Names for Words: Parts ofSpeech No matter what, words must be put together That makes a sentence Nothing is possible without sentences
Sentence Structure All sentences must start with a capital letter All sentences must end with a punctuation A sentence is not a part of speech; it just the thing that contains the Part of speech
8 Main Parts Of SpeechNouns interjectionsVerbsAdjectiveAdverbsPrepositionConjunctionsPronouns
Conjunctions Join Things
Conjunctions Conjunctions are connecting words Example: And adds things together in the sentence “I like baseball and soccer.” Or also joins, but makes an option “What do you like best, dogs or cats?” Or can also pose a question.
Using And/OrSentence 1: “I am going to play.”Sentence 2: “I am going to study.” Using And to join:“I am going to play, and I’m going to study.” Using Or to join:“ I am going to play, or I’m going to study.”
Using a Comma Before every joining word, a comma (,) must be used Example:“I like soup, and I like sandwiches.” You also must check that a and/or can be used by taking out the , and/, or and replacing it with a period.
Different Conjunctions Conjunctions aren’t only and/or, they are:So, because, but, then, after,also just a (,), etc.
More examplesNo one came to save him, so he went off to explore.Alice smiled, and then turned to her rabbit
AdjectivesWords that describe
Adjectives Words that describe Are used to describe nouns Used to say: How something feels, tastes, looks, or sounds
Things that we describe You Sky School Bird Etc.
Words to Describe Green – Any Color Stormy Loud Five – Any Number
Putting it all together Yellow Chickens Purple sweater Cloudy Sky Stinky Cigarette
Using more than one adjective In some cases, 2 adjectives may be used to describe Examples “The car was boxy, and green.” “ The thin, gray paper airplane was indestructible.”
Adjectives Pick some adjectives for:
NounsPronouns and Proper Nouns
Pronouns Take the place of nouns Save time and energy Pronouns are words such as it, he , she, they, etc.**They refer to the previous noun
Examples of Pronouns“Joe, won a new car, and he jumped with joy.” Joe
Proper Nouns Somethings OWN name Include names, nicknames, pets names, places names, city names, etc. Proper Nouns also define All proper nouns start with Capitals Examples:Joe vs. Person Jamestown vs. the city
ArticlesA, An, The
Articles Always go before a noun
“The Rules” A always presents a consonant An always presents a vowel The always presents a singular
The Two Parts of a SentencePutting Things Together
2 Parts Of a Sentence Sentences are the building blocks of our language The 2 Main Parts are: Subjects Predicates
The Subject Is the Noun of the sentence, The sentence is also based upon the NounIn, “The beautiful ballerina leaped into the air like a deer.” Ballerina is the subjectIn, “The Seminole Indians traveled over the water in the dugout canals.” The quickest way to find the subject is to read the sentence carefully The subject can be singular or plural and 1 or 2 words
The Predicate The predicate names the verb in the sentence that tells what is happeningIn, “The beautiful ballerina leaped into the air like a deer.” leaped is the predicateIn, “ The Seminole Indians traveled over water in the dugout canals.” the predicate is traveled.” The easiest way to find the predicate is to find what the subject is doing.
Helping Verbs The action
Helping Verbs The Helping Verb shows us weather the verb is past, present, or future. These are all considered “tenses”
The “tense” tablePresent Past FutureAm Was WillDid Had Am/Are going to
Getting Words to Agree Singular and Plurals
Getting Words to Agree All plural subjects end with the letter “s” Verbs in sentences with he and they do not always indicate a plural.**Remember He Goes They Go
Matching Plural Verbs When you have a plural subject such as, “five boys” you must give them a plural verb such as, “run”
Verbs with <1 Part Must agree in “Tense” If the 1st part is talking about the past the 2nd part must do the same If this rule is not followed, it will create a time warp in the middle.
Three Types of Sentences Main Sentences
The 3 Main Types Of Sentences Almost everything we say is said in sentences. There are interrogative, declarative, and imperative sentences
Declarative Sentences Are the most common type of sentence. Are punctuated with a period. Are used to tell our thoughts, and what we see. Can be simple or complex.“I have a dream . . .” as MLK Jr. once said.“I saw a bird as beautiful as the summer sky as it rises above the horizon.”
Interrogative Sentences ALWAYS has a (?) question mark. If you ask enough of them they become self-explanatory.“Do stars burn out ?”“Why are my eyes colored ?”“Why is global warming such a problem ?”
