Chapter 1 - Introduction to Biochemistry (slideshare)


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  • Nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum of a eukaryotic cell.
  • Golgi apparatus. Often associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus is responsible for the modification and sorting of some biomolecules. The proteins inserted into the lumen of the ER are transported to the Golgi apparatus for sorting and secretion. Vesicles carry modified material to destinations inside and outside the cell.
  • Mitochondrion. Mitochondria are the main sites of energy transduction in aerobic eukaryotic cells. Carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids are metabolized in this organelle.
  • Chloroplast. Chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis in plants and algae. Light energy is captured by pigments associated with the thylakoid membrane and used to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbohydrates.
  • Chapter 1 - Introduction to Biochemistry (slideshare)

    1. 1. BCH 400/600 – Introductory Biochemistry Instructor: David Shintani Office: 311C Fleischmann Ag. Lab: 308 Fleischmann Ag. E-mail: Phone: (775) 784-4631
    2. 2. What is Biochemistry? • Biochemistry = chemistry of life. • Biochemists use physical and chemical principles to explain biology at the molecular level. • Basic principles of biochemistry are common to all living organism
    3. 3. How does biochemistry impact you? • Medicine • Agriculture • Industrial applications • Environmental applications
    4. 4. Principle Areas of Biochemistry • Structure and function of biological macromolecules • Metabolism – anabolic and catabolic processes. • Molecular Genetics – How life is replicated. Regulation of protein synthesis
    5. 5. Life Before Biochemistry
    6. 6. Once upon a time, a long long time ago….. Vitalism: idea that substances and processes associated with living organisms did not behave according to the known laws of physics and chemistry Evidence: 1) Only living things have a high degree of complexity 2) Only living things extract, transform and utilize energy from their environment 3) Only living things are capable of self assembly and self replication
    7. 7. Origins of Biochemistry: A challenge to “Vitalism.” Famous Dead Biochemist!
    8. 8. Fallacy #1: Biochemicals can only be produced by living organisms •1828 Friedrich Wohler •Dead Biochemist #1
    9. 9. Fallacy #2: Complex bioconversion of chemical substances require living matter •1897 Eduard Buchner Dead Biochemists #2 Glucose + Dead Yeast = Alcohol
    10. 10. • Emil Fischer Fallacy #2: Complex bioconversion of chemical substances require living matter Dead Biochemists #3
    11. 11. Fallacy #2: Complex bioconversion of chemical substances require living matter Dead Biochemists #4 1926 J.B. Sumner
    12. 12. Findings of other famous dead biochemist • 1944 Avery, MacLeod and McCarty identified DNA as information molecules • 1953 Watson (still alive) and Crick proposed the structure of DNA • 1958 Crick proposed the central dogma of biology
    13. 13. Organization of Life • elements • simple organic compounds (monomers) • macromolecules (polymers) • supramolecular structures • organelles • cells • tissues • organisms
    14. 14. Range of the sizes of objects studies by Biochemist and Biologist 1 angstrom = 0.1 nm
    15. 15. Most abundant, essential for all organisms: C, N, O, P, S, H Less abundant, essential for all organisms : Na, Mg, K, Ca, Cl Trace levels, essential for all organism: Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn Trace levels, essential for some organisms: V, Cr, Mo, B, Al, Ga, Sn, Si, As, Se, I, Elements of Life
    16. 16. Important compounds, functional groups
    17. 17. Many Important Biomolecules are Polymers p r o t e i n c o m p le x p r o t e in s u b u n it a m i n o a c id m e m b r a n e p h o s p h o lip id f a t t y a c id c e ll w a ll c e llu lo se g lu co se c h r o m o s o m e D N A n u c le o tid emonomer polymer supramolecular structure lipids proteins carbo nucleic acids
    18. 18. Lipids m e m b r a n e p h o s p h o lip id f a t t y a c idmonomer polymer supramolecular structure
    19. 19. Proteins monomer polymer supramolecular structure Enzyme complex protein subunit amino acid
    20. 20. Carbohydrates c e ll w a ll c e llu lo se g lu co semonomer polymer supramolecular structure
    21. 21. c h r o m a t in D N A n u c le o ti d emonomer polymer supramolecular structure Nucleic Acids
    22. 22.   Common theme: Monomers form polymers through condensations Polymers are broken down through hydrolysis.
    23. 23. Prokaryote Cell
    24. 24. Cellular Organization of an E. coli Cell 200 – 300 mg protein / mL cytoplasm
    25. 25. Eukaryote Cell