both a base coat of paint aswell as a rust proofing agent. Then we have given another round of primer to make thebase more stable. After the base was completely dried up a good coat of automotive paintwas spray coated over the surface as the final coating. 48
  • 49. Fig: 5.8 Final Paint JobAfter the paint work was completed the vehicle was taken for all the electrical works,which included wiring of lights, horn, cooling fan, ignition button. This was the finalstage of fabrication. 49
  • 50. Chapter 6 Results and ObservationsThe following results have been observed as the performance characteristics of the trike.The results mentioned herein are the conclusions derived from visual observations. Theydo not indicate the exact values and are approximated to the closest whole number. Thesevalues formed the bases for the technical specifications mentioned.6.1 Load TestFor the load test we have increased the loading in the number of passengers it can carry.For this several test rides were done in open grounds by gradually increasing the numberof passengers on the vehicle. The vehicle gave some astonishing results by carrying atotal number of 6 passengers without any internal or external signs of problems.This result has drawn two main conclusions about the maximum loading the engine canwithstand, of about 610 kgs (250kgs dead weight + 6x60kgs avg. wt. of each passenger).It has also shown that the suspension can take much more weight, of about 1000 kgs,without any signs of failure. Max. Permissible Load for Engine = 600kgs Max Permissible Load on the Frame = 1000kgs6.2 HandlingThe over all handling of the vehicle was found to be very smooth with very littledrawbacks. As the steering assembly was made up of components of different vehicles,the cornering radius has dramatically increased thus requiring larger room for takingturns. Apart from this there were no other visual drawbacks. On the other hand thestability of the vehicle during sharp cornering at high speeds has been remarkable. It hasbeen observed that the wheels are always in traction with the ground and the driver doesnot have any impact on his stability during these turns. This key feature was the result ofthe intense care taken to keep the center of gravity as close to the ground as possible. Thishas also proven the aim of developing a 3-wheeler with a minimum risk of undergoingRoll during steep turns. 50
  • 51. The other area of performance includes handling of the vehicle while over comingvarious obstacles such as road bumps and speed breakers. The long drive for about120kms, from Hyderabad to Jangoan over various types of terrains both on road and offroad have been the live testing factor to prove them. The individual suspension providedfor each wheel has provided the driver with a smooth and comfortable ride.6.3 Other ParametersVarious other parameters have been observed which showed some outstandingperformances. A few of these results have been mentioned below. • Fuel Economy 38-40 kmpl • Top Speed 80kmph • Breaking Distance at 40kmph 10feetMost of the numerical values mentioned above are only indicative and may changedepending on the test conditions. Based on these tests and results observed the followingtable for technical specifications has been developed. 51
  • 52. General informationModel: Bajaj Pulsar 180Year: 2003Category: SportEngine and transmissionDisplacement: 178.60 ccm (10.90 cubic inches)Engine type: Single cylinder, four-stroke, air cooledPower: 17.02 HP (12.4 kW)) @ 8500 RPMTorque: 14.22 Nm (1.4 kgf-m or 10.5 ft.lbs) @ 6500 RPMFuel system: Carburetor UCAL- Mikuni BS29Ignition: CDIBore X Stroke 63.5x56.4 (mm)Transmission type ChainChassis, suspension, brakes and wheelsFront suspension: Individual Wishbone suspensionFront suspension travel 75 mm (3 inches)Rear suspension: Triple rated spring, 5 way adjustable shock absorberRear suspension travel: 101 mm (4.0 inches)Front tyre dimensions: 90/90-17Rear tyre dimensions: 120/80-17Rear brakes: Expanding brake (drum brake)Rear brakes diameter: 130 mm (5.1 inches)Physical measures and capacitiesDead Weight 250kgsPower/weight ratio: 0.1270 HP/kgWheelbase 102inchesFuel capacity: 5litresReserve fuel capacity: 1litreOther specificationsStarter: Electric 12V full D.C. 52
  • 53. Fig 6.1 Technical specifications ConclusionsFuture ScopeAs the vehicle built had several constrains of time, finance and experience, it has a greatscope for future developments. The area of developments includes the following: • As the engine can take more loads, the space frame can be redesigned to make it a two or three seated vehicle. • By modifying the transmission system and changing the control pedals, the vehicle can be made more user friendly for the handicapped. • Designing a steering assembly exclusively for this vehicle can enhance its control while cornering. • Redesigning all the external mechanisms adopted and standardizing them to meet the exact requirements for this vehicle.Several other parts can be further developed to enhance their performance. With theavailability of the most advanced automotive design and manufacturing technology thefuture scope carried out by this vehicle is immense in a number of ways. Its developmentin the past and present only suggest that it can be used from an everyday economic anduser-friendly car to a speedy roadster. 53
  • 54. References • • • • www.3wheelers.comText books : Automobile Engineering by Kirpal Singh,Automotive Mechanics by William H Crouse and Donald L Anglin,Theory of Machines by R. S Khurmi. 54