Imperative Sentences May need more than 1 or 2 words. Used to give orders and make requests. Always ends in a (!) exclamation point if used to make requests. Always ends in (.) a period to give orders.“Stop!”“Hug Me.”** In many sentences YOU is not spoken but is understood.
Types of Literature Learning Books
Biography A True story about a persons life Are very interesting stories Are NOT by the person they are about Are written using second hand accounts SECOND-HAND ACCOUNTS –writings that are left behind, diaries, newspapers, and letters, etc.
Autobiography Are books written by the person they are about Auto- means self (ex. Automobile is self driven. Autopilot is a plane that flies by itself) Most are written in Prose, but can be written in poems, plays, or songs
Fiction Are make-believe, or fairytales such as Alice in Wonderland, or Pollyanna Not everything has to be made-up, can have true parts with a twist, or true facts in a made-up story. Ex. You could have a story about traveling through space, that is not true. But, the moon, gravity force, wind, stars, yourself, a spaceshutle, etc.
Non-Fiction Is ALL true Ex. Biographies, and autobiographies, newspaper articles, and school reports, and history IE. A report on the 1989 earthquake in San Francisco
Sayings and Phrases Idioms and Metaphors
What Is A Phrase ? Main Entry:1phrase Pronunciation:*fr*z Function:noun Etymology:Latin phrasis, from Greek, from phrazein to point out, explain, tell Date:15301 : a characteristic manner or style of expression : DICTION2 a : a brief expression; especially : CATCHPHRASE b : WORD3 : a short musical thought typically two to four measures long closing with a cadence4 : a word or group of words forming a syntactic constituent with a single grammatical function *an adverbial phrase*5 : a series of dance movements comprising a section of a pattern
“Actions Speak Louder Than Words” Means, some people don’t mean what they say. It is often obvious what is meant. “Dad says he hates cats – even Juju,” Stewart said. “But,” Tracy said, “last night, I saw Dad kiss the top of his head. “Well,” Stewart said, “I think he really loves Juju, well, actions speak louder than words.”
“Beggars, Can’t Be Choosers” This phrase means if you are needy, don’t be picky even if it isn’t exactly what you want or need.“I didn’t have time to eat,” Jane said, “and I’m starving! But the only thing left in the cafeteria is yesterdays spinach salad.”“Beggars can’t be choosers, Jane,” Nicky said, “looks like you’ll actually have to eat something healthy for a change.”
Let Bygones Be Bygones This means that people should forget about bad feelings towards each other.“I can’t belive you won’t help me with this science experiment! It means a lot, I’m failing,” Tyron said screaming,”Why won’t you help.”“Come on, Tyron,” Janine said,”I’ll help you study. There is no sense in being mad. Just Let bygones be bygones.”
Look Before You Leap Talks about risks we take in life. It means that we should think before acting.“Mom, Andrew asked me if I want to take over his paper route. Isn’t that a great idea ? Then I could by that new trumpet.”“I don’t know,” mother said, “ you have music lessons every day after school. Do you really have time. You should Look before you leap.”
One Rotten Apple Spoils The Whole BarrelToday , you are going to use your textbooks and do partner notes.Turn to page 63, it is at the bottom of pg. 63and pg. 64
A Place for Everything and Everything in its PlaceToday , you are going to use your textbooks and do partner notes.Turn to pg. 64You must have a different partner
The Show Must Go On Means no matter what happens the project must keep going.“I can’t play goalie this weekend,” Lisa said, “ I have a sprained ankle.”“Its okay,” said the coach, “ the show must go on.”
His Bark Is Worse Than His Bite Means someone looks or acts a lot differently than who they really are.“Mr. Crackles is such a grouch,” Meg said.“Yeah,” said Mickey, “ they shouldn’t call him principal, they should call him ‘prince-paddle’.”“You are so foolish you 2,” Missy explained, “you know he wouldn’t paddle anyone. He might get mad easy but he’s really a nice man. His bark is worse that his bite.”
Beat Around The Bush Today , you are going to use your text books and do partner notes. Turn to page 65, You must work with someone you havent yet worked with.
Clean Bill Of Health Today , you are going to use your text books and do partner notes. Turn to page 65
On His Last Legs Means something is about to die or break for good. Your job now is to write a role play for this phrase. The best one will become part of this presentation.
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