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 A Brief Introduction of Morphology
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A Brief Introduction of Morphology

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A Brief Introduction of Morphology

A Brief Introduction of Morphology

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  • 1. University of the Punjab , Department of English Language & Literature.Lahore, Pakistan
  • 2. Morph = form or shapeOlogy = study of• The study of internal structures of words• How words are constructed out of smaller units(morphemes)– Which have a meanings or grammatical functione.g.– friendly ----- constructed from friend & adjectiveforming -ly• How words can be modified
  • 3. MorphologyStructure ofwordsWordFormationMorpheme
  • 4. MorphemeSound UnitMeaningUnitSmallest unitof language
  • 5. Basic Concept Of Word Structure• The number, order of and type of morphemes– used to make up a particular word is called itsstructure• Morphologists study– the meanings of the various morphemes– their patterns of distribution { the structures}• Morphemes do not combine in arbitrary ways– They have specific patterns to the distribution ofmorphemes– e.g. rewrite = write-re, walks = s-walk• The structure of words can be represented by trees
  • 6. Classification Of MorphemesFree Morphemes/ rootsif morpheme is able to appear as a word byitselfBound Morphemes/ affixesif morpheme can only appear as part of alarger, multi-morphemic
  • 7. Basic Concepts and TermsStem (root, base): the morpheme towhich other morphemes areaddedfree (e.g. teacher, dresses, unkind)Stembound (e.g. inept, unkempt)
  • 8. Stem & AffixStem : carries the basic meaningAffixes /attachments carry additional, often grammaticalmeaningsKINDS OF AFFIXESSuffixes: are attached to the end of the stem;Prefixes: are attached to the front of the stem;Infixes: are put in the middle of the word;Ablaut: is a change in a vowel that carries extra meaning;• Suffixes are the most common e.g.– the past tense : matter of adding -ed to the stem;– the present participle is made by adding -ing;– the plural of a noun is made by adding -s.
  • 9. AffixPrefix e.g. UnhappyInfix e.g. Mother- in- lawSuffix e.g. HappinessAblaut e.g. Sing Sang
  • 10. Allomorphs• When a morpheme is pronounced by more than one soundpattern, we call the variations allomorphs e.g.• English plural morpheme –s is pronounced in three ways:– dogs (dog[z]) cats (cat[s]) judges (judg[ɪz])-s [z] -s [s] -s [ɪz] an allomorph of the pluralmorpheme• To describe this situation, we can say:– English has one plural morpheme, -s.– English has three allomorphs of the plural morpheme• Another example: English indefinite article– English has two allomorphs of an indefinite article:– a dog an apple
  • 11. Types ofMorphemeFreemorphemelexical functionalBoundmorphemederivational inflectional
  • 12. FreeMorphemelexical(openclass)has lexicalmeaningN, Verb, Adj,Advfunctional(closedclass)functionwordsPro, Prep,Conj, Art.
  • 13. Bound MorphemeDerivational Inflectionalform new words Different formsof the same wordmay change syntactic class Not change syntacticclass-able, un-, re-, etc ’s, -s, -ing, -ed/-en, -est,er
  • 14. Word Structure• Words are the fundamental building blocks oflanguage• Intuitively, learning a language learningwords• Words may be the basis for the organization oflanguage in the brain:• sound system words syntaxmeaning
  • 15. Word Structure• Each word has internal structure– A word is not just a sequence of morphemes• Morphemes are added in a strict order - reflecting a hierarchywithin the word e.g. “unsystematic”The first step– attaches a derivational sufix “atic”– to the (free) root noun– This forms an adjectiveThe second step– takes this adjective,attache a derivational prefix “un”– create a new word, with the same category word“unsystematic”
  • 16. Tree structureAdjectiveUn Adjective(Derivational)NounSystem -atic(Free root) (derivational)
  • 17. Some Rules• Noun + atic Adjective (Systematic)• Un + Adjective Adjective (Unhappy)• Adjective + al Adjective(Egotistical, Fantastical)• Noun + al Adjective(Autumnal, National)• Adjective + ly Adverb(Happily, Hopefully)• Using these rules, work out the tree structure for“unsystematically”
  • 18. Unsystematically (Adverb)unsystematically (adverb)unsystematic (adj) -lyunsystematic (adj) -alun- + systematic (adj)system (noun) + -atic
  • 19. The Tree Represents• The application of two morphological rules1.Noun+ atic→Adjective systematic2.Un+Adjective→Adjective unsystematic– The rule for -al is as follows3.Adjective+al→Adjective– Another affix is -ly, which is added to adjective toform adverb4. Adjective+ly→ Adverb
  • 20. More Rules• Verb + able Adjective– (Adorable, Desirable)• Adjective + en Verb– (Darken)• Noun Adjective = ish/esque/ous/ate/ful/ic/like– boyish, picturesque, joyous, affectionate, healthful, alcoholic, lifelike• Verb Noun = al/ance/ation/ence/er/ist/ion/dom– clearance, conference, singer, prediction, freedom• Adjective Adverb = ly (exactly, quietly)• Noun Verb = ize/ate/ish/n– moralize, vaccinate, brandish, hasten
  • 21. More Rules• Not all derivational morphemes cause a change in grammaticalClass– friend+ship, human+ity, un+do, re+cover, in+flammable• This is often the case with prefixes:– a+moral, auto+biography, ex+wife, super+human, re+print, semi+annual• suffixes:– vicar+age, old+ish, America+n, music+ian• Best to be familiar with a few examples of• Noun Adjective, AdjectiveAdverb, Verb Adjective, AdjectiveVerb,Verb Noun
  • 22. Types of Word Formation1. Compounding2. Prefixation3. Suffixation4. Conversion5. Clipping6. Blends7. Backformation8. Acronyms9. Onomatopoeia10. Eponyms11. Toponyms12. Reduplication13. Coining
  • 23. 1. Compounding• Two or more words joined together to form anew word.• Examples:–Pick + pocket  pickpocket–Home + work  homework• The meaning of a compound is not always thesum of the meanings of its parts
  • 24. Types of compounds–Compound nouns–Compound verbs–Compound adjectives
  • 25. Compound Nouns1. Boyfriend, hatchback2. Cut-throat, breakfast3. Sunshine, birth control4. Software, fast food5. In-crowd, overkill6. Drop-out, put-on1. Noun + Noun2. Verb + Noun3. Noun + Verb4. Adjective + Noun5. Particle + Noun6. Verb + Particle
  • 26. Compound Verbs1. Carbon-copy, sky-dive2. Fine-tune3. Overbook4. Bad-mouth1. Noun + Verb2. Adjective + Verb3. Particle + Verb4. Adjective + Noun
  • 27. Compound Adjectives1. Capital-intensive2. Deaf-mute3. Coffee-table4. Roll-neck5. White-collar6. Before-tax7. Go-go1. Noun + Adjective2. Adjective + Adjective3. Noun + Noun4. Verb + Noun5. Adjective + Noun6. Particle + Noun7. Verb-verb
  • 28. 2. Prefixation• Class-changing prefixes:– a-  asleep  V to Adj– be-  bewitch  N to V– en-  enslave  N to V• Class-maintaining prefixes:– in-  indefinite  Adj to Adj– fore-  foreman  N to N– Etc.
  • 29. 3. Suffixation• Suffixes forming Nouns–N from N: -dom  kingdom–N from V: -ee  employee–N from Adj: -ce  dependence
  • 30. Forming Verbs• Suffixes forming Verbs–V from N: -ify  beautify–V from Adj: -en  shorten
  • 31. Forming adjective, adverbs• Suffixes forming adjectives–Adj from N: -al  educational–Adj from V: -able  understandable–Adj from Adj: -ish  greenish• Suffixes forming Adverbs: -ly, -ward, and –wise
  • 32. 4. Conversion• Assigning an already existing word to a newsyntactic category• Types of Conversion– Verb to Noun: to hit  a hit– Adj to N: a final game  a final– N to V: a sign  to sign– Adj to V: an empty box  to empty
  • 33. 5. Clipping• part of a free morpheme is cut off(i.e., shortening a polysyllabic word); oftenin casual speechprof. autolab adbikedoc sub
  • 34. 6. Blends• similar to compounding• but parts of the free morphemes involved are lost• (usually 1st part of 1st word + end of 2nd word)brunch (breakfast+ lunch)smog (smoke+ fog)motel (motor+ hotel)newscast (news + broadcast)perma-press (permanent press)
  • 35. 7. Back-formations• A word (usually a noun) is reduced to formanother word of a different type (usually averb)editor editdonation donateburglar burglezipper ziptelevision televisebabysitter babysit
  • 36. 8. Acronyms (1)• abbreviate a longer term by taking the initiallettersA. follow the pronunciation patterns of EngNATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)TOEFL (Test of Eng. as a Foreign Language)AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)NASA (National Aeronautics & Space Administration)
  • 37. Acronyms (2)B. If unpronounceable  each letter is sounded outseparatelyATM (automatic teller machine)I.Q. (intelligence quotient)MRT (Mass Rapid Transit)MTV (music television)TVBS (television broadcasting service)VCR (video cassette recorder)
  • 38. Acronyms (3)C. Customary to sound out each letter even ifthe combined initials can be pronounced.AIT (American Institute in Taiwan)UCLA (Univ. of California at Los Angeles)
  • 39. 9. Onomatopoeia• words imitate sounds in nature (or in technology)A dog: bow wow or woof-woofA clock: tick-tockA rooster: cock-a-doodle-dooA camera: clickA duck: quackA cat: meowRing of a bell: ding-dongA cow: mooA bee: buzzA snake: hiss
  • 40. 10. Eponyms• A person after whom adiscovery, invention, place, etc., is named• Examples:–Celcius (Anders Celcius)–Cook Islands (James Cook)
  • 41. 11. Toponymsa place name, especially one derived from atopographical feature• Examples:– Montana (‘mountains’ in Spanish)– Mississippi (‘big river’ in Chippewa)
  • 42. 12. Reduplicationfull or partial repetition of a free morpheme; sometimeswith variationfull with variationso-so zigzagbye-bye dilly-dallyhotch potchmishmash
  • 43. 13. Coining• Creating a completely new freemorpheme, which is unrelated to any existingmorphemes; a rare thinge.g. googolpoochNylon
  • 44. Morphemeslexicalfree (open classes)Morphemes functional(closed classes)bound derivational(affixes) inflectional
  • 45. Summary of Morphology• Words consist of meaningful units called morphemes• These, when afixed to a root, can change the meaning orcategory of a word• Two basic forms of word formation– derivation (using derivational morphemes)– inflection• Key to remember is that morphemes are the smallestmeaningful Units• Words have internal structure in a similar way to sentences